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Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
opponents, was Queen of England and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...
from July 1553 until her death in 1558. She is best known for her vigorous attempt to reverse the
English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in History of England, England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor pe ...
, which had begun during the reign of her father,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...

Henry VIII
. Her attempt to restore to the Church the property confiscated in the previous two reigns was largely thwarted by
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
, but during her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters
burned at the stake Death by burning (also known as immolation) is an list of execution methods, execution method involving combustion or exposure to extreme heat. It has a long history as a form of public capital punishment, and many societies have employed it as ...
in the
Marian persecutions Protestants were executed in England under heresy laws during the reigns of Henry VIII (1509–1547) and Mary I (1553–1558). Radical Christians also were executed, though in much smaller numbers, during the reigns of Edward VI (1547–1553), E ...
. Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife,
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon (; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom o ...

Catherine of Aragon
, to survive to adulthood. Her younger half-brother,
Edward VI Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fr ...

Edward VI
, succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed, correctly, that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had taken place during his reign. Upon his death, leading politicians proclaimed
Lady Jane Grey Lady Jane Grey ( 1537 – 12 February 1554), later known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was a teenage English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. Ja ...

Lady Jane Grey
as queen. Mary speedily assembled a force in
East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial c ...
and deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the
Empress Matilda Empress Matilda ( 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was one of the claimants to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy The Anarchy was a civil war A civil war, also known a ...

Empress Matilda
—the first
queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of st ...
of England. In July 1554, Mary married
Philip of Spain
Philip of Spain
, becoming
queen consort A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is , which title is also given to the of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contem ...
of
Habsburg Spain Habsburg Spain is a contemporary historiographical term referred to the Spain of the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700) when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central and Eastern ...
on his accession in January 1556. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor,
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Elizabeth I
.


Birth and family

Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the
Palace of Placentia The Palace of Placentia, also known as Greenwich Palace, was an English royal residence that was initially built by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester (3 October 139023 February 1447) was an English prince, ...
in
Greenwich, England Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in south-east London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-ea ...
. She was the only child of
King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Ital ...
and his first wife
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon (; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom o ...

Catherine of Aragon
to survive infancy. Her mother had suffered many miscarriages. Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a
stillborn Stillbirth is typically defined as fetus, fetal death at or after 20 or 28 weeks of pregnancy, depending on the source. It results in a baby born without vital signs, signs of life. A stillbirth can result in the feeling of Guilt (emotion), guilt ...
daughter and three short-lived or stillborn sons, including
Henry, Duke of Cornwall Henry, Duke of Cornwall (1 January – 22 February 1511) was the first child of King Henry VIII of England Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Hen ...
. Mary was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth. Her godparents included
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the in in the , nominally outranking the . The lord chancellor is appointed by the on the advice of the prime minister. Prior to their i ...
Thomas Wolsey Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530) was an English statesman and Catholic bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a positi ...
, her great-aunt
Catherine of York, Countess of Devon
Catherine of York, Countess of Devon
, and
Agnes Howard, Duchess of Norfolk Agnes Howard (née Tilney) (c. 1477 – May 1545) was the second wife of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Two of Henry VIII of England, King Henry VIII's queens were her step-granddaughters, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. Catherine Howard wa ...
. Henry VIII's cousin, once removed,
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury (14 August 1473 – 27 May 1541), was an English peeress. She was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, and Isabel Neville, the niece of kings Edward IV of England, Edward IV and Richard III of Eng ...
, stood sponsor for Mary's
confirmation A woodcut depicting the confirmation of Lutheran youth In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism, confirmation is seen as the sealing of the covenant created in baptism. It is an affirmation of commitment and belief. Those bei ...

confirmation
, which was conducted immediately after the baptism. The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon. In 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Mary's
governess 300px, In Rebecca Solomon's 1851 painting ''The Governess'', the title figure (seated right, with her charge) exhibits the modest dress and deportment appropriate to her quasi-invisible role in the Victorian household. A governess is a largely ...

governess
. Sir John Hussey, later Lord Hussey, was her
chamberlain Chamberlain may refer to: Profession *Chamberlain (office), the officer in charge of managing the household of a sovereign or other noble figure People *Chamberlain (surname) **Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927), German-British philosopher ...
from 1530, and his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of
George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent, KB, JP (1454 – 25 December 1505) was the son of Edmund Grey, 1st Earl of Kent and Lady Katherine Percy. He was the Second Earl of Kent from 1490 to 1505. Biography George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent and 5th Baron Grey d ...
, was one of Mary's attendants.


Childhood

Mary was a precocious child. In July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the
virginals The virginals (or virginal) is a keyboard instrument A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a musical keyboard, keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano, organ (music ...
(a type of
harpsichord A harpsichord ( it, clavicembalo, french: clavecin, german: Cembalo, es, clavecín, pt, cravo, nl, klavecimbel) is a musical instrument played by means of a musical keyboard, keyboard. This activates a row of levers that turn a trigger mechanism ...
). A great part of her early education came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish
humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or some ...

humanist
Juan Luis Vives Juan Luis Vives March ( la, Joannes Lodovicus Vives, lit=Juan Luis Vives Latin Name; ca, Joan Lluís Vives i March; nl, Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or r ...

Juan Luis Vives
for advice and commissioned him to write ''De Institutione Feminae Christianae'', a treatise on the education of girls. By the age of nine, Mary could read and write Latin. She studied French, Spanish, music, dance, and perhaps Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani that Mary never cried. Mary had a fair complexion with pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair. She was ruddy-cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father. Despite his affection for Mary, Henry was deeply disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, leaving Henry without a legitimate male heir. In 1525, Henry sent Mary to the border of
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign ...

Wales
to preside, presumably in name only, over the
Council of Wales and the Marches The Court of the Council in the Dominion and Principality of Wales, and the Marches of the same, commonly called the Council of Wales and the Marches () was a regional administrative body based in Ludlow Castle within the Kingdom of England betw ...
. She was given her own
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, govern ...
based at
Ludlow Castle Ludlow Castle is a ruined medieval fortification in the town of the same name in the English county of Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated in print only as Shrops; demonym Salopian ) is a landlocked historic county ...

Ludlow Castle
and many of the
royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi- ...
s normally reserved for a
Prince of Wales Prince of Wales ( cy, Tywysog Cymru, ) is a title traditionally and ceremonially granted to the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ...

Prince of Wales
. Vives and others called her the
Princess of Wales Princess of Wales ( cy, Tywysoges Cymru) is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, th ...
, although she was never technically invested with the title. She appears to have spent three years in the
Welsh Marches The Welsh Marches ( cy, Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along the border Borders are geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science Science (from the Latin word ...
, making regular visits to her father's court, before returning permanently to the home counties around London in mid-1528. Throughout Mary's childhood, Henry negotiated potential future marriages for her. When she was only two years old, she was promised to
Francis Francis may refer to: People *Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=no, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to ...
, the infant son of King Francis I of France, but the contract was repudiated after three years. In 1522, at the age of six, she was instead contracted to marry her 22-year-old first cousin,
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
. However, the engagement was broken off within a few years by Charles with Henry's agreement.
Cardinal Wolsey Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530) was an English statesman and Catholic bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a positi ...
, Henry's chief adviser, then resumed marriage negotiations with the French, and Henry suggested that Mary marry the Dauphin's father, King Francis I himself, who was eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, but Wolsey secured an alliance with France without the marriage. In 1528 Wolsey's agent
Thomas Magnus Thomas Magnus (1463/4–1550) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eve ...
discussed the idea of her marriage to her cousin
James V of Scotland James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name James James or James City may also refer to: People * King James (disambiguati ...

James V of Scotland
with the Scottish diplomat
Adam Otterburn Adam Otterburn of Auldhame & Scoughall, Auldhame and Redhall (died 6 July 1548) was a Scottish lawyer and diplomat. He was Lord Advocate, king's advocate to James V of Scotland and secretary to Mary of Guise and Regent Arran. The King's lawyer Th ...
. According to the Venetian Mario Savorgnano, by this time Mary was developing into a pretty, well-proportioned young lady with a fine complexion.


Adolescence

Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy. Disappointed at the lack of a male heir, and eager to remarry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to Catherine
annulled Annulment is a legal procedure within Law, secular and Religious law, religious legal systems for declaring a marriage Void (law), null and void. Unlike divorce, it is usually ex post facto law, retroactive, meaning that an annulled marriage is co ...
, but
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
refused his request. Henry claimed, citing biblical passages ( Leviticus 20:21), that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she was the widow of his brother
Arthur Arthur is a very common Welsh language, Welsh masculine given name. Its etymology is disputed, but its popularity derives from it being the name of the legendary hero King Arthur. Diminutive forms of the name include Art and Artie. A common spell ...

Arthur
(Mary's uncle). Catherine claimed that her marriage to Arthur was never
consummate In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply ''consummation'', is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation ...
d and so was not a valid marriage. Indeed a previous pope,
Julius II Pope Julius II ( it, Papa Giulio II; la, Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 144321 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Nicknamed the ''Warrior Pope'' or the ...

Julius II
, had issued a dispensation on that basis. Clement may have been reluctant to act because he was influenced by Charles V, Catherine's nephew and Mary's former betrothed, whose troops had surrounded and occupied Rome in the
War of the League of Cognac The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V—primarily the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Spain, Spain—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including the ...
. From 1531, Mary was often sick with irregular menstruation and depression, although it is not clear whether this was caused by stress, puberty or a more deep-seated disease. She was not permitted to see her mother, whom Henry had sent to live away from court. In early 1533, Henry married
Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn (; 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of En ...

Anne Boleyn
, who was pregnant with his child, and in May,
Thomas Cranmer Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in History of England, England and Wales ...

Thomas Cranmer
, the
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
, formally declared the marriage with Catherine void and the marriage to Anne valid. Henry repudiated the Pope's authority, declaring himself Supreme Head of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
. Catherine was demoted to Dowager Princess of Wales (a title she would have held as Arthur's widow), and Mary was deemed illegitimate. She was styled "The Lady Mary" rather than Princess, and her place in the line of succession was transferred to her newborn half-sister,
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...

Elizabeth
, Anne's daughter. Mary's household was dissolved; her servants (including the Countess of Salisbury) were dismissed and, in December 1533, she was sent to join the household of the infant Elizabeth at
Hatfield, Hertfordshire Hatfield is a town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Hertfordshire, England, in the borough of Welwyn Hatfield. It had a population of 29,616 in 2001, and 39,201 at the 2011 Census. The settlement is of Saxon origin. Hatfield House ...
. Mary determinedly refused to acknowledge that Anne was the queen or that Elizabeth was a princess, further enraging King Henry. Under strain and with her movements restricted, Mary was frequently ill, which the royal physician attributed to her "ill treatment". The Imperial ambassador
Eustace Chapuys Eustace Chapuys (; c. 1490/92 – 21 January 1556), the son of Louis Chapuys and Guigonne Dupuys, was a Savoyard diplomat who served Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, ...
became her close adviser, and interceded, unsuccessfully, on her behalf at court. The relationship between Mary and her father worsened; they did not speak to each other for three years. Although both she and her mother were ill, Mary was refused permission to visit Catherine. When Catherine died in 1536, Mary was "inconsolable". Catherine was interred in
Peterborough Cathedral Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Church of England, Anglican Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Sain ...

Peterborough Cathedral
, while Mary grieved in semi-seclusion at Hunsdon in Hertfordshire.


Adulthood

In 1536, Queen Anne fell from the king's favour and was beheaded. Elizabeth, like Mary, was declared illegitimate and stripped of her succession rights. Within two weeks of Anne's execution, Henry married
Jane Seymour Jane Seymour (c. 150824 October 1537), also known as Jane Semel, was the third List of English consorts, queen consort of King Henry VIII of England from their Wives of Henry VIII, marriage on 30 May 1536 until her death the next year. She becam ...

Jane Seymour
, who urged her husband to make peace with Mary. Henry insisted that Mary recognise him as head of the Church of England, repudiate
papal authority Papal supremacy is the doctrine of the Catholic Church that the Pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, the visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful, and as pastor of the en ...
, acknowledge that the marriage between her parents was unlawful, and accept her own illegitimacy. She attempted to reconcile with him by submitting to his authority as far as "God and my conscience" permitted, but was eventually bullied into signing a document agreeing to all of Henry's demands. Reconciled with her father, Mary resumed her place at court. Henry granted her a household, which included the reinstatement of Mary's favourite, Susan Clarencieux. Mary's privy purse accounts for this period, kept by
Mary Finch
Mary Finch
, show that
Hatfield House Hatfield House is a country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a Townhouse (Great Britain), town house. This allowed them to s ...

Hatfield House
, the
Palace of Beaulieu 350px, Beaulieu Palace circa 1580 The Palace of Beaulieu ( ) is a former Royal Palace in Boreham Boreham is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a terr ...

Palace of Beaulieu
(also called Newhall),
Richmond Richmond may refer to: People * Richmond (surname) * Earl of Richmond * Duke of Richmond * Richmond C. Beatty (1905–1961), American academic, biographer and critic * Richmond Avenal, character in British sitcom List of The IT Crowd characters#R ...
and Hunsdon were among her principal places of residence, as well as Henry's palaces at Greenwich,
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
and
Hampton Court Hampton Court Palace is a Grade I listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monu ...

Hampton Court
. Her expenses included fine clothes and gambling at cards, one of her favourite pastimes. Rebels in the North of England, including Lord Hussey, Mary's former chamberlain, campaigned against Henry's religious reforms, and one of their demands was that Mary be made legitimate. The rebellion, known as the
Pilgrimage of Grace The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular revolt beginning in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland, and north Lancashire, under the leadership of Robert Aske (political l ...
, was ruthlessly suppressed. Along with other rebels, Hussey was executed, but there is no suggestion that Mary was directly involved. The next year, 1537, Jane died after giving birth to a son,
Edward Edward is an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Worl ...
. Mary was made godmother to her half-brother and acted as chief mourner at the queen's funeral. Mary was courted by Duke Philip of Bavaria from late 1539, but he was
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
and his suit for her hand was unsuccessful. Over 1539, the king's chief minister,
Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell, (; 1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as List of English chief ministers, chief minister to King Henry VIII from 1534 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king. Cromwell was one o ...
, negotiated a potential alliance with the
Duchy of Cleves The Duchy of Cleves (german: Herzogtum Kleve; nl, Hertogdom Kleef) was a Imperial State, State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the medieval . It was situated in the northern Rhineland on both sides of the Lower Rhine, around its capi ...
. Suggestions that Mary marry the
Duke of Cleves The Duchy of Cleves (german: Herzogtum Kleve; nl, Hertogdom Kleef) was a Imperial State, State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the medieval . It was situated in the northern Rhineland on both sides of the Lower Rhine, around its capi ...
, who was the same age, came to nothing, but a match between Henry and the Duke's sister
Anne Anne, alternatively spelled Ann, is a form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...

Anne
was agreed. When the king saw Anne for the first time in late December 1539, a week before the scheduled wedding, he found her unattractive but was unable, for diplomatic reasons and without a suitable pretext, to cancel the marriage. Cromwell fell from favour and was arrested for treason in June 1540; one of the unlikely charges against him was that he had plotted to marry Mary himself. Anne consented to the annulment of the marriage, which had not been consummated, and Cromwell was beheaded. In 1541, Henry had the Countess of Salisbury, Mary's old governess and godmother, executed on the pretext of a Catholic plot in which her son
Reginald Pole Reginald Pole (12 March 1500 – 17 November 1558) was an English cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the last Roman Catholic archbishop of Canterbury, holding the office from 1556 to 1558, during the Counter-Reformation. Early life Pole ...

Reginald Pole
was implicated. Her executioner was "a wretched and blundering youth" who "literally hacked her head and shoulders to pieces". In 1542, following the execution of Henry's fifth wife,
Catherine Howard Catherine Howard ( – 13 February 1542), also spelled Katherine Howard, was List of English consorts, Queen of England from 1540 until 1541 as the Wives of Henry VIII, fifth wife of Henry VIII. She was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard and Jo ...
, the unmarried Henry invited Mary to attend the royal Christmas festivities. At court, while her father was between marriages and thus without a consort, Mary acted as hostess. In 1543, Henry married his sixth and last wife,
Catherine Parr Catherine Parr (sometimes alternatively spelled Katherine, Katheryn, Kateryn or Katharine; August 1512 – 5 September 1548) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, G ...

Catherine Parr
, who was able to bring the family closer together. Henry returned Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, through the Act of Succession 1544, placing them after Edward. But both remained legally illegitimate. Henry VIII died in 1547, and Edward succeeded him. Mary inherited estates in
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambe ...

Norfolk
,
Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), W ...
and
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
, and was granted Hunsdon and Beaulieu as her own. Since Edward was still a child, rule passed to a regency council dominated by Protestants, who attempted to establish their faith throughout the country. For example, the
Act of Uniformity 1549 The Act of Uniformity 1548 ( 2 & 3 Edw 6 c 1), also referred to as the Act of Uniformity 1549, was an Act of the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the aut ...
prescribed Protestant rites for church services, such as the use of
Thomas Cranmer Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in History of England, England and Wales ...

Thomas Cranmer
's ''
Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

Book of Common Prayer
''. Mary remained faithful to Roman Catholicism and defiantly celebrated traditional Mass in her own chapel. She appealed to her cousin Emperor Charles V to apply diplomatic pressure demanding that she be allowed to practise her religion. For most of Edward's reign, Mary remained on her own estates and rarely attended court. A plan between May and July 1550 to smuggle her out of England to the safety of the European mainland came to nothing. Religious differences between Mary and Edward continued. When Mary was in her thirties, she attended a reunion with Edward and Elizabeth for Christmas 1550, where the 13-year-old Edward embarrassed Mary, and reduced both her and himself to tears in front of the court, by publicly reproving her for ignoring his laws regarding worship. Mary repeatedly refused Edward's demands that she abandon Catholicism, and Edward persistently refused to drop his demands.


Accession

On 6 July 1553, at the age of 15, Edward VI died of a lung infection, possibly tuberculosis. He did not want the crown to go to Mary because he feared she would restore Catholicism and undo his and their father's reforms, and so he planned to exclude her from the line of succession. His advisers told him that he could not disinherit only one of his half-sisters: he would have to disinherit Elizabeth as well, even though she was a Protestant. Guided by
John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1504Loades 2008 – 22 August 1553) was an Kingdom of England, English general, admiral, and politician, who led the government of the young King Edward VI from 1550 until 1553, and unsuccessfully tried ...

John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
, and perhaps others, Edward excluded both from the line of succession in his will. Contradicting the Succession Act, which restored Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, Edward named Dudley's daughter-in-law
Lady Jane Grey Lady Jane Grey ( 1537 – 12 February 1554), later known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was a teenage English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. Ja ...

Lady Jane Grey
, the granddaughter of Henry VIII's younger sister
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...
, as his successor. Lady Jane's mother was Frances Brandon, Mary's cousin and goddaughter. Just before Edward VI's death, Mary was summoned to London to visit her dying brother, but was warned that the summons was a pretext on which to capture her and thereby facilitate Jane's accession to the throne. Therefore, instead of heading to London from her residence at Hunsdon, Mary fled to
East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial c ...
, where she owned extensive estates and Dudley had ruthlessly put down
Kett's Rebellion Kett's Rebellion was a revolt in Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TC ...
. Many adherents to the Catholic faith, opponents of Dudley's, lived there. On 9 July, from
Kenninghall Kenninghall is a village and civil parish in Norfolk, England, with an area of and a population of 950 at the United Kingdom Census 2011, 2011 census. It falls within the local government Non-metropolitan district, district of Breckland (district ...
, Norfolk, she wrote to the privy council with orders for her proclamation as Edward's successor. On 10 July 1553, Lady Jane was proclaimed queen by Dudley and his supporters, and on the same day Mary's letter to the council arrived in London. By 12 July, Mary and her supporters had assembled a military force at
Framlingham Castle Framlingham Castle is a castle in the market town of Framlingham in Suffolk Suffolk () is an East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistica ...

Framlingham Castle
, Suffolk. Dudley's support collapsed, and Jane was deposed on 19 July. She and Dudley were imprisoned in the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
. Mary rode triumphantly into London on 3 August 1553, on a wave of popular support. She was accompanied by her half-sister Elizabeth and a procession of over 800 nobles and gentlemen.


Reign

One of Mary's first actions as queen was to order the release of the Roman Catholic
Duke of Norfolk The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, moreover, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel ...
and
Stephen Gardiner Stephen Gardiner (27 July 1483 – 12 November 1555) was an English bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and over ...

Stephen Gardiner
from imprisonment in the Tower of London, as well as her kinsman Edward Courtenay. Mary understood that the young Lady Jane was essentially a pawn in Dudley's scheme, and Dudley was the only conspirator of rank executed for high treason in the immediate aftermath of the coup. Lady Jane and her husband, Lord Guildford Dudley, though found guilty, were kept under guard in the Tower rather than immediately executed, while Lady Jane's father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, was released. Mary was left in a difficult position, as almost all the Privy Council of England, Privy Counsellors had been implicated in the plot to put Lady Jane on the throne. She appointed Gardiner to the council and made him both Bishop of Winchester and
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the in in the , nominally outranking the . The lord chancellor is appointed by the on the advice of the prime minister. Prior to their i ...
, offices he held until his death in November 1555. Susan Clarencieux became Mistress of the Robes. On 1 October 1553, Gardiner Coronation of the British monarch, crowned Mary at Westminster Abbey.


Spanish marriage

Now aged 37, Mary turned her attention to finding a husband and producing an heir, which would prevent the Protestant Elizabeth (still next-in-line under the terms of Henry VIII's will and the Act of Succession of 1544) from succeeding to the throne. Edward Courtenay and Reginald Pole were both mentioned as prospective suitors, but her cousin Charles V suggested she marry his only son, Philip II of Spain, Prince Philip of Spain. Philip had a Charles, Prince of Asturias, son from a previous marriage and was heir apparent to vast territories in Continental Europe and the New World. As part of the marriage negotiations, a portrait of Philip, by Titian, was sent to her in the latter half of 1553. Lord Chancellor Gardiner and the House of Commons of England, House of Commons unsuccessfully petitioned her to consider marrying an Englishman, fearing that England would be relegated to a dependency of the Habsburgs. The marriage was unpopular with the English; Gardiner and his allies opposed it on the basis of patriotism, while Protestants were motivated by a fear of Catholicism. When Mary insisted on marrying Philip, insurrections broke out. Thomas Wyatt the younger led a force from Kent to depose Mary in favour of Elizabeth, as part of a wider conspiracy now known as Wyatt's rebellion, which also involved the Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane's father. Mary declared publicly that she would summon Parliament to discuss the marriage and if Parliament decided that the marriage was not to the kingdom's advantage, she would refrain from pursuing it. On reaching London, Wyatt was defeated and captured. Wyatt, the Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane, and her husband Guildford Dudley were executed. Courtenay, who was implicated in the plot, was imprisoned and then exiled. Elizabeth, though protesting her innocence in the Wyatt affair, was imprisoned in the Tower of London for two months, then put under house arrest at Woodstock Palace. Mary was—excluding the brief, disputed reigns of the
Empress Matilda Empress Matilda ( 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was one of the claimants to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy The Anarchy was a civil war A civil war, also known a ...

Empress Matilda
and Lady Jane Grey—England's first
queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of st ...
. Further, under the English common law doctrine of ''jure uxoris'', the property and titles belonging to a woman became her husband's upon marriage, and it was feared that any man she married would thereby become King of England in fact and name. While Mary's grandparents Ferdinand and Isabella had retained sovereignty of their respective realms during their marriage, there was no precedent to follow in England. Under the terms of Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Queen Mary's Marriage Act, Philip was to be styled "King of England", all official documents (including Act of Parliament, Acts of Parliament) were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple, for Mary's lifetime only. England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip's father in any war, and Philip could not act without his wife's consent or appoint foreigners to office in England. Philip was unhappy with these conditions but ready to agree for the sake of securing the marriage. He had no amorous feelings for Mary and sought the marriage for its political and strategic gains; his aide Ruy Gómez de Silva wrote to a correspondent in Brussels, "the marriage was concluded for no fleshly consideration, but in order to remedy the disorders of this kingdom and to preserve the Low Countries." To elevate his son to Mary's rank, Emperor Charles V ceded to Philip the crown of Naples as well as his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Mary thus became Queen of Naples and titular Queen of Jerusalem upon marriage.Porter, pp. 321, 324; Waller, p. 90; Whitelock, p. 238. Their wedding at Winchester Cathedral on 25 July 1554 took place just two days after their first meeting. Philip could not speak English, and so they spoke a mixture of Spanish, French, and Latin.


False pregnancy

In September 1554, Mary stopped menstruating. She gained weight, and felt nauseated in the mornings. For these reasons, almost the entirety of her court, including her doctors, believed she was pregnant. Parliament passed an Treason Act 1554, act making Philip regent in the event of Mary's death in childbirth. In the last week of April 1555, Elizabeth was released from house arrest, and called to court as a witness to the birth, which was expected imminently. According to Giovanni Michieli, the Venetian ambassador, Philip may have planned to marry Elizabeth in the event of Mary's death in childbirth, but in a letter to his brother-in-law, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian of Austria, Philip expressed uncertainty as to whether his wife was pregnant. Thanksgiving services in the diocese of London were held at the end of April after false rumours that Mary had given birth to a son spread across Europe. Through May and June, the apparent delay in delivery fed gossip that Mary was not pregnant. Susan Clarencieux revealed her doubts to the French ambassador, Antoine de Noailles. Mary continued to exhibit signs of pregnancy until July 1555, when her abdomen receded. Michieli dismissively ridiculed the pregnancy as more likely to "end in wind rather than anything else". It was most likely a false pregnancy, perhaps induced by Mary's overwhelming desire to have a child. In August, soon after the disgrace of the false pregnancy, which Mary considered "God's punishment" for her having "tolerated heretics" in her realm, Philip left England to command his armies against France in Flanders. Mary was heartbroken and fell into a deep depression. Michieli was touched by the queen's grief; he wrote she was "extraordinarily in love" with her husband and disconsolate at his departure. Elizabeth remained at court until October, apparently restored to favour. In the absence of any children, Philip was concerned that one of the next claimants to the English throne after his sister-in-law was the Mary, Queen of Scots, Queen of Scots, who was betrothed to the Francis II of France, Dauphin of France. Philip persuaded his wife that Elizabeth should marry his cousin Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, to secure the Catholic succession and preserve the Habsburg interest in England, but Elizabeth refused to comply and parliamentary consent was unlikely.


Religious policy

In the month following her accession, Mary issued a proclamation that she would not compel any of her subjects to follow her religion, but by the end of September 1553, leading Protestant churchmen—including Cranmer, John Bradford, John Rogers (Bible editor and martyr), John Rogers, John Hooper (bishop), John Hooper, and Hugh Latimer—were imprisoned. Mary's first Parliament, which assembled in early October, declared her parents' marriage valid and First Statute of Repeal, abolished Edward's religious laws. Church doctrine was restored to the form it had taken in the 1539 Six Articles (1539), Six Articles of Henry VIII, which (among other things) reaffirmed clerical celibacy. Married priests were deprived of their benefices. Mary rejected the break with Rome her father instituted and the establishment of Protestantism by her brother's regents. Philip persuaded Parliament to Second Statute of Repeal, repeal Henry's religious laws, returning the English church to Roman jurisdiction. Reaching an agreement took many months and Mary and Pope Julius III had to make a major concession: the Dissolution of the Monasteries, confiscated monastery lands were not returned to the church but remained in the hands of their influential new owners. By the end of 1554, the pope had approved the deal, and the Revival of the Heresy Acts, Heresy Acts were revived. Around 800 rich Protestants, including John Foxe, fled into Marian exiles, exile. Those who stayed and persisted in publicly proclaiming their beliefs became targets of heresy laws.Solly, Meilan.
The Myth of 'Bloody Mary'
. ''Smithsonian Magazine''. March 12, 2020.
The first executions occurred over five days in February 1555: John Rogers on 4 February, Laurence Saunders on 8 February, and Rowland Taylor and John Hooper on 9 February. Cranmer, the imprisoned archbishop of Canterbury, was forced to watch Bishops Nicholas Ridley (martyr), Ridley and Hugh Latimer, Latimer being burned at the stake. He recanted, repudiated Protestant theology, and rejoined the Catholic faith. Under the normal process of the law, he should have been absolved as a repentant, but Mary refused to reprieve him. On the day of his burning, he dramatically withdrew his recantation. In total, 283 were executed, most by burning. The burnings proved so unpopular that even Alfonso de Castro, one of Philip's own ecclesiastical staff, condemned them and another adviser, Simon Renard, warned him that such "cruel enforcement" could "cause a revolt". Mary persevered with the policy, which continued until her death and exacerbated anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish feeling among the English people. The victims became lauded as List of Protestant martyrs of the English Reformation, martyrs.
Reginald Pole Reginald Pole (12 March 1500 – 17 November 1558) was an English cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the last Roman Catholic archbishop of Canterbury, holding the office from 1556 to 1558, during the Counter-Reformation. Early life Pole ...

Reginald Pole
, the son of Mary's executed governess, arrived as papal legate in November 1554. He was ordained a priest and appointed Archbishop of Canterbury immediately after Cranmer's execution in March 1556.


Foreign policy

Furthering the Tudor conquest of Ireland, under Mary and Philip's reign English colonists were settled in the Irish Midlands. County Laois, Queen's and County Offaly, King's Counties (now Counties Laois and Offaly) were founded, and their Plantations of Ireland, plantation began. Their principal towns were respectively named Maryborough (now Portlaoise) and Philipstown (now Daingean). In January 1556, Mary's father-in-law the Emperor abdicated. Mary and Philip were still apart; he was declared King of Spain in Brussels, but she stayed in England. Philip negotiated an unsteady truce with the French in February 1556. The next month, the French ambassador in England, Antoine de Noailles, was implicated in a plot against Mary when Sir Henry Sutton Dudley, Henry Dudley, a second cousin of the executed John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, Duke of Northumberland, attempted to assemble an invasion force in France. The plot, known as the Dudley conspiracy, was betrayed, and the conspirators in England were rounded up. Dudley remained in exile in France, and Noailles prudently left Britain. Philip returned to England from March to July 1557 to persuade Mary to support Spain in a Italian War of 1551–59, renewed war against France. Mary was in favour of declaring war, but her councillors opposed it because French trade would be jeopardised, it contravened the foreign war provisions of the marriage treaty, and a bad economic legacy from Edward VI's reign and a series of poor harvests meant England lacked supplies and finances. War was only declared in June 1557 after Reginald Pole's nephew, Thomas Stafford (rebel), Thomas Stafford, invaded England and seized Scarborough Castle with French help, in a failed attempt to depose Mary. As a result of the war, relations between England and the Papacy became strained, since Pope Paul IV was allied with Henry II of France. In August, English forces were victorious in the aftermath of the Battle of St. Quentin (1557), Battle of Saint Quentin, with one eyewitness reporting, "Both sides fought most choicely, and the English best of all." Celebrations were brief, as in January 1558 French forces Siege of Calais (1558), took Calais, England's sole remaining possession on the European mainland. Although the territory was financially burdensome, its loss was a mortifying blow to the queen's prestige. According to Holinshed's Chronicles, Mary later lamented, "When I am dead and opened, you shall find 'Calais' lying in my heart", although this may be apocryphal.


Commerce and revenue

File:Mary Tudor Shilling.jpg, Mary Shilling (British coin), shilling The weather during the years of Mary's reign was consistently wet. The persistent rain and flooding led to famine. Another problem was the decline of the Antwerp cloth trade. Despite Mary's marriage to Philip, England did not benefit from Spain's enormously lucrative trade with the Spanish Empire, New World. The Mercantilism, mercantilist Spanish guarded their trade routes jealously, and Mary could not condone English smuggling or piracy against her husband. In an attempt to increase trade and rescue the English economy, Mary's counsellors continued John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, Northumberland's policy of seeking out new commercial opportunities. She granted a royal charter to the Muscovy Company under governor Sebastian Cabot (explorer), Sebastian Cabot, and commissioned a world atlas from Diogo Homem. Adventurers such as John Lok and William Towerson sailed south in an attempt to develop links with the coast of Africa. Financially, Mary's regime tried to reconcile a modern form of government—with correspondingly higher spending—with a medieval system of collecting taxation and dues. Mary retained the Edwardian appointee William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester, as Lord High Treasurer and assigned him to oversee the revenue collection system. A failure to apply new tariffs to new forms of imports meant that a key source of revenue was neglected. To solve this, Mary's government published a revised "Book of Rates" (1558), which listed the tariffs and duties for every import. This publication was not extensively reviewed until 1604. English coinage was The Great Debasement, debased under both Henry VIII and Edward VI. Mary drafted plans for currency reform but they were not implemented until after her death.


Death

After Philip's visit in 1557, Mary again thought she was pregnant, with a baby due in March 1558. She decreed in her will that her husband would be the regent during the minority of their child. But no child was born, and Mary was forced to accept that her half-sister Elizabeth would be her lawful successor. Mary was weak and ill from May 1558. In pain, possibly from ovarian cysts or uterine cancer, she died on 17 November 1558, aged 42, at St James's Palace, during an influenza epidemic that also claimed Pole's life later that day. She was succeeded by Elizabeth. Philip, who was in Brussels, wrote to his sister Joan of Austria, Princess of Portugal, Joan: "I felt a reasonable regret for her death." Although Mary's will stated that she wished to be buried next to her mother, she was interred in Westminster Abbey on 14 December, in a tomb she eventually shared with Elizabeth. The inscription on their tomb, affixed there by James I of England, James I when he succeeded Elizabeth, is ''Regno consortes et urna, hic obdormimus Elizabetha et Maria sorores, in spe resurrectionis'' ("Consorts in realm and tomb, we sisters Elizabeth and Mary here lie down to sleep in hope of the resurrection").


Legacy

At her funeral service, John White (bishop), John White, bishop of Winchester, praised Mary: "She was a king's daughter; she was a king's sister; she was a king's wife. She was a queen, and by the same title a king also." She was the first woman to successfully claim the throne of England, despite competing claims and determined opposition, and enjoyed popular support and sympathy during the earliest parts of her reign, especially from the Roman Catholics of England. Protestant writers at the time, and since, have often condemned Mary's reign. By the 17th century, the memory of her religious persecutions had led to the adoption of her sobriquet "Bloody Mary". John Knox attacked her in his ''The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women'' (1558), and she was prominently vilified in ''Actes and Monuments'' (1563), by John Foxe. Foxe's book remained popular throughout the following centuries and helped shape enduring perceptions of Mary as a bloodthirsty tyrant. Historian Lucy Wooding notes misogynistic undertones in descriptions of Mary. "She's simultaneously being lambasted for being 'vindictive and fierce' and 'spineless and weak', criticized for such actions as showing clemency to political prisoners and yielding authority to her husband." Mary is remembered in the 21st century for her vigorous efforts to restore the primacy of Roman Catholicism in England after the rise of Protestant influence during the previous reigns. Protestant historians have long deplored her reign, emphasizing that in just five years she burned several hundred Protestants at the stake. In the mid-20th century, H. F. M. Prescott attempted to redress the tradition that Mary was intolerant and authoritarian, and scholarship since then has tended to view the older, simpler assessments of Mary with increasing reservations. A historiographical revisionism since the 1980s has improved her reputation among scholars to some degree. Christopher Haigh argued that her revival of religious festivities and Catholic practices was generally welcomed. Haigh concluded that the "last years of Mary's reign were not a gruesome preparation for Protestant victory, but a continuing consolidation of Catholic strength." Catholic historians, such as John Lingard, thought Mary's policies failed not because they were wrong but because she had too short a reign to establish them and because of natural disasters beyond her control. In other countries, the Catholic Counter-Reformation was spearheaded by Jesuit missionaries, but Mary's chief religious advisor, Cardinal Reginald Pole, refused to allow the Jesuits into England. Her marriage to Philip was unpopular among her subjects and her religious policies resulted in deep-seated resentment. The military loss of Calais to France was a bitter humiliation to English pride. Failed harvests increased public discontent. Philip spent most of his time abroad, while his wife remained in England, leaving her depressed at his absence and undermined by their inability to have children. After Mary's death, Philip sought to marry Elizabeth but she refused him. Although Mary's rule was ultimately ineffectual and unpopular, the policies of fiscal reform, naval expansion, and colonial exploration that were later lauded as Elizabethan accomplishments were started in Mary's reign.


Titles, style, and arms

When Mary ascended the throne, she was proclaimed under the same official style as Henry VIII and Edward VI: "Mary, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, British claims to the French throne, France and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland, Fidei defensor, Defender of the Faith, and of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
and of Church of Ireland, Ireland on Earth Supreme Head". The title Supreme Head of the Church was repugnant to Mary's Catholicism, and she omitted it after Christmas 1553. Under Mary's marriage treaty with Philip, the official joint style reflected not only Mary's but also Philip's dominions and claims: "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God, King and Queen of England, France, Kingdom of Naples, Naples, Kings of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Princes of Spain and Sicily, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Rulers of Milan, Milan, Duke of Burgundy, Burgundy and Duke of Brabant, Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Count of Flanders, Flanders and German Tyrol, Tyrol". This style, which had been in use since 1554, was replaced when Philip inherited the Spanish Crown in 1556 with "Philip and Mary, by the Grace of God King and Queen of England, Spain, France, both the Sicilies, Jerusalem and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy, Milan and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol". Mary I's heraldry, coat of arms was the same as those used by all her predecessors since Henry IV of England, Henry IV: Quartering (heraldry), Quarterly, Azure (heraldry), Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (heraldry), Or [for France] and Gules three lions Attitude (heraldry)#Passant, passant guardant in Pale (heraldry), pale Or (Royal Arms of England, for England). Sometimes, her arms were Impalement (heraldry), impaled (depicted side-by-side) with Coat of arms of Spain, those of her husband. She adopted "Truth, the Daughter of Time" () as her personal motto.


Genealogy

Both Mary and Philip were descended from John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, a relationship that was used to portray Philip as an English king.Whitelock, p. 242.


See also

* Jewels of Mary I of England * Tudor period


Notes


References


Sources


Calendar of State Papers, Spain
* Eamon Duffy, Duffy, Eamon (2009). ''Fires of Faith: Catholic England Under Mary Tudor''. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. . * Haigh, Christopher (1992). ''English Reformations: religion, politics and society under the Tudors''. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Hoyle, R. W. (2001). ''The Pilgrimage of Grace and the Politics of the 1530s''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. . * David Loades, Loades, David M. (1989) ''Mary Tudor: A Life''. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. . * Paget, Gerald (1977). ''The Lineage & Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales''. Edinburgh & London: Charles Skilton. . * Linda Porter (historian), Porter, Linda (2007) ''Mary Tudor: The First Queen''. London: Little, Brown. .
"Chapter Five: Table of regnal year of English Sovereigns"
in ''Sweet & Maxwell's Guide to Law Reports and Statutes'' (4th ed., 1962). London: Sweet & Maxwell's Guide * Tittler, Robert (1991). ''The Reign of Mary I''. Second edition. London & New York: Longman. . * Waller, Maureen (2006). ''Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England''. New York: St. Martin's Press. . * Weikel, Ann (2004; online edition 2008)
"Mary I (1516–1558)"
in ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' . Oxford University Press. . * Alison Weir, Weir, Alison (1996). ''Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy''. London: Pimlico. . * Anna Whitelock, Whitelock, Anna (2009). ''Mary Tudor: England's First Queen''. London: Bloomsbury. .


Further reading

* Doran, Susan and Thomas Freeman, eds. (2011). ''Mary Tudor: Old and New Perspectives''. Palgrave MacMillan. * Edwards, John. (2011). ''Mary I: England's Catholic Queen''. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. . * Carolly Erickson, Erickson, Carolly (1978). ''Bloody Mary: The Life of Mary Tudor''. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. . * Loades, David M. (1979, 2d ed. 1991). ''The Reign of Mary Tudor: Politics, Government and Religion in England, 1553–58''. London and New York: Longman. . * Loades, David M. (2006). ''Mary Tudor: The Tragical History of the First Queen of England''. Kew, Richmond, UK: National Archives. * Loades, David M. (2011). ''Mary Tudor''. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Amberley Publishing. * Frederic Madden, Madden, Frederick
''Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary, 1536-1544'' (London, 1831)
* H. F. M. Prescott, Prescott, H. F. M. (1952). ''Mary Tudor: The Spanish Tudor''. Second edition. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. * Jasper Ridley, Ridley, Jasper (2001). ''Bloody Mary's Martyrs: The Story of England's Terror''. New York: Carroll & Graf. . * Samson, Alexander (2020). ''Mary and Philip: The Marriage of Tudor England and Habsburg Spain''. Manchester UK: Manchester University Press. . * Waldman, Milton (1972). ''The Lady Mary: A Biography of Mary Tudor, 1516–1558''. London: Collins. . * R. B. Wernham, Wernham, R. B. (1966). ''Before the Armada: The Growth of English Foreign Policy, 1485–1588''. London: Jonathan Cape.


External links

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