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Martin Charles Scorsese ( , ; born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter and actor. Scorsese emerged as one of the major figures of the New Hollywood era. He is the recipient of many major accolades, including an Academy Award, a Grammy Award, three Emmy Awards, four
British Academy Film Awards
British Academy Film Awards
, two Directors Guild of America Awards, an AFI Life Achievement Award and the Kennedy Center Honor in 2007. Five of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry by the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not just for display purposes. A library provides physical (hard copies) or digital access (so ...

Library of Congress
as "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant". Scorsese received an
MA
MA
from New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development in 1968. His directorial debut, '' Who's That Knocking at My Door'' (1967), was accepted into the Chicago Film Festival. In the 1970s and 1980s decades, Scorsese's films, much influenced by his
Italian-American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans who have full or partial Italians, Italian ancestry. The largest concentrations of Italian Americans are in the urban Northeastern United States, Northeast and indus ...
background and upbringing in New York City, center on macho-posturing insecure men and explore crime, machismo,
nihilism Nihilism (; ) is a philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as prob ...
, and Catholic concepts of guilt and redemption. His trademark styles include extensive use of
slow motion Slow motion (commonly abbreviated as slo-mo or slow-mo) is an effect in film-making whereby time appears to be slowed down. It was invented by the Austrian priest August Musger in the early 20th century. This can be accomplished through the use o ...
and freeze frames, graphic depictions of extreme violence, and liberal use of
profanity Profanity, also known as cursing, cussing, swearing, bad language, foul language, obscenities, expletives or vulgarism, is a socially offensive use of language. Accordingly, profanity is language use that is sometimes deemed impolite, ru ...
. His 1973 crime film ''
Mean Streets ''Mean Streets'' is a 1973 American crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and co-written by Scorsese and Mardik Martin. The film stars Harvey Keitel and Robert De Niro. It was released by Warner Bros. on October 2, 1973. De Niro won the National ...
'', dealing with
machismo Machismo (; ; ; ) is the sense of being "masculinity, manly" and self-reliant, a concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity". Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 1940s best de ...
and violence, and exploring
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
concepts of guilt and redemption, was a blueprint for his filmmaking styles. Scorsese won the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the festival's highest prize was the Grand Prix du Fe ...
at
Cannes Cannes ( , , ; oc, Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a communes of France, commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes departments of France, department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions I ...
with his 1976 psychological thriller ''
Taxi Driver ''Taxi Driver'' is a 1976 American film directed by Martin Scorsese, written by Paul Schrader, and starring Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster, Cybill Shepherd, Harvey Keitel, Peter Boyle, Leonard Harris (actor), Leonard Harris, and Albert Brooks. S ...
'', which starred
Robert De Niro Robert Anthony De Niro Jr. ( , ; born August 17, 1943) is an American actor. Known for his Martin Scorsese and Robert De Niro, collaborations with Martin Scorsese, he is considered to be one of the best actors of his generation. De Niro is ...
, who became associated with Scorsese through eight more films including ''
New York, New York New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
'' (1977), '' Raging Bull'' (1980) '' The King of Comedy'' (1982), '' Goodfellas'' (1990), and ''
Casino A casino is a facility for certain types of gambling. Casinos are often built near or combined with hotels, resorts, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships, and other tourist attractions. Some casinos are also known for hosting live entertai ...
'' (1995). In the 2000s and 2010s decades, Scorsese garnered critical acclaim and box office success with a series of collaborations with Leonardo DiCaprio. These films include '' Gangs of New York'' (2002), '' The Aviator'' (2004), ''
The Departed ''The Departed'' is a 2006 American Epic film, epic Crime-thriller film, crime thriller film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by William Monahan. It is both a remake of the 2002 Hong Kong cinema, Hong Kong film ''Infernal Affairs'' and ...
'' (2006), '' Shutter Island'' (2010) and '' The Wolf of Wall Street'' (2013). Returning to his familiar territory of crime films, Scorsese collaborated with De Niro again on ''
The Irishman ''The Irishman'' (subtitled onscreen as ''I Heard You Paint Houses'') is a 2019 American Epic film, epic gangster film directed and produced by Martin Scorsese and written by Steven Zaillian, based on the 2004 nonfiction book ''I Heard You P ...
'' (2019). Scorsese's other film work includes the black comedy '' After Hours'' (1985), the romantic drama '' The Age of Innocence'' (1993), the children's adventure drama '' Hugo'' (2011), and the religious epics '' The Last Temptation of Christ'' (1988), '' Kundun'' (1997) and ''
Silence Silence is the absence of ambient hearing (sense), audible sound, the emission of sounds of such low sound intensity, intensity that they do not draw attention to themselves, or the state of having ceased to produce sounds; this latter sense c ...
'' (2016). In addition to film, Scorsese has directed episodes for some television series including the
HBO Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium television network, which is the flagship property of namesake parent subsidiary Home Box Office, Inc., itself a unit owned by Warner Bros. Discovery. The overall Home Box Office business unit is b ...
series ''
Boardwalk Empire ''Boardwalk Empire'' is an American period crime drama television series created by Terence Winter and broadcast on the premium cable channel HBO. The series is set chiefly in Atlantic City, New Jersey Atlantic City, often known by its ...
'' (2011–2015), and ''
Vinyl Vinyl may refer to: Chemistry * Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a particular vinyl polymer * Vinyl cation, a type of carbocation * Vinyl group, a broad class of organic molecules in chemistry * Vinyl polymer, a group of polymers derived from vinyl mo ...
'' (2016), as well as the HBO documentary ''
Public Speaking Public speaking, also called oratory or oration, has traditionally meant the act of speaking face to face to a live audience. Today it includes any form of speaking (formally and informally) to an audience, including pre-recorded speech deliver ...
'' (2010), and the
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
docu-series '' Pretend It's a City'' (2021). He is also known for several
rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and ...
documentaries including ''
The Last Waltz ''The Last Waltz'' was a rock concert, concert by the Canadian-American rock group The Band, held on American Thanksgiving (United States), Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1976, at Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco. ''The Last Waltz'' was ad ...
'' (1978), '' No Direction Home'' (2005), '' Shine a Light'' (2008), and '' George Harrison: Living in the Material World'' (2011). An advocate for
film preservation Film preservation, or film restoration, describes a series of ongoing efforts among film historians, archivists, museums, cinematheques, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images they contain. In the wid ...
and restoration, he founded three nonprofit organizations: the Film Foundation in 1990, the
World Cinema Foundation The World Cinema Project (WCP), formerly World Cinema Foundation, is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO) or non-profit organisation, also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit instit ...
in 2007, and the African Film Heritage Project in 2017.


Early life

Martin Scorsese was born on November 17, 1942, in the
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall Flushing ( kw, Nanskersys) is a coastal village in the Civil parishes in England, civil parish of Mylor, Cornwall, Mylor, west Cornwall, UK. It is east of Penryn, Cornwall, Penryn and sout ...
area of
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
's Queens borough. His family moved to
Little Italy Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity. The term is usually used to refer to either a ...
in
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City, is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five Boroughs of New York City, boroughs of New York City. The borough is also coextensive with New York County, one of the List of co ...
before he started school. Both of Scorsese's parents, Charles Scorsese and Catherine Scorsese (born Cappa), worked in New York's Garment District. Charles was a clothes presser and an actor while Catherine was a seamstress and an actress. Both of them were of Italian descent: his paternal grandparents, Francesco Paolo and Teresa Scozzese, emigrated from Polizzi Generosa, while his maternal grandparents, Martino and Domenica Cappa, emigrated from Ciminna, both in the
province of Palermo The Province of Palermo ( it, provincia di Palermo; Sicilian: ''pruvincia di Palermu'') was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ...
,
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...
. The original surname of the family was ''Scozzese'', later changed to Scorsese because of a transcription error. Scorsese was raised in a predominantly
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
environment. As a boy, he had
asthma Asthma is a chronic (medicine), long-term inflammation, inflammatory disease of the bronchi, airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible Airway obstruction, airflow obstruction, and easily triggered ...
and could not play sports or take part in any activities with other children, so his parents and his older brother would often take him to movie theaters; it was at this stage in his life that he developed a passion for cinema. As a teenager in the Bronx, Scorsese frequently rented Powell and Pressburger's ''
The Tales of Hoffmann ''The Tales of Hoffmann'' (French: ) is an by Jacques Offenbach. The French libretto was written by Jules Barbier, based on three short stories by E. T. A. Hoffmann, who is the protagonist of the story. It was Offenbach's final work; he died in ...
'' (1951) from a store that had one copy of the reel. Scorsese was one of only two people who regularly rented it; the other was future film director George A. Romero. Scorsese has cited Sabu and
Victor Mature Victor John Mature (January 29, 1913 – August 4, 1999) was an American stage, film, and television actor who was a leading man in Hollywood during the 1940s and 1950s. His best known film roles include ''One Million B.C.'' (1940), ''My Darling ...
as his favorite actors during his youth. He has also spoken of the influence of the 1947–48 Powell and Pressburger films '' Black Narcissus'' and '' The Red Shoes'', whose innovative techniques later impacted his filmmaking. In his documentary titled '' A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies'', Scorsese said that he was enamored of historical epics in his adolescence, and at least two films of the genre, ''
Land of the Pharaohs ''Land of the Pharaohs'' is a 1955 America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists ...
'' and ''
El Cid Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1043 – 10 July 1099) was a Castilian knight and warlord in medieval Spain. Fighting with both Christian and Muslim armies during his lifetime, he earned the Arabic honorific ''al-sīd'', which would evolve into El C ...
'', appear to have had a deep and lasting impact on his cinematic psyche. Scorsese also developed an admiration for neorealist cinema at this time. He recounted its influence in a documentary on
Italian neorealism Italian neorealism (art), neorealism ( it, Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class. They are filmed Location shooting, on location, frequently wit ...
, and commented on how ''
Bicycle Thieves ''Bicycle Thieves'' ( it, Ladri di biciclette; sometimes known in the United States as ''The Bicycle Thief'') is a 1948 Italian neorealism, Italian neorealist drama film directed by Vittorio De Sica. It follows the story of a poor father searchi ...
'', ''
Rome, Open City ''Rome, Open City'' ( it, Roma città aperta, also released as ''Open City'') is a 1945 Italian Italian neorealism, neorealist war film, war drama film directed by Roberto Rossellini and co-written by Sergio Amidei, Celeste Negarville and Federi ...
'' and especially '' Paisà'' inspired him and influenced his view or portrayal of his Sicilian roots. In his documentary, '' Il Mio Viaggio in Italia'' (''My Voyage to Italy''), Scorsese noted that the Sicilian episode of
Roberto Rossellini Roberto Gastone Zeffiro Rossellini (8 May 1906 – 3 June 1977) was an Italian film director, producer, and screenwriter. He was one of the most prominent directors of the Italian neorealist cinema, contributing to the movement with films such ...
's '' Paisà'', which he first saw on television with his relatives who were themselves Sicilian immigrants, had a significant impact on his life. He acknowledges owing a great debt to the
French New Wave French New Wave (french: La Nouvelle Vague) is a French European art cinema, art film movement that emerged in the late 1950s. The movement was characterized by its rejection of traditional filmmaking conventions in favor of experimentation and ...
and has stated that "the French New Wave has influenced all filmmakers who have worked since, whether they saw the films or not." He has also cited filmmakers including
Satyajit Ray Satyajit Ray (; 2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992) was an Indian Film director, director, screenwriter, documentary film, documentary film director, filmmaker, author, list of essayists, essayist, lyricist, magazine editor, illustrator, call ...
,
Ingmar Bergman Ernst Ingmar Bergman (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish film director, screenwriter, Film producer, producer and playwright. Widely considered one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time, his films are known ...
,
Michelangelo Antonioni Michelangelo Antonioni (, ; 29 September 1912 – 30 July 2007) was an Italian filmmaker. He is best known for directing his "trilogy on modernity and its discontents"—''L'Avventura'' (1960), ''La Notte'' (1961), and ''L'Eclisse'' (1962 ...
, and
Federico Fellini Federico Fellini (; 20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter known for his distinctive style, which blends fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), m ...
as major influences on his career. He attended the all-boys Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx, graduating in 1960. He had initially desired to become a priest, attending a preparatory
seminary A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to serve as clergy, ...
but failed after the first year. This gave way to cinema and consequently Scorsese enrolled in NYU's
Washington Square College The New York University College of Arts & Science (CAS) is the primary liberal arts college of New York University, New York University (NYU). The school is located near Gould Plaza next to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences and the New ...
(now known as the College of Arts and Science), where he earned a B.A. in English in 1964. He went on to earn his from New York University's School of Education (now the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development) in 1968, a year after the school was founded.


Career


1960s

While attending the Tisch School of the Arts, Scorsese made the short films '' What's a Nice Girl like You Doing in a Place like This?'' (1963) and '' It's Not Just You, Murray!'' (1964). His most famous short of the period is the darkly comic '' The Big Shave'' (1967), which features Peter Bernuth. The film is an indictment of America's involvement in
Vietnam Vietnam or Viet Nam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,., group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of and population of 96 million, making it ...
, suggested by its alternative title ''Viet '67''. Scorsese has mentioned on several occasions that he was greatly inspired in his early days at New York University by film professor Haig P. Manoogian. In 1967, Scorsese made his first feature-length film, the black and white ''I Call First'', which was later retitled '' Who's That Knocking at My Door'', with his fellow students actor
Harvey Keitel Harvey Keitel ( ; born May 13, 1939) is an American actor. He is known for his portrayal of morally ambiguous and "tough guy" characters. He first rose to prominence during the New Hollywood The New Hollywood, also known as American New Wave ...
and editor Thelma Schoonmaker, both of whom were to become long-term collaborators. This film was intended to be the first of Scorsese's semi-autobiographical J. R. Trilogy, which would have included a later film, ''
Mean Streets ''Mean Streets'' is a 1973 American crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and co-written by Scorsese and Mardik Martin. The film stars Harvey Keitel and Robert De Niro. It was released by Warner Bros. on October 2, 1973. De Niro won the National ...
''. Film critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...
saw the film at the 1967
Chicago International Film Festival The Chicago International Film Festival is an annual film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film festivals s ...
and in his review praised Scorsese and the film, writing, "'I Call First' brings these two kinds of films together into a work that is absolutely genuine, artistically satisfying and technically comparable to the best films being made anywhere. I have no reservations in describing it as a great moment in American movies."


1970s

Scorsese became friends with the influential "movie brats" of the 1970s:
Brian De Palma Brian Russell De Palma (born September 11, 1940) is an American film director and screenwriter. With a career spanning over 50 years, he is best known for his work in the suspense, Crime film, crime and psychological thriller genres. De Palma wa ...
,
Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola (; ; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He is considered one of the major figures of the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Coppola is the List of awards and n ...
,
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars'' and ''Indiana Jones'' franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts, Industrial Light & Magic and THX. He served as chairm ...
and
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American director, writer, and producer. A major figure of the New Hollywood era and pioneer of the modern Blockbuster (entertainment), blockbuster, he is the most List of highest-grossi ...
. It was De Palma who introduced Scorsese to
Robert De Niro Robert Anthony De Niro Jr. ( , ; born August 17, 1943) is an American actor. Known for his Martin Scorsese and Robert De Niro, collaborations with Martin Scorsese, he is considered to be one of the best actors of his generation. De Niro is ...
. During this period, Scorsese worked as the assistant director and one of the editors on the documentary ''
Woodstock Woodstock Music and Art Fair, commonly referred to as Woodstock, was a music festival held during August 15–18, 1969, on Max Yasgur's dairy farm in Bethel, New York, United States, southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York, Woodstock. ...
'' (1970) and met actor–director John Cassavetes, who became a close friend and mentor. In 1972, Scorsese made the Depression-era exploiter '' Boxcar Bertha'' for
B-movie A B movie or B film is a Low-budget film, low-budget commercial motion picture. In its original usage, during the Classical Hollywood cinema, Golden Age of Hollywood, the term more precisely identified films intended for distribution as the les ...
producer
Roger Corman Roger William Corman (born April 5, 1926) is an American film director, producer, and actor. He has been called "The Pope of Pop Cinema" and is known as a trailblazer in the world of independent film. Many of Corman's films are based on works t ...
, who also helped directors such as Francis Ford Coppola,
James Cameron James Francis Cameron (born August 16, 1954) is a Canadian filmmaker. A major figure in the post-New Hollywood era, he is considered one of the industry's most innovative filmmakers, regularly pushing the boundaries of cinematic capability w ...
, and John Sayles launch their careers. It was Corman who taught Scorsese that entertaining films could be shot with very little money or time, preparing the young director well for the challenges to come with ''Mean Streets''. Following the film's release, Cassavetes encouraged Scorsese to make the films that he wanted to make, rather than someone else's projects. Championed by influential film critic
Pauline Kael Pauline Kael (; June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American Film criticism, film critic who wrote for ''The New Yorker'' magazine from 1968 to 1991. Known for her "witty, biting, highly opinionated and sharply focused" reviews, Kae ...
, ''Mean Streets'' was a breakthrough for Scorsese, De Niro, and Keitel. By now the signature Scorsese style was in place: macho posturing, bloody violence, Catholic guilt and redemption, gritty New York locale (though the majority of ''Mean Streets'' was shot in Los Angeles), rapid-fire editing and a soundtrack with contemporary music. Although the film was innovative, its wired atmosphere, edgy documentary style, and gritty street-level direction owed a debt to directors Cassavetes,
Samuel Fuller Samuel Michael Fuller (August 12, 1912 – October 30, 1997) was an American film director, screenwriter, novelist, journalist, and World War II veteran known for directing low-budget B movie, genre movies with controversial themes, often ...
and early
Jean-Luc Godard Jean-Luc Godard ( , ; ; 3 December 193013 September 2022) was a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter, and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the French New Wave film movement of the 1960s, alongside such filmmakers as Fra ...
. In 1974, actress
Ellen Burstyn Ellen Burstyn (born Edna Rae Gillooly; December 7, 1932) is an American actress. Known for her portrayals of complicated women in dramas, she is the recipient of Awards and nominations received by Ellen Burstyn, numerous accolades, including an ...
chose Scorsese to direct her in ''
Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore ''Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore'' is a 1974 American comedy drama, comedy drama film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by Robert Getchell. It stars Ellen Burstyn as a widow who travels with her preteen son across the Southwestern Unite ...
'', for which she won an Academy Award for Best Actress. Although well regarded, the film remains an anomaly in the director's early career as it focuses on a central female character. Returning to Little Italy to explore his ethnic roots, Scorsese next came up with '' Italianamerican'', a documentary featuring his parents Charles and Catherine Scorsese. Scorsese followed with ''
Taxi Driver ''Taxi Driver'' is a 1976 American film directed by Martin Scorsese, written by Paul Schrader, and starring Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster, Cybill Shepherd, Harvey Keitel, Peter Boyle, Leonard Harris (actor), Leonard Harris, and Albert Brooks. S ...
'' in 1976, which depicted a Vietnam veteran who takes the law into his own hands on New York's crime-ridden streets. The film established him as an accomplished filmmaker and also brought attention to cinematographer Michael Chapman, whose style tends towards high contrasts, strong colors, and complex camera movements. The film starred Robert De Niro as the angry and alienated
Travis Bickle Travis Bickle is a fictional character and the Antihero, anti-hero protagonist of the 1976 film ''Taxi Driver'' directed by Martin Scorsese. The character was created by the film's screenwriter Paul Schrader. He is played by Robert De Niro, who r ...
, and co-starred
Jodie Foster Alicia Christian "Jodie" Foster (born November 19, 1962) is an American actress and filmmaker. She is the recipient of List of awards and nominations received by Jodie Foster, numerous accolades, including two Academy Awards, three British Acad ...
in a highly controversial role as an underage prostitute, with Harvey Keitel as her pimp. ''Taxi Driver'' also marked the start of a series of collaborations between Scorsese and writer
Paul Schrader Paul Joseph Schrader (; born July 22, 1946) is an American screenwriter, film director, and film critic. He first received widespread recognition through his screenplay for Martin Scorsese's ''Taxi Driver'' (1976). He later continued his collabo ...
, whose influences included the diary of would-be assassin Arthur Bremer and '' Pickpocket'', a film by the French director Robert Bresson. Writer–director Schrader often returns to Bresson's work in films such as '' American Gigolo'', '' Light Sleeper'', and Scorsese's later '' Bringing Out the Dead''. Already controversial upon its release, ''Taxi Driver'' hit the headlines again five years later, when John Hinckley Jr. made an assassination attempt on then-president
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician, actor, and union leader who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. He also served as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 ...
. He subsequently blamed his act on his obsession with Jodie Foster's ''Taxi Driver'' character (in the film, De Niro's character, Travis Bickle, makes an assassination attempt on a senator). ''Taxi Driver'' won the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the festival's highest prize was the Grand Prix du Fe ...
at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival, also receiving four Oscar nominations, including Best Picture. The critical and financial success of ''Taxi Driver'' encouraged Scorsese to move ahead with his first big-budget project: the highly stylized musical ''
New York, New York New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
''. This tribute to Scorsese's home town and the classic Hollywood musical was a box-office failure. The film was the director's third collaboration with Robert De Niro, co-starring with
Liza Minnelli Liza May Minnelli ( ; born March 12, 1946) is an American actress, singer, dancer, and choreographer. Known for her commanding stage presence and powerful alto singing voice, Minnelli is among a rare group of performers awarded an List of EGOT w ...
. The film is best remembered today for the title theme song, which was popularized by
Frank Sinatra Francis Albert Sinatra (; December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer and actor. Nicknamed the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, Chairman of the Board" and later called "Ol' Blue Eyes", Sinatra was one of the most popular ...
. Although possessing Scorsese's usual visual panache and stylistic bravura, many critics felt its enclosed studio-bound atmosphere left it leaden in comparison with his earlier work. Despite its weak reception, the film is regarded positively by some critics. Richard Brody in ''
The New Yorker ''The New Yorker'' is an American weekly magazine featuring journalism, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry. Founded as a weekly in 1925, the magazine is published 47 times annually, with five of these issues ...
'' wrote: In 1977 he directed the Broadway musical '' The Act'', starring Liza Minnelli. The disappointing reception that ''New York, New York'' received drove Scorsese into depression. By this stage the director had developed a serious
cocaine Cocaine (from , from , ultimately from Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''kúka'') is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant mainly recreational drug use, used recreationally for its euphoria, euphoric effects. It is primarily obtained from t ...
addiction. However, he did find the creative drive to make the highly regarded ''
The Last Waltz ''The Last Waltz'' was a rock concert, concert by the Canadian-American rock group The Band, held on American Thanksgiving (United States), Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1976, at Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco. ''The Last Waltz'' was ad ...
'', documenting the final concert by The Band. It was held at the Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco on American Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1976, and featured one of the most extensive lineups of prominent guest performers at a single concert, including
Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (legally Robert Dylan, born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in popular culture during a career sp ...
,
Neil Young Neil Percival Young (born November 12, 1945) is a Canadian-American singer and songwriter. After embarking on a music career in Winnipeg in the 1960s, Young moved to Los Angeles, joining Buffalo Springfield with Stephen Stills, Richie Furay ...
,
Ringo Starr Sir Richard Starkey (born 7 July 1940), known professionally as Ringo Starr, is an English musician, singer, songwriter and actor who achieved international fame as the drummer for the Beatles. Starr occasionally sang lead vocals with the ...
,
Muddy Waters McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1913 April 30, 1983), known professionally as Muddy Waters, was an American blues singer and musician who was an important figure in the post-World War II, war blues scene, and is often cited as the "father of mo ...
,
Joni Mitchell Roberta Joan "Joni" Mitchell ( Anderson; born November 7, 1943) is a Canadian-American musician, producer, and painter. Among the most influential singer-songwriters to emerge from the 1960s folk music circuit, Mitchell became known for her sta ...
,
Van Morrison Sir George Ivan Morrison (born 31 August 1945), known professionally as Van Morrison, is a Northern Irish singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist whose recording career spans seven decades. He has won two Grammy Awards. As a teenager in t ...
, Paul Butterfield,
Neil Diamond Neil Leslie Diamond (born January 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter. He has sold more than 130 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling musicians of all time. He has had ten No. 1 singles on the Hot 100 and Adul ...
,
Ronnie Wood Ronald David Wood (born 1 June 1947) is an English Rock music, rock musician, best known as an official member of the Rolling Stones since 1975, as well as a member of Faces (band), Faces and the Jeff Beck Group. Wood began his career in 1964 ...
, and
Eric Clapton Eric Patrick Clapton (born 1945) is an English Rock music, rock and blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter. He is often regarded as one of the most successful and influential guitarists in rock music. Clapton ranked second in ''Rolling Ston ...
. However, Scorsese's commitments to other projects delayed the release of the film until 1978. Another Scorsese-directed documentary, titled '' American Boy'', also appeared in 1978, focusing on Steven Prince, the cocky gun salesman who appeared in ''Taxi Driver''. A period of wild partying followed, damaging the director's already fragile health. Scorsese helped provide footage for the documentary ''
Elvis on Tour ''Elvis on Tour'' is a 1972 American concert film A concert film, or concert movie, is a film that showcases a live performance from the perspective of a concert goer, the subject of which is an extended live performance or concert by either a ...
''.


1980s

By several accounts (Scorsese's included), Robert De Niro saved Scorsese's life when he persuaded him to kick his cocaine addiction to make his highly regarded film '' Raging Bull''. Writing for ''The New Yorker'' in March 2000, Mark Singer summarized Scorsese's condition stating:
He (Scorsese) was more than mildly depressed. Drug abuse, and abuse of his body in general, culminated in a terrifying episode of internal bleeding. Robert De Niro came to see him in the hospital and asked, in so many words, whether he wanted to live or die. If you want to live, De Niro proposed, let's make this picture—referring to ''Raging Bull'', an as-told-to book by Jake La Motta, the former world middleweight boxing champion, that De Niro had given him to read years earlier.
Convinced that he would never make another movie, he poured his energies into making this violent biopic of middleweight boxing champion Jake LaMotta, calling it a
kamikaze , officially , were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviation, military aviators who flew suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allies of World War II, Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific ...
method of film-making. The film is widely viewed as a masterpiece and was voted the greatest film of the 1980s by Britain's ''
Sight & Sound ''Sight and Sound'' (also spelled ''Sight & Sound'') is a British monthly film magazine published by the British Film Institute (BFI). It conducts the well-known, once-a-decade ''Sight and Sound'' Poll of the Greatest Films of All Time, ongoing ...
'' magazine. It received eight Oscar nominations, including Best Picture, Best Actor for Robert De Niro and Scorsese's first for Best Director. De Niro won, as did Thelma Schoonmaker for editing, but Best Director went to
Robert Redford Charles Robert Redford Jr. (born August 18, 1936) is an American actor and filmmaker. He is the recipient of various accolades, including an Academy Award from four nominations, a British Academy Film Award, two Golden Globe Awards, the Ce ...
for '' Ordinary People''. From this work onwards, Scorsese's films are always labeled as "A Martin Scorsese Picture" on promotional material. ''Raging Bull'', filmed in high contrast black and white, is where Scorsese's style reached its zenith: ''Taxi Driver'' and ''New York, New York'' had used elements of
expressionism Expressionism is a Modernism, modernist art movement, movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Northern Europe around the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspe ...
to replicate psychological points of view, but here the style was taken to new extremes, employing extensive slow-motion, complex tracking shots, and extravagant distortion of perspective (for example, the size of boxing rings would change from fight to fight). Thematically too, the concerns carried on from ''Mean Streets'' and ''Taxi Driver'': insecure males, violence, guilt, and redemption. Although the screenplay for ''Raging Bull'' was credited to Paul Schrader and Mardik Martin (who earlier co-wrote ''Mean Streets''), the finished script differed extensively from Schrader's original draft. It was rewritten several times by various writers including
Jay Cocks John C. "Jay" Cocks Jr. (born January 12, 1944) is an American film critic and screenwriter. He is a graduate of Kenyon College.Gangs of New York''). The final draft was largely written by Scorsese and Robert De Niro. The
American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American nonprofit film organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the History of cinema in the United States, motion picture arts in the United States. AFI is supported by private fun ...
chose ''Raging Bull'' as the number one American sports film on their list of the top 10 sports films. In 1997, the Institute ranked ''Raging Bull'' as the twenty-fourth greatest film of all time on their AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies list. In 2007, they ranked ''Raging Bull'' as the fourth greatest film of all time on their AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) list. Scorsese's next project was his fifth collaboration with Robert De Niro, '' The King of Comedy'' (1983). It is a
satire Satire is a genre of the visual arts, visual, literature, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently Nonfiction, non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ...
on the world of media and celebrity, whose central character is a troubled loner who ironically becomes famous through a criminal act (
kidnapping In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful confinement of a person against their will, often including transportation/asportation. The asportation and abduction element is typically but not necessarily conducted by means of force or fear: the p ...
). The film was an obvious departure from the more emotionally committed films he had become associated with. Visually, it was far less kinetic than the style Scorsese had developed previously, often using a static camera and long takes. Here the expressionism of his previous work gave way to moments of almost total
surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that developed in Europe in the aftermath of World War I in which artists depicted unnerving, illogical scenes and developed techniques to allow the unconscious mind to express itself. Its aim was, according to l ...
. It still bore many of Scorsese's trademarks, however. The ''King of Comedy'' failed at the box office, but has become increasingly well regarded by critics in the years since its release. German director
Wim Wenders Ernst Wilhelm "Wim" Wenders (; born 14 August 1945) is a German filmmaker, playwright, author, and photographer. He is a major figure in New German Cinema. Among many honors, he has received three nominations for the Academy Award for Best Docum ...
numbered it among his 15 favorite films. Also, in 1983, Scorsese made a brief
cameo appearance A cameo role, also called a cameo appearance and often shortened to just cameo (), is a brief appearance of a well-known person in a work of the performing arts. These roles are generally small, many of them non-speaking ones, and are commonly ei ...
in the film ''
Anna Pavlova Anna Pavlovna Pavlova ( , rus, Анна Павловна Павлова ), born Anna Matveyevna Pavlova ( rus, Анна Матвеевна Павлова; – 23 January 1931), was a Russian prima ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th ...
'' (also known as ''A Woman for All Time''), originally intended to be directed by one of his heroes,
Michael Powell Michael Latham Powell (30 September 1905 – 19 February 1990) was an English filmmaker, celebrated for his partnership with Emeric Pressburger. Through their production company Powell and Pressburger, The Archers, they together wrote, produ ...
. This led to a more significant acting appearance in Bertrand Tavernier's
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African Americans, African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recog ...
film '' Round Midnight''. He also made a brief venture into television, directing an episode of
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American director, writer, and producer. A major figure of the New Hollywood era and pioneer of the modern Blockbuster (entertainment), blockbuster, he is the most List of highest-grossi ...
's ''
Amazing Stories ''Amazing Stories'' is an American science fiction magazine launched in April 1926 by Hugo Gernsback's Experimenter Publishing. It was the first magazine devoted solely to science fiction. Science fiction stories had made regular appearances in ...
''. With '' After Hours'' (1985), for which he won a Best Director Award at Cannes, Scorsese made an esthetic shift back to a pared-down, almost "underground" film-making style. Filmed on an extremely low budget, on location, and at night in the
SoHo Soho is an area of the City of Westminster, part of the West End of London. Originally a fashionable district for the aristocracy, it has been one of the main entertainment districts in the capital since the 19th century. The area was develop ...
neighborhood of Manhattan, the film is a black comedy about one increasingly misfortunate night for a mild New York word processor (
Griffin Dunne Thomas Griffin Dunne (; born June 8, 1955) is an American actor, film producer, and film director. Dunne studied acting at The Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City. He is known for portraying Jack Goodman in '' An Amer ...
) and features cameos by such disparate actors as
Teri Garr Teri Ann Garr (born December 11, 1944) is an American former actress, dancer, and comedian. She frequently appeared in comedic roles throughout her career, which spans four decades and includes over 140 credits in film and television. Her accola ...
and Cheech and Chong. Along with the 1987
Michael Jackson Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and philanthropist. Dubbed the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, King of Pop", he is regarded as Cultural impact of Michael Jackson, ...
music video " Bad", in 1986 Scorsese made ''
The Color of Money ''The Color of Money'' is a 1986 American Sports film, sports Drama (film and television), drama film directed by Martin Scorsese and released by Touchstone Pictures. The film was created from a screenplay by Richard Price (writer), Richard Pri ...
'', a sequel to the much admired
Robert Rossen Robert Rossen (March 16, 1908 – February 18, 1966) was an American screenwriter, film director, and producer whose film career spanned almost three decades. His 1949 film ''All the King's Men (1949 film), All the King's Men'' won Oscars for Ac ...
film ''
The Hustler ''The Hustler'' is a 1961 American sports film, sports romantic drama film directed by Robert Rossen from Walter Tevis's The Hustler (novel), 1959 novel of the same name, adapted by Rossen and Sidney Carroll. It tells the story of small-time po ...
'' (1961) with
Paul Newman Paul Leonard Newman (January 26, 1925 – September 26, 2008) was an American actor, film director, race car driver, philanthropist, and entrepreneur. He was the recipient of List of awards and nominations received by Paul Newman, numerous aw ...
, which co-starred
Tom Cruise Thomas Cruise Mapother IV (born July 3, 1962), known professionally as Tom Cruise, is an American actor and producer. One of the world's List of highest-paid film actors, highest-paid actors, he has received List of awards and nominations re ...
. Although adhering to Scorsese's established style, ''The Color of Money'' was the director's first official foray into mainstream film-making. The film finally won actor Paul Newman an Oscar and gave Scorsese the clout to finally secure backing for a project that had been a longtime goal for him: '' The Last Temptation of Christ''. In 1983, Scorsese began work on this long-cherished personal project. ''The Last Temptation of Christ'', based on the 1955 novel written by
Nikos Kazantzakis Nikos Kazantzakis ( el, ; 2 March (Old Style and New Style dates, OS 18 February) 188326 October 1957) was a Greeks, Greek writer. Widely considered a giant of modern Greek literature, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in ni ...
, retold the life of
Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew/Aramaic ( AD 30 or 33), also referred to as Jesus Christ or Jesus of Nazareth (among other Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, names and titles), was ...
in human rather than divine terms.
Barbara Hershey Barbara Lynn Herzstein, better known as Barbara Hershey (born February 5, 1948), is an American actress. In a career spanning more than 50 years, she has played a variety of roles on television and in cinema in several genres, including weste ...
recalls introducing Scorsese to the book while they were filming ''Boxcar Bertha''. The film was slated to shoot under the
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film and television production company, production and Distribution (marketing), distribution company and the main namesake division of Paramount Global (formerly ViacomCBS). It is the fifth-oldes ...
banner, but shortly before principal photography was to start, Paramount pulled the plug on the project, citing pressure from religious groups. In this aborted 1983 version, Aidan Quinn was cast as Jesus, and
Sting Sting may refer to: * Stinger A stinger (or sting) is a sharp Organ (anatomy), organ found in various animals (typically insects and other arthropods) capable of injecting venom, usually by piercing the epidermis of another animal. An inse ...
was cast as
Pontius Pilate Pontius Pilate (; grc-gre, Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος, ) was the fifth governor of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Rom ...
. (In the 1988 version, these roles were played by
Willem Dafoe Willem James Dafoe (; born July 22, 1955) is an American actor. He is the recipient of various accolades, including the Volpi Cup for Best Actor The Volpi Cup for Best Actor ( it, Coppa Volpi per la migliore interpretazione maschile) is the ...
and
David Bowie David Robert Jones (8 January 194710 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie ( ), was an English singer-songwriter and actor. A leading figure in the music industry, he is regarded as one of the most influential musicians of the ...
respectively.) However, following his mid-1980s flirtation with commercial Hollywood, Scorsese made a major return to personal filmmaking with the project;
Universal Pictures Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also known as Universal Studios, or simply Universal; common metonym: Uni, and formerly named Universal Film Manufacturing Company and Universal-International Pictures Inc.) is an Americ ...
agreed to finance the film as Scorsese agreed to make a more mainstream film for the studio in the future (it eventually resulted in '' Cape Fear''). Even prior to its 1988 release, the film (adapted by ''Taxi Driver'' and ''Raging Bull'' veteran Paul Schrader) caused a massive furor, with worldwide protests against its perceived
blasphemy Blasphemy is a speech crimes, speech crime and religious crime usually defined as an utterance that shows contempt, disrespects or insults a deity, an object considered sacred or something considered inviolable. Some religions regard blasphemy ...
effectively turning a low-budget independent film into a media sensation. Most of the controversy centered on the final passages of the film, which depicted Christ marrying and raising a family with
Mary Magdalene Mary Magdalene (sometimes called Mary of Magdala, or simply the Magdalene or the Madeleine) was a woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to crucifixion of Jesus, his cru ...
in a
Satan Satan,, ; grc, ὁ σατανᾶς or , ; ar, شيطانالخَنَّاس , also known as Devil in Christianity, the Devil, and sometimes also called Lucifer in Christianity, is an non-physical entity, entity in the Abrahamic religions ...
-induced
hallucination A hallucination is a perception in the absence of an external stimulus that has the qualities of a real perception. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are perceived to be located in external objective space. Hallucination is a combinati ...
while on the cross. In 1986, Scorsese directed the 18 minute short film '' Bad'' featuring
Michael Jackson Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and philanthropist. Dubbed the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, King of Pop", he is regarded as Cultural impact of Michael Jackson, ...
and
Wesley Snipes Wesley Trent Snipes (born July 31, 1962) is an American actor, film producer, and martial artist. His prominent film roles include ''Major League (film), Major League'' (1989), ''New Jack City'' (1991), ''White Men Can't Jump'' (1992), ''Passeng ...
(in his film debut). The short also serves as a music video and was shot in the Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets station in
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Kings County is the most populous Administrative divisions of New York (state)#County, county i ...
over a 6-week period during November and December 1986. The short film's cinematographer was frequent Scorsese collaborator Michael Chapman. The dancing and filmmaking was heavily influenced by the 1961 film ''
West Side Story ''West Side Story'' is a Musical theatre, musical conceived by Jerome Robbins with music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and a Book (musical theatre), book by Arthur Laurents. Inspired by William Shakespeare's play ''Romeo and ...
''. Scorsese also noted the influence of his own film ''
Taxi Driver ''Taxi Driver'' is a 1976 American film directed by Martin Scorsese, written by Paul Schrader, and starring Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster, Cybill Shepherd, Harvey Keitel, Peter Boyle, Leonard Harris (actor), Leonard Harris, and Albert Brooks. S ...
'' (1976) in
Spike Lee Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee (born March 20, 1957) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced more than 35 films since 1983. He made his directorial debut ...
's documentary about the 25th anniversary of the short titled, '' Bad 25'' (2012). The short has been praised by critics as one of the most iconic and greatest videos of all time; Jackson's outfit has been cited as an influence on fashion. That year, he had signed a deal with upstart major The Walt Disney Studios to produce and direct features, following the success of ''
The Color of Money ''The Color of Money'' is a 1986 American Sports film, sports Drama (film and television), drama film directed by Martin Scorsese and released by Touchstone Pictures. The film was created from a screenplay by Richard Price (writer), Richard Pri ...
'', and the company is currently soliciting material for possible development, and decided not to decide on projects he had hoped to produce under the company's two-year agreement with the studio, and the decision Scorsese wants to hire established directors like
Elia Kazan Elia Kazan (; born Elias Kazantzoglou ( el, Ηλίας Καζαντζόγλου); September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was an American film and theatre director, producer, screenwriter and actor, described by ''The New York Times ''T ...
and
Arthur Penn Arthur Hiller Penn (September 27, 1922 – September 28, 2010) was an American director and producer of film, television and theater. Closely associated with the American New Wave, Penn directed critically acclaimed films throughout the 19 ...
. Looking past the controversy, ''The Last Temptation of Christ'' gained critical acclaim and remains an important work in Scorsese's canon: an explicit attempt to wrestle with the spirituality underpinning his films up until that point. The director went on to receive his second nomination for a Best Director Academy Award (again unsuccessfully, this time losing to
Barry Levinson Barry Lee Levinson (born April 6, 1942) is an American filmmaker, comedian and actor. Levinson's best-known works are mid-budget comedy drama and Drama (film and television), drama films such as ''Diner (1982 film), Diner'' (1982); ''The Natura ...
for ''
Rain Man ''Rain Man'' is a 1988 American road movie, road Drama (film and television), drama film directed by Barry Levinson and written by Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass. It tells the story of abrasive, selfish young wikt:wheeler-dealer, wheeler-dealer C ...
''). As a separate film project, and along with directors
Woody Allen Heywood "Woody" Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; November 30, 1935) is an American film director, writer, actor, and comedian whose career spans more than six decades and multiple Academy Award-winning films. He began his career writing ...
and Francis Ford Coppola in 1989, Scorsese provided one of three segments in the portmanteau film '' New York Stories'', called "Life Lessons".
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...
's gave the film a mixed review, while praising Scorsese's short as "really successful".


1990s

After a decade of films considered by critics to be mixed results, some considered Scorsese's gangster epic '' Goodfellas'' (1990) his return to directorial form, and his most confident and fully realized film since ''Raging Bull''. De Niro and Joe Pesci offered a virtuoso display of Scorsese's bravura cinematic technique in the film and re-established, enhanced, and consolidated his reputation. After the film was released,
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...
, a friend and supporter of Scorsese, named ''Goodfellas'' "the best mob movie ever". It is ranked No. 1 on Ebert's movie list for 1990, along with those of
Gene Siskel Eugene Kal Siskel (January 26, 1946 – February 20, 1999) was an American film critic and journalist for the ''Chicago Tribune''. Along with colleague Roger Ebert, he hosted a series of movie review programs on television from 1975 until his d ...
and Peter Travers', and is widely considered one of the director's greatest achievements. The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, and Scorsese earned his third Best Director nomination but again lost to a first-time director,
Kevin Costner Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an American actor, producer, film director and musician. He has received List of awards and nominations received by Kevin Costner, various accolades, including two Academy Awards, two Golden Glob ...
(''
Dances with Wolves ''Dances with Wolves'' is a 1990 American epic western film starring, directed, and produced by Kevin Costner in his feature directorial debut. It is a film adaptation A film adaptation is the transfer of a work or story, in whole or in pa ...
''). Joe Pesci earned the
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while wor ...
for his performance. Scorsese and the film also won many other awards, including five BAFTA Awards, a
Silver Lion The Silver Lion ( it, Leone d'argento, also known as Silver Lion for Best Direction) is an annual award presented for best directing achievements in a feature film at official competition section of the Venice Film Festival since 1998. The pri ...
and more. The American Film Institute placed ''Goodfellas'' at No. 94 on the AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies list. On the 2007 updated version, they moved ''Goodfellas'' up to No. 92 on the AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies list (10th Anniversary Edition) and put ''Goodfellas'' at No. 2 on their list of the top 10 gangster films (after ''
The Godfather ''The Godfather'' is a 1972 American crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola, who co-wrote the screenplay with Mario Puzo, based on Puzo's best-selling 1969 The Godfather (novel), novel of the same title. The film stars Marlon Brando, Al ...
''). In 1990, he released his only short-form documentary: '' Made in Milan'' about fashion designer
Giorgio Armani Giorgio Armani (; born 11 July 1934) is an Italian fashion designer. He first gained notoriety working for Cerruti and then for many others, including Allegri, Bagutta and Hilton. He formed his company, Armani, in 1975, which eventually expande ...
. The following year brought '' Cape Fear'', a remake of a cult 1962 movie of the same name and the director's seventh collaboration with De Niro. Another foray into the mainstream, the film was a stylized thriller taking its cues heavily from
Alfred Hitchcock Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was an English filmmaker. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in the history of cinema. In a career spanning six decades, he directed over 50 featur ...
and
Charles Laughton Charles Laughton (1 July 1899 – 15 December 1962) was a British actor. He was trained in London at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and first appeared professionally on the stage in 1926. In 1927, he was cast in a play with his future w ...
's '' The Night of the Hunter'' (1955). ''Cape Fear'' received a mixed critical reception and was lambasted in many quarters for its scenes depicting
misogynistic Misogyny () is hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against Woman, women. It is a form of sexism that is used to keep women at a lower social status than Man, men, thus maintaining the societal roles of patriarchy. Misogyny has been widely ...
violence. However, the lurid subject matter gave Scorsese a chance to experiment with visual tricks and effects. The film garnered two Oscar nominations. Earning $80 million domestically, it stood as Scorsese's most commercially successful release until ''The Aviator'' (2004), and then ''The Departed'' (2006). The film also marked the first time Scorsese used wide-screen Panavision with an aspect ratio of 2.39:1. In 1990, Scorsese acted in a small role as
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionism, Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art history. In a decade, he created about 2 ...
in the film ''Dreams (1990 film), Dreams'' by Japanese director Akira Kurosawa. Scorsese's 1994 cameo appearance in the
Robert Redford Charles Robert Redford Jr. (born August 18, 1936) is an American actor and filmmaker. He is the recipient of various accolades, including an Academy Award from four nominations, a British Academy Film Award, two Golden Globe Awards, the Ce ...
film ''Quiz Show (film), Quiz Show'' is remembered for the telling line: "You see, the audience didn't tune in to watch some amazing display of intellectual ability. They just wanted to watch the money." De Fina-Cappa was the production company he formed that same year with producer Barbara De Fina. In the early 1990s, Scorsese also expanded his role as a film producer. He produced a wide range of films, including major Hollywood studio productions (''Mad Dog and Glory'', ''Clockers (film), Clockers''), low-budget independent films (''The Grifters (film), The Grifters'', ''Naked in New York'', ''Grace of My Heart'', ''Search and Destroy (1995 film), Search and Destroy'', ''The Hi-Lo Country''), and even the foreign film (''Con gli occhi chiusi'' (With Closed Eyes)). '' The Age of Innocence'' (1993) was a significant departure for Scorsese, a period adaptation of the Edith Wharton The Age of Innocence, novel about the constrictive high society of late-19th century New York. It was highly lauded by critics upon its original release but was a box office bomb, making an overall loss. As noted in ''Scorsese on Scorsese'' by editor–interviewer Ian Christie, the news that Scorsese wanted to make a film about a failed 19th-century romance raised many eyebrows among the film fraternity; all the more when Scorsese made it clear that it was a personal project and not a studio for-hire job. Scorsese was interested in doing a "romantic piece", and he was strongly drawn to the characters and the story of Wharton's text. Scorsese wanted his film to be as rich an emotional experience as the book was to him rather than the traditional academic adaptations of literary works. To this end, Scorsese sought influence from diverse period films that had had an emotional impact on him. In ''Scorsese on Scorsese'', he documents influences from films such as Luchino Visconti's ''Senso (film), Senso'' and his ''The Leopard (1963 film), Il Gattopardo'' (''The Leopard'') as well as Orson Welles's ''The Magnificent Ambersons (film), The Magnificent Ambersons'' and also Roberto Rossellini's ''La prise de pouvoir par Louis XIV'' (''The Taking of Power by Louis XIV''). Although ''The Age of Innocence'' was ultimately different from these films in terms of narrative, story, and thematic concern, the presence of a lost society, of lost values as well as detailed re-creations of social customs and rituals continues the tradition of these films. It came back into the public eye, especially in countries such as the UK and France, but still is largely neglected in North America. The film earned five Academy Award nominations (including Best Adapted Screenplay for Scorsese), winning the Costume Design Oscar. This was his first collaboration with the Academy Award-winning actor Daniel Day-Lewis, with whom he would work again on ''Gangs of New York''. This was Scorsese's first film to be shot on Super 35 format. ''Casino (1995 film), Casino'' (1995), like ''The Age of Innocence'' before it, focused on a tightly wound male whose well-ordered life is disrupted by the arrival of unpredictable forces. The fact that it was a violent gangster film made it more palatable to the director's fans who perhaps were baffled by the apparent departure of the earlier film. ''Casino'' was a box office success, and it received generally positive notices from critics. Comparisons were drawn to his earlier film ''Goodfellas'', and Scorsese admitted ''Casino'' bore a superficial resemblance to it, but he maintained that the story was significantly larger in scope. Sharon Stone was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, Best Actress Academy Award for her performance. During the filming, Scorsese played a background part as a gambler at one of the tables. Scorsese still found time for a four-hour documentary in 1995, titled '' A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies'', offering a thorough trek through American cinema. It covered the silent era to 1969, a year after which Scorsese began his feature career. He said, "I wouldn't feel right commenting on myself or my contemporaries." In the four-hour documentary, Scorsese lists the four aspects of the director he believes are the most important as (1) the director as storyteller; (2) the director as an illusionist: D. W. Griffith or F. W. Murnau, who created new editing techniques among other innovations that made the appearance of sound and color possible later on; (3) the director as a smuggler—filmmakers such as Douglas Sirk, Samuel Fuller, and Vincente Minnelli, who used to hide subversive messages in their films; and (4) the director as iconoclast. In the preface to this documentary, Scorsese states his commitment to the "Director's Dilemma", in which a successful contemporary director must be pragmatic about the realities of getting financing for films of personal esthetic interest by accepting the need of "making one film for the studio, and (then) making one for oneself." If ''The Age of Innocence'' alienated and confused some fans, then '' Kundun'' (1997) went several steps further, offering an account of the early life of Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, the People's Liberation Army's entry into Tibet, and the Dalai Lama's subsequent exile to India. Not only a departure in subject matter, ''Kundun'' saw Scorsese employing a fresh narrative and visual approach. Traditional dramatic devices were substituted for a trance-like meditation achieved through an elaborate tableau vivant, tableau of colorful visual images. The film was a source of turmoil for its distributor, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, Buena Vista Pictures, which was planning significant expansion into the Chinese market at the time. Initially defiant in the face of pressure from Chinese officials, Disney has since distanced itself from the project, hurting ''Kundun''s commercial profile. In the short term, the sheer eclecticism in evidence enhanced the director's reputation. In the long term, however, it appears ''Kundun'' has been sidelined in most critical appraisals of the director, mostly noted as a stylistic and thematic detour. ''Kundun'' was the Scorsese's second attempt to profile the life of a great religious leader, following ''The Last Temptation of Christ''. ''Bringing Out the Dead'' (1999) was a return to familiar territory, with the director and writer Paul Schrader constructing a pitch-black comic take on their own earlier ''Taxi Driver''. Like earlier Scorsese-Schrader collaborations, its final scenes of spiritual redemption explicitly recall the films of Robert Bresson. (It is also worth noting that the film's incident-filled nocturnal setting is reminiscent of ''After Hours''.) It received generally positive reviews, although not the universal critical acclaim of some of his other films. It stars Nicolas Cage, Ving Rhames, John Goodman, Tom Sizemore, and Patricia Arquette. On various occasions Scorsese has been asked to present the Honorary Academy Award during the Oscar telecast. In 1998, at the 70th Academy Awards, Scorsese presented the award to film legend Stanley Donen. When accepting the award Donen quipped, "Marty this is backwards, I should be giving this to you, believe me". In 1999, at the 71st Academy Awards, Scorsese and De Niro presented the award to film director
Elia Kazan Elia Kazan (; born Elias Kazantzoglou ( el, Ηλίας Καζαντζόγλου); September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was an American film and theatre director, producer, screenwriter and actor, described by ''The New York Times ''T ...
. This was a controversial pick for the academy due to Kazan's involvement with the Hollywood blacklist in the 1950s. Several members of the audience including Nick Nolte and Ed Harris refused to applaud Kazan when he received the award while others such as Warren Beatty, Meryl Streep, Kathy Bates, and Kurt Russell gave him a standing ovation.


2000s

In 1999, Scorsese directed a documentary on Italian filmmakers titled ''Il Mio Viaggio in Italia'', also known as ''My Voyage to Italy''. The documentary foreshadowed the director's next project, the epic ''Gangs of New York'' (2002), influenced by (amongst many others) major Italian directors such as Luchino Visconti and filmed in its entirety at Rome's famous Cinecittà film studios. With a production budget said to be in excess of $100 million, ''Gangs of New York'' was Scorsese's biggest and arguably most mainstream venture to date. Like ''The Age of Innocence'', it was set in 19th-century New York, although focusing on the other end of the social scale (and like that film, also starring Daniel Day-Lewis). The film marked the first collaboration between Scorsese and actor Leonardo DiCaprio, who became a fixture in later Scorsese films. The production was highly troubled, with many rumors referring to the director's conflict with Miramax boss Harvey Weinstein. Despite denials of artistic compromise, some felt that ''Gangs of New York'' was the director's most conventional film, featuring standard film tropes that the director had traditionally avoided, such as characters existing purely for exposition (literary technique), exposition purposes and explanatory flashback (literary technique), flashbacks. The final cut of the movie ran to 168 minutes, while the director's original cut was over 180 minutes long. Even so, the film received generally positive reviews with the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reporting that 75 percent of the reviews for the film they tallied were positive and summarizing the critics writing, "Though flawed, the sprawling, messy ''Gangs of New York'' is redeemed by impressive production design and Day-Lewis's electrifying performance." The film's central themes are consistent with the director's established concerns: New York, violence as culturally endemic, and subcultural divisions down ethnic lines. Originally filmed for a release in the winter of 2001 (to qualify for Academy Award nominations), Scorsese delayed the final production of the film until after the beginning of 2002; the studio consequently delayed the film until its release in the Oscar season of late 2002. ''Gangs of New York'' earned Scorsese his first Golden Globe for Best Director. In February 2003, ''Gangs of New York'' received 10 Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Actor for Daniel Day-Lewis; however, it did not win in any category. The following year, Scorsese completed production of ''The Blues (film), The Blues'', an expansive seven-part documentary tracing the history of blues music from its African roots to the Mississippi Delta and beyond. Seven film-makers including Wim Wenders, Clint Eastwood, Mike Figgis, and Scorsese himself each contributed a 90-minute film (Scorsese's entry was titled ''Feel Like Going Home''). In the early 2000s, Scorsese produced several films for up-and-coming directors, such as ''You Can Count on Me'' (directed by Kenneth Lonergan), ''Rain'' (directed by Katherine Lindberg), ''Lymelife'' (directed by Derick Martini) and ''The Young Victoria'' (directed by Jean-Marc Vallée). At that time, he established Sikelia Productions. In 2003, producer Emma Tillinger Koskoff joined the company.Tillinger named production president at Scorsese's Sikelia
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Scorsese also produced several documentaries, such as ''The Soul of a Man'' (directed by Wim Wenders) and ''Lightning in a Bottle'' (directed by Antoine Fuqua). Scorsese's film ''The Aviator'' (2004) is a lavish, large-scale biopic of eccentric aviation pioneer and film mogul Howard Hughes and reunited Scorsese with actor Leonardo DiCaprio. The film received highly positive reviews. The film was a widespread box office success and gained Academy recognition. ''The Aviator'' was nominated for six Golden Globe awards, including Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Motion Picture-Drama, Golden Globe Award for Best Director, Best Director, Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay, Best Screenplay, and Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, Best Actor-Motion Picture Drama for Leonardo DiCaprio. It won three, including Best Motion Picture-Drama and Best Actor-Motion Picture Drama. In January 2005 ''The Aviator'' became the most-nominated film of the 77th Academy Awards nominations, nominated in 11 categories including Best Picture. The film also garnered nominations in nearly all the other major categories, including a fifth Best Director nomination for Scorsese. Despite having the most nominations, the film won only five Oscars. Scorsese lost again, this time to director Clint Eastwood for ''Million Dollar Baby'' (which also won Best Picture). '' No Direction Home'' is a documentary film by Scorsese that tells of the life of Bob Dylan, and his impact on American popular music and the culture of the 20th century. The film does not cover Dylan's entire career; it focuses on his beginnings, his rise to fame in the 1960s, his then-Electric Dylan controversy, controversial transformation from an acoustic guitar-based musician and performer to an electric guitar-influenced sound and his "retirement" from touring in 1966 following an infamous motorcycle accident. The film was first presented on television in both the United States (as part of the Public Broadcasting Service, PBS ''American Masters'' series) and the United Kingdom (as part of the BBC Two ''Arena (UK TV series), Arena'' series) on September 26 to 27, 2005. A DVD version of the film was released the same month. The film won a Peabody Award and the Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video. In addition, Scorsese received a Primetime Emmy Awards, Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Documentary/Nonfiction Program, Outstanding Directing for a Documentary/Nonfiction Program, losing to ''Baghdad ER''. Scorsese returned to the crime genre with the Boston-set thriller ''The Departed'', based on the Hong Kong police drama ''Infernal Affairs'' (which is co-directed by Andrew Lau and Alan Mak (director), Alan Mak). The film continued Scorsese's collaboration with Leonardo DiCaprio and was the first time he worked with Matt Damon, Jack Nicholson, Mark Wahlberg, and Martin Sheen. ''The Departed'' opened to widespread critical acclaim, with some proclaiming it as one of the best efforts Scorsese had brought to the screen since 1990's ''Goodfellas'', and still others putting it at the same level as Scorsese's most celebrated classics ''Taxi Driver'' and ''Raging Bull''. With domestic box office receipts surpassing million, ''The Departed'' was Scorsese's highest-grossing film (not accounting for inflation) until 2010's '' Shutter Island''. ''The Departed'' earned Scorsese a second Golden Globe for Best Director, as well as a Critics' Choice Award, his first Directors Guild of America Award, and the Academy Award for Best Director. Presented with the latter, Scorsese poked fun at his track record of nominations, asking, "Could you double-check the envelope?" The award was presented by his longtime friends and colleagues
Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola (; ; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He is considered one of the major figures of the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Coppola is the List of awards and n ...
,
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars'' and ''Indiana Jones'' franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts, Industrial Light & Magic and THX. He served as chairm ...
and
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American director, writer, and producer. A major figure of the New Hollywood era and pioneer of the modern Blockbuster (entertainment), blockbuster, he is the most List of highest-grossi ...
. ''The Departed'' also received the Academy Award for the Best Motion Picture of 2006, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Film Editing by longtime Scorsese editor Thelma Schoonmaker, her third win for a Scorsese film. '' Shine a Light'' captures rock and roll band The Rolling Stones' performing at New York City's Beacon Theatre (New York City), Beacon Theater on October 29 and November 1, 2006, intercut with brief news and interview footage from throughout their career. The film was initially scheduled for release on September 21, 2007, but Paramount Classics postponed its general release until April 2008. Its world premiere was at the opening of the 58th Berlinale Film Festival on February 7, 2008. "Marty did an amazing job of making us look great…" observed drummer Charlie Watts. "It's all in the edits and the cuts. That's a movie maker rather than a guy just shooting a band onstage… It's not ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'', but it's a great thing to have from our point of view, not being egotistical. It's a document." In 2009, Scorsese signed a petition in support of director Roman Polanski, who had been detained while traveling to a film festival in relation to his 1977 Roman Polanski sexual abuse case, sexual abuse charges, which the petition argued would undermine the tradition of film festivals as a place for works to be shown "freely and safely", and that arresting filmmakers traveling to neutral countries could open the door "for actions of which no-one can know the effects."


2010s

On October 22, 2007, ''Variety (magazine), Daily Variety'' reported that Scorsese would reunite with Leonardo DiCaprio on a fourth picture, ''Shutter Island''. Principal photography on the Laeta Kalogridis screenplay, based on the novel of the same name by Dennis Lehane, began in Massachusetts in March 2008. In December 2007, actors Mark Ruffalo, Max von Sydow, Ben Kingsley, and Michelle Williams (actress), Michelle Williams joined the cast, marking the first time these actors had worked with Scorsese. The film was released on February 19, 2010. On May 20, 2010, the film became Scorsese's highest-grossing film. In 2010, ''The Wall Street Journal'' reported that Scorsese was supporting the David Lynch Foundation's initiative to help 10,000 military veterans overcome posttraumatic stress disorder through Transcendental Meditation technique, Transcendental Meditation; Scorsese has publicly discussed his own practice of TM. Scorsese directed a television commercial for Chanel's then-new men's fragrance, ''Bleu de Chanel'', starring French actor Gaspard Ulliel. Filmed in New York City, it debuted online on August 25, 2010 and was released on TV in September 2010. Scorsese directed Pilot (Boardwalk Empire), the series premiere for ''
Boardwalk Empire ''Boardwalk Empire'' is an American period crime drama television series created by Terence Winter and broadcast on the premium cable channel HBO. The series is set chiefly in Atlantic City, New Jersey Atlantic City, often known by its ...
'', an HBO drama series, starring Steve Buscemi and Michael Pitt, based on Nelson Johnson's book ''Boardwalk Empire: The Birth, High Times and Corruption of Atlantic City''. Terence Winter, who wrote for ''The Sopranos'', created the series. In addition to directing the pilot (for which he won the 2011 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing), Scorsese also served as an executive producer on the series. The series premiered on September 19, 2010, and was broadcast for five seasons. Scorsese directed the three-and-a-half-hour documentary '' George Harrison: Living in the Material World'' about the life and music of former The Beatles, Beatles' member George Harrison, which premiered in the United States on
HBO Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium television network, which is the flagship property of namesake parent subsidiary Home Box Office, Inc., itself a unit owned by Warner Bros. Discovery. The overall Home Box Office business unit is b ...
over two parts on October 5 and 6, 2011. His next film '' Hugo'' is a 3D film, 3D Adventure film, adventure Drama (film and television), drama film based on Brian Selznick's novel ''The Invention of Hugo Cabret''. The film stars Asa Butterfield, Chloë Grace Moretz, Ben Kingsley, Sacha Baron Cohen, Ray Winstone, Emily Mortimer, Christopher Lee, and Jude Law. The film has been met with critical acclaim and earned Scorsese his third Golden Globe Award for Best Director. The film was also nominated for 11 Academy Awards, winning five of them and becoming tied with Michel Hazanavicius's film The Artist (film), ''The Artist'' for the most Academy Awards won by a single film in 2011. ''Hugo'' also won two British Academy of Film and Television Arts, BAFTA awards, among Hugo (film)#Accolades, numerous other awards and nominations. ''Hugo'' was Scorsese's first 3-D film, 3D film and was released in the United States on November 23, 2011. Scorsese's 2013 film, '' The Wolf of Wall Street'', is an American Biographical film, biographical black comedy based on Jordan Belfort's memoir of the same name. The screenplay was written by Terence Winter and starred Leonardo DiCaprio as Belfort, along with Jonah Hill, Matthew McConaughey, and others. The film marked the fifth collaboration between Scorsese and DiCaprio and the second between Scorsese and Winter after ''Boardwalk Empire''. It was released on December 25, 2013. The film tells the story of a New York stockbroker, played by DiCaprio, who engages in a large securities fraud case involving illicit stock manipulation, by way of the practice of "pump and dump". DiCaprio was given the award for Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, Best Actor-Motion Picture Musical or Comedy at the 71st Golden Globe Awards, 2014 Golden Globe Awards. The film was also nominated for Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, Best Motion Picture-Musical or Comedy as well. ''The Wolf of Wall Street'' was nominated for five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor for Leonardo DiCaprio, Best Supporting Actor for Jonah Hill, Best Director for Martin Scorsese, and Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Adapted Screenplay for Terence Winter but did not win in any category. In a 2016 critics' poll conducted by the BBC, the film was ranked among the 100 greatest motion pictures since 2000. Scorsese and David Tedeschi made a documentary about the history of the ''New York Review of Books'', titled ''The 50 Year Argument''. It screened as a work in progress at the Berlin International Film Festival in February 2014 and premiered in June 2014 at the Sheffield Doc/Fest. It was also screened in Oslo, and Jerusalem Film Festival, Jerusalem before being shown on the BBC's ''Arena'' series in July and at Telluride Film Festival, Telluride in August. In September, it was screened at the Toronto International Film Festival, Toronto and Calgary International Film Festivals, and the New York Film Festival. It aired on HBO on September 29, 2014. Scorsese directed the pilot for ''
Vinyl Vinyl may refer to: Chemistry * Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a particular vinyl polymer * Vinyl cation, a type of carbocation * Vinyl group, a broad class of organic molecules in chemistry * Vinyl polymer, a group of polymers derived from vinyl mo ...
'' written by Terence Winter and George Mastras, with Mick Jagger producing and Mastras as showrunner. The series stars Bobby Cannavale as Richie Finestra, founder and president of a top-tier record label, set in 1970s New York City's drug-and sex-fueled music business as punk and disco were breaking out, all told through the eyes of Finestra trying to resurrect his label and find the next new sound. Filming began on July 25, 2014. Co-stars include Ray Romano, Olivia Wilde, Juno Temple, Andrew Dice Clay, Ato Essandoh, Max Casella, and James Jagger. On December 2, 2014, ''Vinyl'' was picked up by HBO. The series lasted one season. Scorsese has acted as executive producer of several indie films, like the 2014 ''The Third Side of the River'' (directed by his protege Celina Murga), another 2014 film ''Revenge of the Green Dragons'' (co-directed by Andrew Lau, whose film ''Infernal Affairs'' inspired ''The Departed''), as well as ''Bleed for This'' and ''Free Fire''. Scorsese directed ''The Audition (2015 film), The Audition'', a short film that also served as a promotional piece for casinos Studio City (Macau), Studio City in Macau and City of Dreams Manila, City of Dreams in Manila, Philippines. The short brought together Scorsese's long-time muses Leonardo DiCaprio and Robert De Niro for the first time under his direction. The short film featured the two actors, playing fictionalized versions of themselves, competing for a role in Scorsese's next film. It was Scorsese's first collaboration with De Niro in two decades. The film premiered in October 2015 in conjunction with the grand opening of Studio City. Scorsese had long anticipated filming an adaptation of Shūsaku Endō's novel ''Silence (Endō novel), Silence'', a drama about the lives of two Portuguese Society of Jesus, Jesuit priests in Japan during the 17th century. He had originally planned ''Silence'' as his next project following ''Shutter Island.'' On April 19, 2013, financing was secured for ''
Silence Silence is the absence of ambient hearing (sense), audible sound, the emission of sounds of such low sound intensity, intensity that they do not draw attention to themselves, or the state of having ceased to produce sounds; this latter sense c ...
'' by Emmett/Furla/Oasis Films, Emmett/Furla Films, and filming began in January 2015. By November 2016, the film had completed post-production. It was written by Jay Cocks and Scorsese, based on the novel, and stars Andrew Garfield, Liam Neeson, and Adam Driver. The film was released on December 23, 2016. Scorsese was recognized as an Italian citizen by ''jus sanguinis'' in 2018. On January 10, 2019, ''Variety''s Chris Willman reported that Scorsese's long-anticipated documentary of Bob Dylan's 1975 tour, the Rolling Thunder Revue, would be released by
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
: "''Rolling Thunder Revue: A Bob Dylan Story by Martin Scorsese'' captures the troubled spirit of America in 1975 and the joyous music that Dylan performed during the fall of that year. Part documentary, part concert film, part fever dream, ''Rolling Thunder'' is a one of a kind experience, from master filmmaker Martin Scorsese." On April 25, 2019, it was announced that the documentary would be released on Netflix on June 12, 2019, with a concurrent theatrical engagement in twenty American, European, and Australian cities the night before, and an extended theatrical schedule in Los Angeles and New York so that the film will qualify for award consideration. After years of development, principal photography on Scorsese's crime film ''The Irishman'' began in August 2017, starring Robert De Niro, Joe Pesci, and Al Pacino. The film had its world premiere at the 57th New York Film Festival on September 27, 2019. It received a limited theatrical release on November 1, 2019, followed by digital streaming on November 27, 2019, on Netflix. In January 2020, ''The Irishman'' received ten Academy Awards, Academy Award nominations, including for Best Picture, Best Director, Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actor for Pacino and Pesci.


2020s

On December 29, 2020, the trailer for Scorsese's documentary series '' Pretend It's a City'' was released. The series features Fran Lebowitz and Scorsese as they delve into her personal beliefs and thoughts on
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
. The project was released January 8, 2021 on
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
. This is Scorsese's second documentary featuring Lebowitz, the first being ''
Public Speaking Public speaking, also called oratory or oration, has traditionally meant the act of speaking face to face to a live audience. Today it includes any form of speaking (formally and informally) to an audience, including pre-recorded speech deliver ...
'' (2010) which was released on
HBO Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium television network, which is the flagship property of namesake parent subsidiary Home Box Office, Inc., itself a unit owned by Warner Bros. Discovery. The overall Home Box Office business unit is b ...
. In July 2019, Scorsese started scouting locations in preparation for the 2020 filming of his next film ''Killers of the Flower Moon (film), Killers of the Flower Moon'', a film adaptation of the Killers of the Flower Moon, book of the same name by David Grann. Scorsese will be teaming up with Leonardo DiCaprio for the sixth time and Robert De Niro for the tenth time. In December 2019, Scorsese's frequent cinematographer Rodrigo Prieto confirmed that ''Flower Moon'' was gearing up to start principal photography in March 2020, which was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In April 2020, it was announced that filming for ''Killers of the Flower Moon'' had been postponed indefinitely in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, that the potential cost of the film had ballooned to $200 million, and that Scorsese was in talks with
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
or Apple Inc. to produce and distribute, with
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film and television production company, production and Distribution (marketing), distribution company and the main namesake division of Paramount Global (formerly ViacomCBS). It is the fifth-oldes ...
involved as a partner. On May 27, 2020, Apple bought the production and distribution rights to the film, which will be released theatrically by Paramount and streaming on Apple TV+. Principal photography commenced in April 2021. In November 2021, Scorsese was set to direct a biopic feature about rock band the Grateful Dead for Apple TV+, Apple Studios featuring Jonah Hill. In July 2022, it was announced Scorsese would direct an adaptation of David Grann's non-fiction novel ''The Wager'' for Apple Studios (production company), Apple Studios, reteaming once again with DiCaprio. In October 2022, Scorsese and David Tedeschi premiered their collaborative film ''Personality Crisis: One Night Only'', at the New York Film Festival. The film is a documentary about David Johansen, David Johansson, featuring both contemporary concert footage shot for the project as well as archival footage.


Filmmaking style and technique

Several recurring filmmaking techniques are identifiable in many of Scorsese's films. He has established a filmmaking history which involves repeat collaborations with actors, screenwriters, film editors, and cinematographers, sometimes extending over several decades, such as that with recurring cinematographers Michael Ballhaus, Robert Richardson, and Rodrigo Prieto.


Slow motion and freeze frame

Scorsese is known for his frequent use of slow motion, for example, in ''Who's That Knocking at My Door'' (1967) and ''Mean Streets'' (1973). He is also known for using freeze frame shot, freeze frames, such as: in the opening credits of ''The King of Comedy'' (1983), throughout ''Goodfellas'' (1990), ''Casino'' (1995), ''The Departed'' (2006), and in ''The Irishman'' (2019). His blonde leading ladies are usually seen through the eyes of the protagonist as angelic and ethereal; they wear white in their first scene and are photographed in slow motion—Cybill Shepherd in ''Taxi Driver''; Cathy Moriarty's white bikini in ''Raging Bull''; Sharon Stone's white minidress in ''Casino''. This may be a nod to director Alfred Hitchcock. Scorsese often uses long tracking shots, as seen in ''Taxi Driver'', ''Goodfellas'', ''Casino'', ''Gangs of New York'', and ''Hugo''. MOS (filmmaking), MOS sequences set to popular music or voice-over are regularly seen in his films, often involving aggressive camera movement and/or rapid editing. Scorsese sometimes highlights characters in a scene with an iris, an homage to 1920s silent film cinema (as scenes at the time sometimes used this transition). This effect can be seen in ''Casino'' (it is used on Sharon Stone and Joe Pesci), ''Life Lessons'', ''The Departed'' (on Matt Damon), and ''Hugo''. Some of his films include references/allusions to Westerns, particularly ''Rio Bravo (film), Rio Bravo'', ''The Great Train Robbery (1903 film), The Great Train Robbery'', ''Shane (film), Shane'', ''The Searchers'', and ''The Oklahoma Kid''. Slow motion flashbulbs and accented camera/flash/shutter sounds are often used, as is the song "Gimme Shelter" by The Rolling Stones heard in several of Scorsese's films: ''Goodfellas'', ''Casino'', and ''The Departed''.


Cameo appearances

Scorsese usually has a quick cameo in his films (''Who's That Knocking at My Door'', ''Boxcar Bertha'', ''Mean Streets'', ''Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore'', ''Taxi Driver'', ''The King of Comedy'', ''After Hours'', ''The Last Temptation of Christ'' (albeit hidden under a hood), ''The Age of Innocence'', ''Gangs of New York'', ''Hugo''), he is also known to contribute his voice to a film without appearing on screen (e.g. as in ''The Aviator'' and ''The Wolf of Wall Street''). In ''The Age of Innocence'', for example, he appears in the non-speaking role of a large format portrait photographer in one of the passing scenes of the film. He provides the opening voice-over narration in ''Mean Streets'' and ''The Color of Money''; plays the off-screen dressing room attendant in the final scene of ''Raging Bull'', and provides the voice of the unseen ambulance dispatcher in ''Bringing Out the Dead''. He also appears as the director of fictional newly formed Vatican Television in the Italian comedy ''In the Pope's Eye''.


Religious guilt

Guilt is a prominent theme in many of his films, as is the role of Catholicism in creating and dealing with guilt (''Who's That Knocking at My Door'', ''Mean Streets'', ''Raging Bull'', ''Bringing Out the Dead'', ''The Departed'', ''Shutter Island'', and ''The Irishman''). In a similar manner, Scorsese considered ''Silence'' a "passion project": it had been in development since 1990, two years after the release of his film ''The Last Temptation of Christ'', which also contained strongly religious themes. When asked why he retained interest in a project dealing with strong theological themes for over 26 years, Scorsese said,
As you get older, ideas go and come. Questions, answers, loss of the answer again and more questions, and this is what really interests me. Yes, the cinema and the people in my life and my family are most important, but ultimately as you get older, there's got to be more ... ''Silence'' is just something that I'm drawn to in that way. It's been an obsession, it has to be done ... it's a strong, wonderful true story, a thriller in a way, but it deals with those questions.


Political corruption

More recently, his films have featured corrupt authority figures, such as policemen in ''The Departed'' and politicians in ''Gangs of New York'' and ''The Aviator''. He is also known for his liberal usage of profanity, dark humor, and violence. Scorsese's interest in political corruption as depicted in his films was expanded further in his 2019 film ''The Irishman''. Richard Brody writing for ''The New Yorker'' found the main interpretation of the film to be a dark allegory of a realist reading of American politics and American society stating:
The real-life Hoffa... (was) a crucial player in both gangland politics and the actual practical politics of the day, and the movie's key through line is the inseparability of those two realms. ''The Irishman'' is a sociopolitical horror story that views much of modern American history as a continuous crime in motion, in which every level of society—from domestic life through local business through big business through national and international politics—is poisoned by graft and bribery, shady deals and dirty money, threats of violence and its gruesome enactment, and the hard-baked impunity that keeps the entire system running.


Frequent collaborators

Scorsese often casts the same actors in his projects, particularly Robert De Niro, who has collaborated with Scorsese on nine feature films and one short film. Included are the three films (''Taxi Driver'', ''Raging Bull'', and ''Goodfellas'') that made AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies list. Scorsese has often said he thinks De Niro's best work under his direction was Rupert Pupkin in ''The King of Comedy''. After the turn of the century, Scorsese found a new muse with younger actor Leonardo DiCaprio, collaborating on five feature films and one short to date. Several critics have compared Scorsese's new partnership with DiCaprio with his previous one with De Niro. Frequent collaborators also include: Victor Argo (6), Harvey Keitel (6), Harry Northup (6), Murray Moston (5), Illeana Douglas (4), J. C. MacKenzie (4), Joe Pesci (4), Frank Vincent (3), Barry Primus (3), and Verna Bloom (3). Others who have appeared in multiple Scorsese projects include Daniel Day-Lewis, who had become very reclusive to the Hollywood scene, Alec Baldwin, Willem Dafoe, Ben Kingsley, Jude Law, Dick Miller, Liam Neeson, Emily Mortimer, John C. Reilly, David Carradine, Barbara Hershey, Kevin Corrigan, Jake Hoffman (actor), Jake Hoffman, Frank Sivero, Ray Winstone and Nick Nolte. Before their deaths, Scorsese's parents, Charles Scorsese and Catherine Scorsese, appeared in bit parts, walk-ons or supporting roles, such as in ''Goodfellas''. For his crew, Scorsese frequently worked with editors Marcia Lucas and Thelma Schoonmaker, cinematographers Michael Ballhaus, Robert Richardson (cinematographer), Robert Richardson, Michael Chapman and Rodrigo Prieto, screenwriters Paul Schrader, Mardik Martin, Jay Cocks, Terrence Winter, John Logan (writer), John Logan and Steven Zaillian, costume designer Sandy Powell (costume designer), Sandy Powell, production designers Dante Ferretti and Bob Shaw, music producer Robbie Robertson, and composers Howard Shore and Elmer Bernstein. Schoonmaker, Richardson, Powell, and Ferretti have each won Academy Awards in their respective categories on collaborations with Scorsese. Elaine and Saul Bass, the latter being Hitchcock's frequent title designer, designed the opening credits for ''Goodfellas'', ''The Age of Innocence'', ''Casino'' and ''Cape Fear''.


Personal life

In 1965, Scorsese married his first wife Laraine Marie Brennan, and they remained together for six years between 1965 and 1971; they have a daughter, Catherine, who was named after his mother. In 1976, Scorsese married the writer Julia Cameron, his second marriage; they have a daughter (Domenica Cameron-Scorsese, who is an actress and appeared in '' The Age of Innocence''), but the marriage lasted only a year. The divorce was acrimonious and served as the basis of Cameron's first feature, the dark comedy ''God's Will'', which also starred their daughter. She had a small role in ''Cape Fear'' using the name Domenica Scorsese and has continued to act, write, direct, and produce. Before the end of 1979, Scorsese married actress Isabella Rossellini, and they stayed together for four years, divorcing in 1983. Scorsese married producer Barbara De Fina in 1985, his fourth of five marriages; they divorced in 1991. From 1989 to 1997, Scorsese was romantically involved with actress Illeana Douglas following his fourth divorce. In 1999, Scorsese married his current spouse of over twenty years, Helen Schermerhorn Morris. They have a daughter, actress and filmmaker Francesca, who appeared in his films ''
The Departed ''The Departed'' is a 2006 American Epic film, epic Crime-thriller film, crime thriller film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by William Monahan. It is both a remake of the 2002 Hong Kong cinema, Hong Kong film ''Infernal Affairs'' and ...
'', '' Hugo'', and '' The Aviator'', and had a leading role in
HBO Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium television network, which is the flagship property of namesake parent subsidiary Home Box Office, Inc., itself a unit owned by Warner Bros. Discovery. The overall Home Box Office business unit is b ...
/Sky Group, Sky's miniseries ''We Are Who We Are'' in 2020.


Religion

Since his first divorce in 1972, Scorsese has had four subsequent wives and had previously identified himself as a lapsed Roman Catholic as a result of the Church's doctrinal position against divorce. He has said, "I'm a lapsed Catholic. But I am Roman Catholic; there's no way out of it." In 2016, Scorsese identified himself as a Catholic again, saying, "my way has been, and is, Catholicism. After many years of thinking about other things, dabbling here and there, I am most comfortable as a Catholic. I believe in the tenets of Catholicism."


Filmography

, Scorsese has directed 25 full-length films and 16 full-length documentary films.


Film activism

Scorsese has mentioned his mentors being such filmmakers as John Cassavetes,
Roger Corman Roger William Corman (born April 5, 1926) is an American film director, producer, and actor. He has been called "The Pope of Pop Cinema" and is known as a trailblazer in the world of independent film. Many of Corman's films are based on works t ...
, and
Michael Powell Michael Latham Powell (30 September 1905 – 19 February 1990) was an English filmmaker, celebrated for his partnership with Emeric Pressburger. Through their production company Powell and Pressburger, The Archers, they together wrote, produ ...
. In film critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...
's book, ''Scorsese by Ebert'', Ebert praised Scorsese for championing and supporting other filmmakers by serving as an executive producer on projects of filmmakers such as Antoine Fuqua,
Wim Wenders Ernst Wilhelm "Wim" Wenders (; born 14 August 1945) is a German filmmaker, playwright, author, and photographer. He is a major figure in New German Cinema. Among many honors, he has received three nominations for the Academy Award for Best Docum ...
, Kenneth Lonergan, Stephen Frears, Allison Anders,
Spike Lee Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee (born March 20, 1957) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced more than 35 films since 1983. He made his directorial debut ...
, and John McNaughton. More recently he has executive produced the films of the Safdie Brothers, Joanna Hogg, Kornél Mundruczó, Josephine Decker, Danielle Lessovitz, Alice Rohrwacher, Jonas Carpignano, Amélie van Elmbt, and Celina Murga. Scorsese has also chosen to name filmmakers throughout the years that he admires such as fellow
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
-based directors
Woody Allen Heywood "Woody" Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; November 30, 1935) is an American film director, writer, actor, and comedian whose career spans more than six decades and multiple Academy Award-winning films. He began his career writing ...
and
Spike Lee Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee (born March 20, 1957) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced more than 35 films since 1983. He made his directorial debut ...
, as well as other artists such as Wes Anderson, Bong Joon-ho, Greta Gerwig, Ari Aster, Kelly Reichardt, Claire Denis, Noah Baumbach, Paul Thomas Anderson, Christopher Nolan, the Coen Brothers, and Kathryn Bigelow.


Favorite films

In 2012, Scorsese participated in the ''
Sight & Sound ''Sight and Sound'' (also spelled ''Sight & Sound'') is a British monthly film magazine published by the British Film Institute (BFI). It conducts the well-known, once-a-decade ''Sight and Sound'' Poll of the Greatest Films of All Time, ongoing ...
'' film polls of that year. Held every ten years to select the greatest films of all time, contemporary directors were asked to select ten films of their choice. Scorsese, however, picked 12, which are listed below in alphabetical order: * ''2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 2001: A Space Odyssey'' (USA/UK,1968) * ''8½'' (Italy, 1963) * ''Ashes and Diamonds (film), Ashes and Diamonds'' (Poland, 1958) * ''Citizen Kane'' (USA, 1941) * ''The Leopard (1963 film), The Leopard'' (Italy, 1963) * '' Paisà'' (Italy, 1946) * '' The Red Shoes'' (UK, 1948) * ''The River (1951 film), The River'' (USA, 1951) * ''Salvatore Giuliano (film), Salvatore Giuliano'' (Italy, 1962) * ''The Searchers'' (USA, 1956) * ''Ugetsu'' (Japan, 1953) * ''Vertigo (film), Vertigo'' (USA, 1958) Ten years later, Scorsese participated again in the ''Sight & Sound'' polls, picking 15 films, the same 12 of the 2012 list, plus the following: * ''Diary of a Country Priest'' (France, 1951) * ''Ikiru'' (Japan, 1952) * ''Ordet'' (Denmark, 1955) In 1999, after the death of
Gene Siskel Eugene Kal Siskel (January 26, 1946 – February 20, 1999) was an American film critic and journalist for the ''Chicago Tribune''. Along with colleague Roger Ebert, he hosted a series of movie review programs on television from 1975 until his d ...
, Scorsese joined
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...
as the guest co-host for an episode of ''Siskel & Ebert'' where they each stated their 10 favorite films of the decade. Scorsese's list numerically is: *''The Horse Thief'' (China, 1986) *''The Thin Red Line (1998 film), The Thin Red Line'' (US, 1998) *''A Borrowed Life'' (Taiwan, 1994) *''Eyes Wide Shut'' (USA/UK, 1999) *''Bad Lieutenant'' (USA, 1992) *''Breaking the Waves'' (Denmark/UK, 1996) *''Bottle Rocket'' (USA, 1996) *''Crash (1996 film), Crash'' (Canada, 1996) *''Fargo (1996 film), Fargo'' (USA, 1996) *''Malcolm X (1992 film), Malcolm X'' (USA, 1992) and ''Heat (1995 film), Heat'' (USA, 1995) (tie)


Film preservation


The Film Foundation

Scorsese had been at the forefront in
film preservation Film preservation, or film restoration, describes a series of ongoing efforts among film historians, archivists, museums, cinematheques, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images they contain. In the wid ...
and restoration ever since 1990, when he created The Film Foundation, a Nonprofit organization, non-profit film organization which collaborates with film studios to restore prints of old or damaged films. Scorsese launched the organization with
Woody Allen Heywood "Woody" Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; November 30, 1935) is an American film director, writer, actor, and comedian whose career spans more than six decades and multiple Academy Award-winning films. He began his career writing ...
, Robert Altman,
Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola (; ; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He is considered one of the major figures of the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Coppola is the List of awards and n ...
, Clint Eastwood, Stanley Kubrick,
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars'' and ''Indiana Jones'' franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts, Industrial Light & Magic and THX. He served as chairm ...
, Sydney Pollack,
Robert Redford Charles Robert Redford Jr. (born August 18, 1936) is an American actor and filmmaker. He is the recipient of various accolades, including an Academy Award from four nominations, a British Academy Film Award, two Golden Globe Awards, the Ce ...
, and
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American director, writer, and producer. A major figure of the New Hollywood era and pioneer of the modern Blockbuster (entertainment), blockbuster, he is the most List of highest-grossi ...
, who all sat on the foundation's original board of directors. In 2006, Paul Thomas Anderson, Wes Anderson, Curtis Hanson, Peter Jackson, Ang Lee and Alexander Payne joined them.Pond, Steve
"Save the Day"
, ''DGA Quarterly'', Directors Guild of America, Spring 2007, accessed November 12, 2014
In 2015, Christopher Nolan also joined the board. Recent members include
Spike Lee Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee (born March 20, 1957) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced more than 35 films since 1983. He made his directorial debut ...
, Sofia Coppola, Guillermo del Toro, Barry Jenkins, Lynne Ramsay, Joanna Hogg and Kathryn Bigelow. The foundation has restored more than 800 films from around the world and conducts a free educational curriculum for young people on the language and history of film. Scorsese and the Foundation spearheaded fundraising for the film restoration of
Michael Powell Michael Latham Powell (30 September 1905 – 19 February 1990) was an English filmmaker, celebrated for his partnership with Emeric Pressburger. Through their production company Powell and Pressburger, The Archers, they together wrote, produ ...
, and Emeric Pressburger's '' The Red Shoes'' (1948). For his advocacy in film restoration he received the Robert Osborne Award at the 2018 Turner Classic Movies, TCM Film Festival. The award was given to Scorsese as "an individual who has significantly contributed to preserving the cultural heritage of classic films". In November 2020, the Criterion Channel released a 30-minute video titled, ''30 Years of The Film Foundation: Martin Scorsese and Ari Aster in Conversation'', celebrating the "mission, evolution, and ongoing work of The Film Foundation". Scorsese stated as of 2020, the Foundation has helped restore 850 films.


The World Cinema Project

In 2007, Scorsese established the World Cinema Project with the mission to preserve and present marginalized and infrequently screened films from regions generally ill-equipped to preserve their own cinema history. Scorsese's organization has worked with the Criterion Collection to not only preserve the films but to allow them to be released on DVD and Blu-ray boxsets and on streaming services such as Criterion Collection, The Criterion Channel. Films in the WCP include Ousmane Sembène's ''Black Girl (1966 film), Black Girl'' (1966), and Djibril Diop Mambéty's ''Touki Bouki'' (1973). The Criterion Collection so far has released four Vol. boxsets on DVD and Blu-ray, titled, ''Martin Scorsese's World Cinema Project''. The first Volume includes 6 titles, ''Touki Bouki'' (1973), ''Redes (film), Redes'' (1936), ''Titash Ekti Nadir Naam, A River Called Titas'' (1973), ''Dry Summer'' (1964), ''Trances (film), Trances'' (1981) and ''The Housemaid (1960 film), The Housemaid'' (1960). The second volume also includes 6 titles, ''Insiang'' (1976), ''Mysterious Object at Noon'' (2000), ''Revenge'' (1989), ''Limite'' (1931), ''Law of the Border'' (1967), and ''Taipei Story'' (1985). The third volume includes 6 titles as well: ''Lucía'' (1968), ''Lewat Djam Malam, After the Curfew'' (1954), ''Pixote'' (1980), ''Two Monks, Dos monjes'' (1934), ''Soleil O, Soleil Ô'' (1970), and ''Downpour (film), Downpour'' (1972). The 6 films included in the fourth set are ''Sambizanga'' (1972), ''Prisioneros de la tierra'' (1939), ''Chess of the Wind'' (1979), ''Muna Moto'' (1975), ''Two Girls on the Street'' (1939), and ''Kalpana (1948 film), Kalpana'' (1948).


The African Film Heritage Project

In 2017, Scorsese also introduced The African Film Heritage Project (AFHP), which is a joint initiative between Scorsese's non-profit The Film Foundation, UNESCO, Cineteca di Bologna, and the Pan African Federation of Filmmakers (FEPACI). The project aims to locate and preserve 50 classic African films, some thought lost and others beyond repair, with hopes to make them available to audiences everywhere. In an interview with ''Cinema Escapist'' in 2018, Scorsese talked about the ambitious collaboration saying, "Our first goal is to launch and conduct a thorough investigation in film archives and laboratories around the world, in order to locate the best surviving elements—original negatives, we hope—for our first 50 titles." He also stated that "Restoration is always the primary goal, of course, but within the initiative, it's also a starting point of a process that follows through with exhibition and dissemination in Africa and abroad. And of course, our restoration process always includes the creation of preservation elements." In 2019, the AFHP, announced that they would screen restorations of four African films on their home continent for the first time as part of the 50th anniversary of the Pan African Film Festival of Ouagadougou. The movies in question are Med Hondo's ''Soleil Ô'' (1970), Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina's ''Chronique des années de braise'' (1975), Timité Bassori's ''La Femme au couteau'' (1969), and Jean-Pierre Dikongue-Pipa's ''Muna Moto'' (1975).


Legacy and honors

Scorsese's films have been nominated for numerous awards both nationally and internationally, with an Academy Award win for ''The Departed''. In 1991, he received the Golden Plate Award of the Academy of Achievement, American Academy of Achievement. In 1997, Scorsese received the AFI Life Achievement Award. In 1998, the American Film Institute placed three Scorsese films on their list of the greatest American movies: ''Raging Bull'' at No. 24, ''Taxi Driver'' at No. 47, and ''Goodfellas'' at No. 94. For AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition), the tenth-anniversary edition of their list, ''Raging Bull'' was moved to No. 4, ''Taxi Driver'' was moved to No. 52, and ''Goodfellas'' was moved to No. 92. In 2001, the American Film Institute placed two Scorsese films on AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Thrills, their list of the most "heart-pounding movies" in American cinema: ''Taxi Driver'' at No. 22 and ''Raging Bull'' at No. 51. At a ceremony in Paris, France, on January 5, 2005, Martin Scorsese was awarded the French Legion of Honour in recognition of his contribution to cinema. On February 8, 2006, at the 48th Annual Grammy Awards, Scorsese was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Music Film, Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video for ''No Direction Home''. In 2007, Scorsese was listed among ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine's 100 Most Influential People in The World. In August 2007, Scorsese was named the second-greatest director of all time in a poll by ''Total Film'' magazine, in front of Steven Spielberg and behind Alfred Hitchcock. In 2007, Scorsese was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (N.I.A.F.) at the nonprofit's thirty-second Anniversary Gala. During the ceremony, Scorsese helped launch N.I.A.F.'s Jack Valenti Institute in memory of former foundation board member and past president of the Motion Picture Association of America (M.P.A.A.) Jack Valenti. The Institute provides support to Italian film students in the U.S. Scorsese received his award from Mary Margaret Valenti, Jack Valenti's widow. Certain pieces of Scorsese's film-related material and personal papers are contained in the Wesleyan University Cinema Archives, to which scholars and media experts from around the world may have full access. On September 11, 2007, the Kennedy Center Honors committee, which recognizes career excellence and cultural influence, named Scorsese as one of the honorees for the year. On June 17, 2008, the American Film Institute placed two of Scorsese's films on the AFI's 10 Top 10 list: ''Raging Bull'' at number one for the Sports genre and ''Goodfellas'' at number two for the Gangster genre. In 2013, the staff of ''Entertainment Weekly'' voted ''Mean Streets'' the seventh greatest film ever made. On January 17, 2010, at the 67th Golden Globe Awards, Scorsese was the recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award. On September 18, 2011, at the 63rd Primetime Emmy Awards, Scorsese won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series for his work on Boardwalk Empire (episode), the series premiere of ''Boardwalk Empire''. In 2011, Scorsese received an honorary doctorate from the National Film School in Lodz. At the awards ceremony he said, "I feel like I'm a part of this school and that I attended it," paying tribute to the films of Wajda, Munk, Has, Polanski and Skolimowski. King Missile wrote "Martin Scorsese (song), Martin Scorsese" in his honor. On February 12, 2012, at the 65th British Academy Film Awards, Scorsese was the recipient of the BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award. On September 16, 2012, Scorsese won two 64th Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards#Directing, Emmy Awards for Outstanding Directing for Nonfiction Programming and Outstanding Nonfiction Special for his work on the documentary ''George Harrison: Living in the Material World''. In 2013, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Scorsese for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. He was the first filmmaker chosen for the honor. His lecture, delivered on April 1, 2013, at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, was titled "Persistence of Vision: Reading the Language of Cinema". Scorsese was awarded the Polish Medal for Merit to Culture – Gloria Artis, Gold Medal for Merit to Culture – Gloria Artis on April 11, 2017, in recognition of his contribution to Polish cinema. Scorsese has also garnered favorable responses from numerous film giants including Ingmar Bergman, Frank Capra, Jean-Luc Godard, Werner Herzog,
Elia Kazan Elia Kazan (; born Elias Kazantzoglou ( el, Ηλίας Καζαντζόγλου); September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was an American film and theatre director, producer, screenwriter and actor, described by ''The New York Times ''T ...
, Akira Kurosawa, David Lean, Michael Powell, Satyajit Ray, and François Truffaut. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2008. He was awarded an Honorary degree, Honorary Doctorate from the University of Oxford on June 20, 2018. As of 2021, five of Scorsese's films have been selected by the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not just for display purposes. A library provides physical (hard copies) or digital access (so ...

Library of Congress
for preservation in the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In commenting on Scorsese's 2019 film ''The Irishman'', Guillermo del Toro cited Scorsese's ability as a director for the depiction of Character arc, character development comparable to the films of "Renoir, Bresson, Bergman, Oliveira or Kurosawa". Sam Mendes, in his acceptance speech after winning the 2020 Golden Globe Award for Best Director for ''1917 (2019 film), 1917'', praised Scorsese's contribution to cinema, stating, "There's not one director in this room, not one director in the world, that is not in the shadow of Martin Scorsese... I just have to say that." Bong Joon-ho, in his acceptance speech for the 2020 Academy Award for Best Director for ''Parasite (2019 film), Parasite'', said, "When I was young and studying cinema, there was a saying that I carved deep into my heart, which is, the most personal is the most creative." He then said that this quote had come from Scorsese, which prompted the audience to give Scorsese a standing ovation.


Awards and nominations


See also

* Catherine O'Brien (film scholar), Dr Catherine O'Brien's ''Martin Scorsese's Divine Comedy: Movies and Religion'' (2018). *Martin Scorsese's unrealized projects


References


External links

* * * * * * , movie clip compilation, 3 min.
Martin Scorsese Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)



1999 Princeton Q&A lecture
(RealMedia video)
Podcast: Scorsese Discusses His Digital Workflow Techniques

Martin Scorsese's response to a Proust Questionnaire
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Scorsese, Martin Martin Scorsese, 1942 births 20th-century American male actors 20th-century American screenwriters 21st-century American male actors 21st-century American screenwriters AFI Life Achievement Award recipients American documentary film directors American documentary filmmakers American film directors American film directors of Italian descent American film editors American film historians American film producers American male film actors American male screenwriters American music video directors American Roman Catholics American writers of Italian descent Best Adapted Screenplay BAFTA Award winners Best Directing Academy Award winners Best Director BAFTA Award winners Best Director Golden Globe winners Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Director winners Catholics from New York (state) Cardinal Hayes High School alumni Cecil B. DeMille Award Golden Globe winners César Honorary Award recipients Citizens of Italy through descent David di Donatello Career Award winners Directors Guild of America Award winners Directors of Palme d'Or winners Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Film directors from New York City Film theorists Filmmakers who won the Best Film BAFTA Award Grammy Award winners Italian-American culture in New York City Kennedy Center honorees Living people Mass media theorists New York University faculty People from Corona, Queens Postmodernist filmmakers Primetime Emmy Award winners Recipients of the Legion of Honour Screenwriters from New York (state) Tisch School of the Arts alumni Venice Best Director Silver Lion winners Western (genre) film directors