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Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
politician and general who played a critical role in the
transformation Transformation may refer to: Science and mathematics In biology and medicine * Metamorphosis, the biological process of changing physical form after birth or hatching * Malignant transformation, the process of cells becoming cancerous * Transf ...
of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
from a
constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be ...
republic into the
autocratic Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (exc ...
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. Antony was a relative and supporter of
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...

Julius Caesar
, and served as one of his generals during the
conquest of Gaul The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaign A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained b ...
and the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and
Octavian Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first , reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the (the first phase of the ) has consolidated as one of the most effective and contro ...

Octavian
, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the
Second Triumvirate The Second Triumvirate (43–32 BC) was a political alliance formed after the Roman dictator Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of ...
. The Triumvirs defeated Caesar's killers, the ''Liberatores'', at the
Battle of Philippi The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman poli ...
in 42 BC, and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the
client kingdom Client(s) or The Client may refer to: * Client (computing), hardware or software that accesses a remote service on another computer * Customer or client, a recipient of goods or services in return for monetary or other valuable considerations * Cli ...
of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...
, then ruled by
Cleopatra VII Philopator
Cleopatra VII Philopator
, and was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia. Relations among the triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the
Battle of Actium The Battle of Actium was a naval battle in the , fought between the fleet of and the combined forces of and Queen of . It took place on 2 September 31 BC in the near the promontory of in . Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his p ...
. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt where, having again been defeated at the
Battle of Alexandria The Battle of Alexandria, or Battle of Canope, was fought on 21 March 1801 between the army of Napoleon's French First Republic under General Jacques-François Menou and the British expeditionary corps under Sir Ralph Abercromby. The battle took ...
, they committed suicide. With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of ''
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...
,'' marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becom ...
.


Early life

A member of the
plebeian In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizenship, Roman citizens who were not Patrician (ancient Rome), patricians, as determined by the capite censi, census, or in other words "commoners". Both ...
Antonia gens, Antony was born in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
on 14 January 83 BC. His father and namesake was
Marcus Antonius Creticus Marcus Antonius Creticus (flourished 1st century BC), a member of the Antonius family, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician during the Late Roman Republic. He is best known for his failed pirate hunting career and being the father of the general Mar ...
, son of the noted orator by the same name who had been murdered during the purges of
Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (; – 13 January 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. Victor of the and wars, he held the office of an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his of . He set the precedent for the shift fro ...
in the winter of 87–86 BC.Huzar 1978, p. 14 His mother was
Julia Julia is usually a feminine given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio (given name), Julio and Julius. (For further details on etymology, see wikt:Iulius#Latin, Wiktionary entry “Julius”.) The given name ''Julia'' had been ...
, a third cousin of
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...

Julius Caesar
. Antony was an infant at the time of
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Ancient Romans, Roman List of Roman generals, general and Politician, statesman. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of Rom ...
's march on Rome in 82 BC. According to the Roman orator
Marcus Tullius Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient ...

Marcus Tullius Cicero
, Antony's father was incompetent and corrupt, and was only given power because he was incapable of using or abusing it effectively.Huzar 1978, p. 15 In 74 BC he was given the military command to defeat the
pirates Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

pirates
of the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
, but he died in
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
in 71 BC without making any significant progress.Scullard 1980, p. 154 The elder Antony's death left Antony and his brothers,
Lucius Lucius ( el, Λούκιος ''Loukios''; ett, Luvcie) is a male given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a quoted in that identifies a person, potentially with a as well, and differentiates that pe ...
and
Gaius Gaius, sometimes spelled ''Gajus'', Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by the parents of a Ancient Rome, Roman child. It was first bestowed on the ''dies lustri ...
, in the care of their mother, Julia, who later married
Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura (114 BC – 5 December 63 BC) was one of the chief figures in the Catilinarian conspiracy. He was also the step-father of the future triumvir Mark Antony. Biography When accused by Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Sulla (to ...
, an eminent member of the old
Patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
nobility. Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was constantly in debt due to his extravagance. He was a major figure in the
Second Catilinarian Conspiracy The second Catilinarian conspiracy, also known simply as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Catiline, Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow Aristocracy (class), aristocrats and disa ...
and was
summarily executed A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without the benefit of a Right to a fair trial, full and fair trial. Executions as the result of summary offense, summary justice (such as a drumhead ...
on the orders of the consul
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
in 63 BC for his involvement.Huzar 1978, p. 17 According to the historian
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, Antony spent his teenage years wandering through Rome with his brothers and friends gambling, drinking, and becoming involved in scandalous love affairs. Antony's contemporary and enemy, Cicero, charged that he had a homosexual relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio. This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. There is little reliable information on his political activity as a young man, although it is known that he was an associate of
Publius Clodius Pulcher Publius Clodius Pulcher (93–52 BC) was a populist Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''E ...
and his
street gang A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be repre ...
. He may also have been involved in the
Lupercal : The she-wolf is of unknown origin, the suckling twins were added circa 1500 The Lupercal (from Latin '' wikt:lupa, lupa'' "female wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to ...
cult as he was referred to as a priest of this order later in life. By age twenty, Antony had amassed an enormous debt. Hoping to escape his creditors, Antony fled to
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
in 58 BC, where he studied
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
and
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
at
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
.


Early career

In 57 BC, Antony joined the military staff of
Aulus Gabinius Aulus Gabinius (born by 101 BC, died 48 or 47 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Roma ...

Aulus Gabinius
, the
Proconsul A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose wo ...

Proconsul
of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
, as chief of the cavalry. This appointment marks the beginning of his military career. As consul the previous year, Gabinius had consented to the exile of Cicero by Antony's mentor,
Publius Clodius Pulcher Publius Clodius Pulcher (93–52 BC) was a populist Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''E ...
.
Hyrcanus II John Hyrcanus II (, ''Yohanan Hurqanos'') (died 30 BCE), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an i ...

Hyrcanus II
, the Roman-supported
High Priest The term “high priest” usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction ...
of
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrolog ...

Judea
, fled
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
to Gabinius to seek protection against his rival and son-in-law
Alexander Alexander is a male given name. The most prominent bearer of the name is Alexander the Great, the king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia who created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Etymology T ...
. Years earlier in 63 BC, the Roman general
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
had captured him and his father, King
Aristobulus II Hasmonean Kingdom under Aristobulus II Aristobulus II (, he, אריסטובולוס; grc, Ἀριστόβουλος ''Aristóboulos'') was the Jewish Kohen Gadol, High Priest and King of Judea, 66 BCE to 63 BCE, from the Hasmonean dynasty. Fami ...

Aristobulus II
, during his war against the remnant of the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), off ...
. Pompey had deposed Aristobulus and installed Hyrcanus as Rome's client ruler over Judea. Antony achieved his first military distinctions after securing important victories at
Alexandrium Alexandreion (Greek), or Alexandrium (Latin), called Sartaba in the Mishna The Mishnah or Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written ...
and
Machaerus Machaerus (Μαχαιροῦς, from grc, μάχαιρα, , Makhaira (a sword); ar, ِقلعة مكاور ''Qal'atu Mkawer''; he, מכוור ''Mikwar'' ) is a fortified hilltop palace located in Jordan southeast of the mouth of the Jordan riv ...
.Plutarch, ''Antony'', 3 With the rebellion defeated by 56 BC, Gabinius restored Hyrcanus to his position as High Priest in Judea. The following year, in 55 BC, Gabinius intervened in the political affairs of
Ptolemaic Egypt The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , o ...
.
Pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the conte ...

Pharaoh
Ptolemy XII Auletes Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Philopator Philadelphos ( grc-koi, Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλάδελφος, ; – before 22 March 51 BC) was a Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty The Ptolemaic dynasty ...

Ptolemy XII Auletes
had been deposed in a rebellion led by his daughter
Berenice IV Berenice IV Epiphaneia ( grc-gre, Βερενίκη; 77–55 BC, born and died in Alexandria ) , name = Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; ...
in 58 BC, forcing him to seek asylum in Rome. During Pompey's conquests years earlier, Ptolemy had received the support of Pompey, who named him an ally of Rome. Gabinius' invasion sought to restore Ptolemy to his throne. This was done against the orders of the senate but with the approval of Pompey, then Rome's leading politician, and only after the deposed king provided a 10,000 talent bribe. The Greek historian
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
records it was Antony who convinced Gabinius to finally act. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Gabinius' army proceeded to attack the palace guards but they surrendered before a battle commenced. With Ptolemy XII restored as Rome's client king, Gabinius garrisoned two thousand Roman soldiers, later known as the ''
Gabiniani The (in English: Gabinians) were 2000 Roman Roman legionary, legionaries and 500 cavalrymen stationed in Ptolemaic Kingdom, Egypt by the Roman general Aulus Gabinius after he had reinstated the Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes on the Egyptian throne in ...
'', in Alexandria to ensure Ptolemy's authority. In return for its support, Rome exercised considerable power over the kingdom's affairs, particularly control of the kingdom's revenues and crop yields. Antony claimed years later to have first met
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-gre, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, Ancient ...

Cleopatra
, the then 14-year-old daughter of Ptolemy XII, during this campaign in Egypt. While Antony was serving Gabinius in the East, the domestic political situation had changed in Rome. In 60 BC, a secret agreement (known as the "First Triumvirate") was entered into between three men to control the Republic:
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
,
Gnaeus Pompey Magnus Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey the Great (), was a leading Roman general and statesman, whose career was significant in Rome's transformation from a Roman Republic, r ...
, and
Gaius Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Rom ...

Gaius Julius Caesar
. Crassus, Rome's wealthiest man, had defeated the slave rebellion of Spartacus in 70 BC; Pompey conquered much of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 60's BC; Caesar was Rome's
Pontifex Maximus The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation w ...
and a former general in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
. In 59 BC, Caesar, with funding from Crassus, was elected consul to pursue legislation favourable to Crassus and Pompey's interests. In return, Caesar was assigned the governorship of
Illyricum Illyricum may refer to: * Illyria In classical antiquity, Illyria ( grc, Ἰλλυρία, ''Illyría'' or , ''Illyrís''; la, Illyria, ''Illyricum'') was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by numerous tribes of peopl ...
,
Cisalpine Gaul Cisalpine Gaul ( la, Gallia Cisalpina, also called ''Gallia Citerior'' or ''Gallia Togata'') was the part of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Ital ...
, and
Transalpine Gaul Gallia Narbonensis can be seen in the south of modern-day France as a Roman province. Gallia Narbonensis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin w ...
for five years beginning in 58 BC. Caesar used his governorship as a launching point for his conquest of free Gaul. In 55 BC, Crassus and Pompey served as consuls while Caesar's command was extended for another five years. Rome was effectively under the absolute power of these three men. The Triumvirate used
Publius Clodius Pulcher Publius Clodius Pulcher (93–52 BC) was a populist Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''E ...
, Antony's patron, to exile their political rivals, notably Cicero and
Cato the Younger Marcus Porcius Cato "Uticensis" ("of Utica"; ; 95 BC – April 46 BC), also known as Cato the Younger ( la, Cato Minor), was a conservative Roman senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often ...
. During his early military service, Antony married his cousin
Antonia Hybrida Minor Antonius or Antoníus is a masculine given name of Etruscan language, Etruscan origin from the root name Antōnius as well as a surname. Antonius is a Danish language, Danish, Dutch language, Dutch, Finnish language, Finnish, Latin language, Latin ...
, the daughter of
Gaius Antonius Hybrida Gaius Antonius Hybrida (flourished 1st century BC) was a politician of the Roman Republic. He was the second son of Marcus Antonius and brother of Marcus Antonius Creticus; his mother is unknown. He was also the uncle of the famed triumvir Ma ...
. Sometime between 54 and 47 BC, the union produced a single known child, Antonia. It is unclear if this was Antony's first marriage.


Service under Caesar


Gallic Wars

Antony's association with
Publius Clodius Pulcher Publius Clodius Pulcher (93–52 BC) was a populist Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''E ...
allowed him to achieve greater prominence. Clodius, through the influence of his benefactor
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
, had developed a positive political relationship with
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...

Julius Caesar
. Clodius secured Antony a position on Caesar's
military staff A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and l ...
in 54 BC, joining his
conquest of Gaul The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaign A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained b ...
. Serving under Caesar, Antony demonstrated excellent military leadership. Despite a temporary alienation later in life, Antony and Caesar developed friendly relations which would continue until Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. Caesar's influence secured greater political advancement for Antony. After a year of service in Gaul, Caesar dispatched Antony to Rome to formally begin his political career, receiving election as
quaestor A ( , ; "investigator") was a public official in Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest ...
for 52 BC as a member of the
Populares The Populares (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...

Populares
faction. Assigned to assist Caesar, Antony returned to Gaul and commanded Caesar's cavalry during his victory at the
Battle of Alesia The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgiu ...
against the Gallic chieftain
Vercingetorix Vercingetorix (; – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni The Arverni (: ''Aruerni'') were a people dwelling in the modern region during the and the . They were one of the most powerful tribes of ancient , contesting primacy ove ...

Vercingetorix
. Following his year in office, Antony was promoted by Caesar to the rank of and assigned command of two legions (approximately 7,500 total soldiers). Meanwhile, the alliance among Caesar, Pompey and Crassus had effectively ended. Caesar's daughter
Julia Julia is usually a feminine given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio (given name), Julio and Julius. (For further details on etymology, see wikt:Iulius#Latin, Wiktionary entry “Julius”.) The given name ''Julia'' had been ...
, who had married Pompey to secure the alliance, died in 54 BC while Crassus was killed at the
Battle of Carrhae The Battle of Carrhae () was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae (present-day Harran, Turkey). The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the comma ...
in 53 BC. Without the stability they provided, the divide between Caesar and Pompey grew ever larger.Holland, Rubicon, p. 287 Caesar's glory in conquering Gaul had served to further strain his alliance with Pompey, who, having grown jealous of his former ally, had drifted away from Caesar's democratic Populares party towards the oligarchic
Optimates The Optimates (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
faction led by Cato. The supporters of Caesar, led by Clodius, and the supporters of Pompey, led by
Titus Annius Milo Titus Annius Milo (died 48 BC) was a Roman political agitator. The son of Gaius Papius Celsus, he was adopted by his maternal grandfather, Titus Annius Luscus. In 52 BC, he was prosecuted for the murder of Publius Clodius Pulcher. He was unsucces ...
, routinely clashed. In 52 BC, Milo succeeded in assassinating Clodius, resulting in widespread riots and the burning of the senate meeting house, the
Curia Hostilia The Curia Hostilia was one of the original senate houses or "curia Curia (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ar ...
, by Clodius' street gang.
Anarchy Anarchy is the state of a society being freely constituted without authorities or a governing body A governing body is a group of people that has the authority to exercise governance Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – ...
resulted, causing the senate to look to Pompey. Fearing the persecutions of
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Ancient Romans, Roman List of Roman generals, general and Politician, statesman. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of Rom ...
only thirty years earlier, they avoided granting Pompey the
dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
by instead naming him sole consul for the year, giving him extraordinary but limited powers. Pompey ordered armed soldiers into the city to restore order and to eliminate the remnants of Clodius' gang. Antony remained on Caesar's military staff until 50 BC, helping mopping-up actions across Gaul to secure Caesar's conquest. With the war over, Antony was sent back to Rome to act as Caesar's protector against Pompey and the other Optimates. With the support of Caesar, who as
Pontifex Maximus The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation w ...
was head of the Roman religion, Antony was appointed the
College of Augurs An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world. His main role was the practice of augury Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religiou ...

College of Augurs
, an important priestly office responsible for interpreting the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds. All public actions required favorable auspices, granting the college considerable influence. Antony was then elected as one of the ten plebeian tribunes for 49 BC. In this position, Antony could protect Caesar from his political enemies, by vetoing any actions unfavorable to his patron.


Civil War

The feud between Caesar and Pompey erupted into open confrontation by early 49 BC. The consuls for the year,
Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior Gaius, sometimes spelled ''Gajus'', Cajus (disambiguation), Cajus, Caius (disambiguation), Caius, was a common Latin praenomen; see Gaius (praenomen). People *Gaius (jurist) (), Roman jurist *Gaius Acilius *Gaius Antonius *Gaius Antonius Hybrida *G ...
and
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus CrusLucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus (before 97 BC48 BC) was Consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently also an important title u ...
, were firm Optimates opposed to Caesar. Pompey, though remaining in Rome, was then serving as the governor of
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and commanded several legions. Upon assuming office in January, Antony immediately summoned a meeting of the senate to resolve the conflict: he proposed both Caesar and Pompey lay down their commands and return to the status of mere private citizens. His proposal was well received by most of the senators but the consuls and Cato vehemently opposed it. Antony then made a new proposal: Caesar would retain only two of his eight legions, and the governorship of Illyrium if he was allowed to stand for the consulship ''in absentia''. This arrangement ensured his
immunity Immunity may refer to: Medicine * Immunity (medical), resistance of an organism to infection or disease * Immunity (journal), ''Immunity'' (journal), a scientific journal published by Cell Press Biology * Immune system Engineering * Radiofrequ ...
from
suit A suit or lounge suit is a set of clothes comprising a suit jacket and trousers Trousers (British English), slacks, or pants are an item of clothing that might have originated in Central Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, coverin ...
would continue: he had needed the consulship to protect himself from prosecution by Pompey. Though Pompey found the concession satisfactory, Cato and Lentulus refused to back down, with Lentulus even expelling Antony from the senate meeting by force. Antony fled Rome, fearing for his life, and returned to Caesar's camp on the banks of the Rubicon, the southern limit of Caesar's lawful command. Within days of Antony's expulsion, on 7 January 49 BC, the senate reconvened. Under the leadership of Cato and with the tacit support of Pompey, the senate passed a ''senatus consultum ultimum'', a decree stripping Caesar of his command and ordering him to return to Rome and stand trial for war crimes. The senate further declared Caesar a traitor and a public enemy if he did not immediately disband his army. With all hopes of finding a peaceful solution gone after Antony's expulsion, Caesar used Antony as a pretext for marching on Rome. As tribune, Antony's person was sacrosanct, so it was unlawful to harm him or to refuse to recognize his veto. Three days later, on 10 January, Caesar Crossing the Rubicon, crossed the Rubicon, initiating the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
. During the southern march, Caesar placed Antony as his second in command. Caesar's rapid advance surprised Pompey, who, along with the other chief members of the Optimates, fled Italy for Greece. After entering Rome, instead of pursuing Pompey, Caesar marched to Hispania, Spain to defeat the Pompeian loyalists there. Meanwhile, Antony, with the rank of propraetor—despite never having served as praetor—was installed as governor of Italy and commander of the army, stationed there while Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, one of Caesar's staff officers, ran the provisional administration of Rome itself. Though Antony was well liked by his soldiers, most other citizens despised him for his lack of interest in the hardships they faced from the civil war. By the end of the year 49 BC, Caesar, already the ruler of Gaul, had captured Italy, Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia out of Optimates control. In early 48 BC, he prepared to sail with seven legions to Greece to face Pompey. Caesar had entrusted the defense of Illyricum to Gaius Antonius (brother of Mark Antony), Gaius Antonius, Antony's younger brother, and Publius Cornelius Dolabella (consul 44 BC), Publius Cornelius Dolabella. Pompey's forces, however, defeated them and assumed control of the Adriatic Sea along with it. Additionally, the two legions they commanded defected to Pompey. Without their fleet, Caesar lacked the necessary transport ships to cross into Greece with his seven legions. Instead, he sailed with only two and placed Antony in command of the remaining five at Brundisium with instructions to join him as soon as he was able. In early 48 BC, Lucius Scribonius Libo (consul 34 BC), Lucius Scribonius Libo was given command of Pompey's fleet, comprising some fifty galleys.Broughton, p. 281 Moving off to Brundisium, he blockaded Antony. Antony, however, managed to trick Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo's squadron to be trapped and attacked. Most of Libo's fleet managed to escape, but several of his troops were trapped and captured. With Libo gone, Antony joined Caesar in Greece by March 48 BC. During the Greek campaign, Plutarch records that Antony was Caesar's top general, and second only to him in reputation.Plutarch, ''Antony'', 10 Antony joined Caesar at the western Balkan Peninsula and Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC), besieged Pompey's larger army at Dyrrhachium. With food sources running low, Caesar, in July, ordered a nocturnal assault on Pompey's camp, but Pompey's larger forces pushed back the assault. Though an indecisive result, the victory was a tactical win for Pompey. Pompey, however, did not order a counterassault on Caesar's camp, allowing Caesar to retreat unhindered. Caesar would later remark the civil war would have ended that day if only Pompey had attacked him. Caesar managed to retreat to Thessaly, with Pompey in pursuit. Assuming a defensive position at the plain of Pharsalus, Caesar's army prepared for pitched battle with Pompey's, which outnumbered his own two to one. At the Battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC, Caesar commanded the right wing opposite Pompey while Antony commanded the left, indicating Antony's status as Caesar's top general. The resulting battle was a decisive victory for Caesar. Though the civil war had not ended at Pharsulus, the battle marked the pinnacle of Caesar's power and effectively ended the Republic. The battle gave Caesar a much needed boost in legitimacy, as prior to the battle much of the Roman world outside Italy supported Pompey and the Optimates as the legitimate government of Rome. After Pompey's defeat, most of the senate defected to Caesar, including many of the soldiers who had fought under Pompey. Pompey himself fled to
Ptolemaic Egypt The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , o ...
, but Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator feared retribution from Caesar and had Pompey assassinated upon his arrival.


Governor of Italy

Instead of immediately pursuing Pompey and the remaining Optimates, Caesar returned to Rome and was appointed Roman dictator, Dictator with Antony as his Master of the Horse and second in command.Plutarch, ''Caesar'
37.2
/ref> Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship for 47 BC and then, after eleven days in office, resigned this dictatorship. Caesar then sailed to Egypt, where he deposed Ptolemy XIII in favor of his sister
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-gre, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, Ancient ...

Cleopatra
in 47 BC. The young Cleopatra became Caesar's mistress and bore him a son, Caesarion. Caesar's actions further strengthened Roman control over the already Roman-dominated kingdom. While Caesar was away in Egypt, Antony remained in Rome to govern Italy and restore order.Hinard, 2000, pp. 796, 798 Without Caesar to guide him, however, Antony quickly faced political difficulties and proved himself unpopular. The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabella (consul 44 BC), Publius Cornelius Dolabella, a former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts. Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: he believed Caesar would not support such massive relief and suspected Dolabella had seduced his wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman Forum, Antony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled masses, killing hundreds. The resulting instability, especially among Caesar's veterans who would have benefited from the law, forced Caesar to return to Italy by October 47 BC. Antony's handling of the affair with Dolabella caused a cooling of his relationship with Caesar. Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy. Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader; he was elected to a third term as consul for 46 BC, but proposed the senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella. When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame. Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as consul instead. Antony again protested and, in his capacity as an Augur, declared the omens were unfavorable and Caesar again backed down. Seeing the expediency of removing Dolabella from
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, Caesar ultimately pardoned him for his role in the riots and took him as one of his generals in his campaigns against the remaining Optimates resistance. Antony, however, was stripped of all official positions and received no appointments for the year 46 BC or 45 BC. Instead of Antony, Caesar appointed Marcus Aemilius Lepidus to be his consular colleague for 46 BC. While Caesar campaigned in Africa (Roman province), North Africa, Antony remained in Rome as a mere privatus, private citizen. After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Roman Dictator, Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome. Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule. When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over. During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia. Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia. Fulvia had previously been married to both
Publius Clodius Pulcher Publius Clodius Pulcher (93–52 BC) was a populist Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''E ...
and Gaius Scribonius Curio, having been a widow since Curio's death in the Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC), battle of the Bagradas in 49 BC. Though Antony and Fulvia were formally married in 47 BC, Cicero suggests the two had been in a relationship since at least 58 BC. The union produced two children: Marcus Antonius Antyllus (born 47) and Iullus Antonius (born 45).


Assassination of Caesar


Ides of March

Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long. Antony reunited with Caesar at Narbo in 45 BC with full reconciliation coming in 44 BC when Antony was elected consul alongside Caesar. Caesar planned a new Roman-Parthian Wars, invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name. The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Trebonius, one of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. Soon after they assumed office together, the Lupercalia festival was held on 15 February 44 BC. The festival was held in honor of Lupa Capitolina, Lupa, the she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome. The political atmosphere of Rome at the time of the festival was deeply divided. Caesar had enacted a number of Constitutional reforms of Julius Caesar, constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands. He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official Imperial cult (ancient Rome), cult, with Antony as his high priest. Additionally, on 1 January 44 BC, Caesar had been named Roman dictator, Dictator for Life, effectively granting unlimited power. Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy. During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a Diadem (personal wear), diadem, which Caesar threw off. When Antony placed the diadem in his lap, Caesar ordered the diadem to be placed in the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. The event presented a powerful message: a diadem was a symbol of a king. By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome. Antony's motive for such actions is not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own. A group of senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from establishing a monarchy. Chief among them were Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicide, Brutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader.
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
, though not personally involved in the conspiracy, later claimed Antony's actions sealed Caesar's fate as such an obvious display of Caesar's preeminence motivated them to act. Originally, the conspirators had planned to eliminate not only Caesar but also many of his supporters, including Antony, but Brutus rejected the proposal, limiting the conspiracy to Caesar alone. With Caesar preparing to depart for Parthia in late March, the conspirators prepared to act when Caesar appeared for the senate meeting on the Ides of March (15 March). Antony also went with Caesar, but was waylaid at the door of the Theatre of Pompey by Trebonius and was distracted from aiding Caesar. According to the Greek historian
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, as Caesar arrived at the senate, Tillius Cimber, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. The other conspirators crowded round to offer their support. Within moments, the group of five conspirators stabbed Caesar one by one. Caesar attempted to get away, but, being drenched by blood, he tripped and fell. According to Roman historian Eutropius (historian), Eutropius, around 60 or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to multiple stab wounds.


Leader of the Caesarian Party

In the turmoil surrounding the assassination, Antony escaped Rome dressed as a slave, fearing Caesar's death would be the start of a bloodbath among his supporters. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome. The conspirators, who styled themselves the ''Liberatores'' ("The Liberators"), had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety. Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Plebeians, Roman middle and lower classes, who became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, as the sole consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury. Calpurnia (wife of Caesar), Calpurnia, Caesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction. Caesar's Magister Equitum, Master of the Horse Marcus Aemilius Lepidus marched over 6,000 troops into Rome on 16 March to restore order and to act as the bodyguards of the Caesarian faction. Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war. On 17 March, at Antony's arrangement, the senate met to discuss a compromise, which, due to the presence of Caesar's veterans in the city, was quickly reached. Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified. In particular, the offices assigned to both Brutus and Cassius by Caesar were likewise ratified. Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his consular colleague to replace Caesar. Having neither troops, money, nor popular support, the Liberatores were forced to accept Antony's proposal. This compromise was a great success for Antony, who managed to simultaneously appease Caesar's veterans, reconcile the senate majority, and appear to the Liberatores as their partner and protector. On 19 March, Caesar's will was opened and read. In it, Caesar posthumously adopted his great-nephew Augustus, Gaius Octavius and named him his principal heir. Then only nineteen years old and stationed with Caesar's army in Macedonia, the youth became a member of Caesar's Julia gens, Julian clan, changing his name to "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" (Octavian) in accordance with the conventions of Roman adoption. Though not the chief beneficiary, Antony did receive some bequests. Shortly after the compromise was reached, as a sign of good faith, Brutus, against the advice of Cassius and Cicero, agreed Caesar would be given a public funeral and his will would be validated. Caesar's funeral was held on 20 March. Antony, as Caesar's faithful lieutenant and incumbent consul, was chosen to preside over the ceremony and to recite the elegy. During the demagogue, demagogic speech, he enumerated the deeds of Caesar and, publicly reading his will, detailed the donations Caesar had left to the Roman people. Antony then seized the blood-stained toga from Caesar's body and presented it to the crowd. Worked into a fury by the bloody spectacle, the assembly rioted. Several buildings in the Roman Forum, Forum and some houses of the conspirators were burned to the ground. Panicked, many of the conspirators fled Italy. Under the pretext of not being able to guarantee their safety, Antony relieved Brutus and Cassius of their judicial duties in Rome and instead assigned them responsibility for procuring wheat for Rome from Sicily and Asia. Such an assignment, in addition to being unworthy of their rank, would have kept them far from Rome and shifted the balance towards Antony. Refusing such secondary duties, the two traveled to Greece instead. Additionally, Cleopatra left Rome to return to Egypt. Despite the provisions of Caesar's will, Antony proceeded to act as leader of the Caesarian faction, including appropriating for himself a portion of Caesar's fortune rightfully belonging to Octavian. Antony enacted the Lex Antonia, which formally abolished the Dictatorship, in an attempt to consolidate his power by gaining the support of the senatorial class. He also enacted a number of laws he claimed to have found in Caesar's papers to ensure his popularity with Caesar's veterans, particularly by providing land grants to them. Lepidus, with Antony's support, was named
Pontifex Maximus The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation w ...
to succeed Caesar. To solidify the alliance between Antony and Lepidus, Antony's daughter Antonia (wife of Pythodoros), Antonia Prima was engaged to Lepidus the Younger, Lepidus' son, also named Lepidus. Surrounding himself with a bodyguard of over six thousand of Caesar's veterans, Antony presented himself as Caesar's true successor, largely ignoring Octavian.


First conflict with Octavian

Octavian arrived in Rome in May to claim his inheritance. Although Antony had amassed political support, Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the Caesarian faction. The senatorial Republicans increasingly viewed Antony as a new tyrant. Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status. When Antony refused to relinquish Caesar's vast fortune to him, Octavian borrowed heavily to fulfill the bequests in Caesar's will to the Roman people and to his veterans, as well as to establish his own bodyguard of veterans. This earned him the support of Caesarian sympathizers who hoped to use him as a means of eliminating Antony. The senate, and Cicero in particular, viewed Antony as the greater danger of the two. By summer 44 BC, Antony was in a difficult position due to his actions regarding his compromise with the Liberatores following Caesar's assassination. He could either denounce the Liberatores as murderers and alienate the senate or he could maintain his support for the compromise and risk betraying the legacy of Caesar, strengthening Octavian's position. In either case, his situation as ruler of Rome would be weakened. Roman historian Cassius Dio later recorded that while Antony, as consul, maintained the advantage in the relationship, the general affection of the Roman people was shifting to Octavian due to his status as Caesar's son. Supporting the senatorial faction against Antony, Octavian, in September 44 BC, encouraged the leading senator Cicero, Marcus Tullius Cicero to attack Antony in a Philippicae, series of speeches portraying him as a threat to the Republican order. Risk of civil war between Antony and Octavian grew. Octavian continued to recruit Caesar's veterans to his side, away from Antony, with two of Antony's legions defecting in November 44 BC. At that time, Octavian, only a privatus, private citizen, lacked legal authority to command the Republic's armies, making his command illegal. With popular opinion in Rome turning against him and his consular term nearing its end, Antony attempted to secure a favorable military assignment to secure an army to protect himself. The senate, as was custom, assigned Antony and Dolabella the provinces of Roman Macedonia, Macedonia and
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
, respectively, to govern in 43 BC after their consular terms expired. Antony, however, objected to the assignment, preferring to govern
Cisalpine Gaul Cisalpine Gaul ( la, Gallia Cisalpina, also called ''Gallia Citerior'' or ''Gallia Togata'') was the part of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Ital ...
which had been assigned to Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of Caesar's assassins. When Decimus refused to surrender his province, Antony marched north in December 44 BC with his remaining soldiers to take the province by force, besieging Decimus at Mutina. The senate, led by a fiery Cicero, denounced Antony's actions and declared him an enemy of the state. Ratifying Octavian's extraordinary command on 1 January 43 BC, the senate dispatched him along with consuls Aulus Hirtius, Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, Pansa to defeat Antony and his exhausted five legions. Antony's forces were defeated at the Battle of Mutina in April 43 BC, forcing Antony to retreat to
Transalpine Gaul Gallia Narbonensis can be seen in the south of modern-day France as a Roman province. Gallia Narbonensis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin w ...
. Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies, some eight legions.


The Second Triumvirate


Forming the Alliance

With Antony defeated, the senate, hoping to eliminate Octavian and the remainder of the Caesarian party, assigned command of the Republic's legions to Decimus. Sextus Pompey, son of Caesar's old rival Pompey, Pompey Magnus, was given command of the Republic's fleet from his base in Sicily while Brutus and Cassius were granted the governorships of Roman Macedonia, Macedonia and
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
respectively. These appointments attempted to renew the "Republican" cause. However, the eight legions serving under Octavian, composed largely of Caesar's veterans, refused to follow one of Caesar's murderers, allowing Octavian to retain his command. Meanwhile, Antony recovered his position by joining forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had been assigned the governorship of Gallia Narbonensis, Transalpine Gaul and Hispania Citerior, Nearer Spain. Antony sent Lepidus to Rome to broker a conciliation. Though he was an ardent Caesarian, Lepidus had maintained friendly relations with the senate and with Sextus Pompey. His legions, however, quickly joined Antony, giving him control over seventeen legions, the largest army in the West. By mid-May, Octavian began secret negotiations to form an alliance with Antony to provide a united Caesarian party against the Liberators. Remaining in Cisalpine Gaul, Octavian dispatched emissaries to Rome in July 43 BC demanding he be appointed consul to replace Hirtius and Pansa and that the decree declaring Antony a public enemy be rescinded. When the senate refused, Octavian marched on Rome with his eight legions and assumed control of the city in August 43 BC. Octavian proclaimed himself consul, rewarded his soldiers, and then set about prosecuting Caesar's murderers. By the Quintus Pedius, lex Pedia, all of the conspirators and Sextus Pompey were convicted ″in absentia″ and declared public enemies. Then, at the instigation of Lepidus, Octavian went to Cisalpine Gaul to meet Antony. In November 43 BC, Octavian, Lepidus, and Antony met near Bologna, Bononia. After two days of discussions, the group agreed to establish a Second Triumvirate, three man dictatorship to govern the Republic for five years, known as the "Three Men for the Restoration of the Republic" (Latin: "Triumviri Rei publicae Constituendae"), known to modern historians as the Second Triumvirate. They shared military command of the Republic's armies and provinces among themselves: Antony received Gaul, Lepidus Spain, and Octavian (as the junior partner) Africa. They jointly governed Italy. The Triumvirate would have to conquer the rest of Rome's holdings; Brutus and Cassius held the Eastern Mediterranean, and Sextus Pompey held the Mediterranean islands. On 27 November 43 BC, the Triumvirate was formally established by a new law, the lex Titia. Octavian and Antony reinforced their alliance through Octavian's marriage to Antony's stepdaughter, Claudia (wife of Octavian), Claudia. The primary objective of the Triumvirate was to avenge Caesar's death and to make war upon his murderers. Before marching against Brutus and Cassius in the East, the Triumvirs issued proscriptions against their enemies in Rome. The Dictator
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Ancient Romans, Roman List of Roman generals, general and Politician, statesman. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of Rom ...
had taken similar action to purge Rome of his opponents in 82 BC. The proscribed were named on public lists, stripped of citizenship, and outlawed. Their wealth and property were confiscated by the state, and rewards were offered to anyone who secured their arrest or death. With such encouragements, the proscription produced deadly results; two thousand Roman aristocracy, Roman knights were executed, and one third of the senate, among them
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
, who was executed on 7 December. The confiscations helped replenish the Aerarium, State Treasury, which had been depleted by Caesar's civil war the decade before; when this seemed insufficient to fund the imminent war against Brutus and Cassius, the Triumvirs imposed new taxes, especially on the wealthy. By January 42 BC the proscription had ended; it had lasted two months, and though less bloody than Sulla's, it traumatized Roman society. A number of those named and outlawed had fled to either Sextus Pompey in Sicily or to the Liberators in the East. Senators who swore loyalty to the Triumvirate were allowed to keep their positions; on 1 January 42 BC, the senate officially deified Caesar as "Divus Julius, The Divine Julius", and confirmed Antony's position as his high priest.


War against the Liberators

Due to the infighting within the Triumvirate during 43 BC, Brutus and Cassius had assumed control of much of Rome's eastern territories, and amassed a large army. Before the Triumvirate could cross the Adriatic Sea into Greece where the Liberators had stationed their army, the Triumvirate had to address the threat posed by Sextus Pompey and his fleet. From his base in Sicily, Sextus raided the Italian coast and blockaded the Triumvirs. Octavian's friend and admiral Quintus Salvidienus Rufus thwarted an attack by Sextus against the southern Italian mainland at Rhegium, but Salvidienus was then defeated in the resulting naval battle because of the inexperience of his crews. Only when Antony arrived with his fleet was the blockade broken. Though the blockade was defeated, control of Sicily remained in Sextus' hand, but the defeat of the Liberators was the Triumvirate's first priority. In the summer of 42 BC, Octavian and Antony sailed for Macedonia to face the Liberators with nineteen legions, the vast majority of their armyAppian, ''The Civil Wars'', Book 14, CVIII (approximately 100,000 regular infantry plus supporting cavalry and irregular auxiliary units), leaving Rome under the administration of Lepidus. Likewise, the army of the Liberators also commanded an army of nineteen legions; their legions, however, were not at full strength while the legions of Antony and Octavian were. While the Triumvirs commanded a larger number of infantry, the Liberators commanded a larger cavalry contingent. The Liberators, who controlled Macedonia, did not wish to engage in a decisive battle, but rather to attain a good defensive position and then use their naval superiority to block the Triumvirs' communications with their supply base in Italy. They had spent the previous months plundering Greek cities to swell their war-chest and had gathered in Thrace with the Roman legions from the Eastern provinces and levies from Rome's client kingdoms. Brutus and Cassius held a position on the high ground along both sides of the via Egnatia west of the city of Philippi. The south position was anchored to a supposedly impassable marsh, while the north was bordered by impervious hills. They had plenty of time to fortify their position with a rampart and a ditch. Brutus put his camp on the north while Cassius occupied the south of the via Egnatia. Antony arrived shortly and positioned his army on the south of the via Egnatia, while Octavian put his legions north of the road. Antony offered battle several times, but the Liberators were not lured to leave their defensive stand. Thus, Antony tried to secretly outflank the Liberators' position through the marshes in the south. This provoked a pitched battle on 3 October 42 BC. Antony commanded the Triumvirate's army due to Octavian's sickness on the day, with Antony directly controlling the right flank opposite Cassius. Because of his health, Octavian remained in camp while his lieutenants assumed a position on the left flank opposite Brutus. In the resulting first battle of Philippi, Antony defeated Cassius and captured his camp while Brutus overran Octavian's troops and penetrated into the Triumvirs' camp but was unable to capture the sick Octavian. The battle was a tactical draw but due to poor communications Cassius believed the battle was a complete defeat and committed suicide to prevent being captured. Brutus assumed sole command of the Liberator army and preferred a Attrition warfare, war of attrition over open conflict. His officers, however, were dissatisfied with these defensive tactics and his Caesarian veterans threatened to defect, forcing Brutus to give battle at the second battle of Philippi on 23 October. While the battle was initially evenly matched, Antony's leadership routed Brutus' forces. Brutus committed suicide the day after the defeat and the remainder of his army swore allegiance to the Triumvirate. Over fifty thousand Romans died in the two battles. While Antony treated the losers mildly, Octavian dealt cruelly with his prisoners and even beheaded Brutus' corpse. The battles of Philippi ended the civil war in favor of the Caesarian faction. With the defeat of the Liberators, only Sextus Pompey and his fleet remained to challenge the Triumvirate's control over the Republic.


Master of the Roman East


Division of the Republic

The victory at Philippi left the members of the Triumvirate as masters of the Republic, save Sextus Pompey in Sicily. Upon returning to Rome, the Triumvirate repartitioned rule of Rome's provinces among themselves, with Antony as the clear senior partner. He received the largest distribution, governing all of the Eastern provinces while retaining Roman Gaul, Gaul in the West. Octavian's position improved, as he received Spain, which was taken from Lepidus. Lepidus was then reduced to holding only Africa, and he assumed a clearly tertiary role in the Triumvirate. Rule over Italy remained undivided, but Octavian was assigned the difficult and unpopular task of demobilizing their veterans and providing them with land distributions in Italy. Antony assumed direct control of the East while he installed one of his lieutenants as the ruler of Gaul. During his absence, several of his supporters held key positions in Rome to protect his interests there. The East was in need of reorganization after the rule of the Liberators in the previous years. In addition, Rome contended with the Parthian Empire for dominance of the Near East. The Parthian threat to the Triumvirate's rule was urgent due to the fact that the Parthians supported the Liberators in the recent civil war, aid which included the supply troops at Philippi. As ruler of the East, Antony also assumed responsibility for overseeing Caesar's planned invasion of Parthia to avenge the defeat of
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
at the
Battle of Carrhae The Battle of Carrhae () was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae (present-day Harran, Turkey). The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the comma ...
in 53 BC. In 42 BC, the Roman East was composed of several directly controlled provinces and Client state, client kingdoms. The provinces included Roman Macedonia, Macedonia, Asia (Roman province), Asia, Bithynia et Pontus, Bithynia, Roman Cilicia, Cilicia, Roman Cyprus, Cyprus,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
, and Creta et Cyrenaica, Cyrenaica. Approximately half of the eastern territory was controlled by Rome's client kingdoms, nominally independent kingdoms subject to Roman direction. These kingdoms included: * Odrysian Kingdom, Odrysian Thrace in Eastern Europe * The Bosporan Kingdom along the northern coast of the Black Sea * Galatia, Pontus (region), Pontus, Cappadocia, Artaxiad dynasty, Armenia, and several smaller kingdoms in Anatolia, Asia Minor * Hasmonean dynasty, Judea, Kingdom of Commagene, Commagene, and the Nabataean kingdom in the Middle East * Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemaic Egypt in Africa


Activities in the East

Antony spent the winter of 42 BC in
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Athens
, where he ruled generously towards the Greek cities. A proclaimed ''philhellene'' ("Friend of all things Greek"), Antony supported Greek culture to win the loyalty of the inhabitants of the Greek East. He attended religious festivals and ceremonies, including initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries, a secret cult dedicated to the worship of the goddesses Demeter and Persephone. Beginning in 41 BC, he traveled across the Aegean Sea to Anatolia, leaving his friend Lucius Marcius Censorinus (consul 39 BC), Lucius Marcius Censorius as governor of Roman Macedonia, Macedonia and Achaea (Roman province), Achaea. Upon his arrival in Ephesus in Asia, Antony was worshiped as the god Dionysus born anew. He demanded heavy taxes from the Hellenic cities in return for his pro-Greek culture policies, but exempted those cities which had remained loyal to Caesar during the Caesar's Civil War, civil war and compensated those cities which had suffered under Liberators' civil war, Caesar's assassins, including Rhodes, Lycia et Pamphylia, Lycia, and Tarsus, Mersin, Tarsus. He granted pardons to all Roman nobles living in the East who had supported the Optimate cause, except for Caesar's assassins. Ruling from Ephesus, Antony consolidated Rome's hegemony in the East, receiving envoys from Rome's client kingdoms and intervening in their dynastic affairs, extracting enormous financial "gifts" from them in the process. Though King Deiotarus of Galatia supported Brutus and Cassius following Caesar's assassination, Antony allowed him to retain his position. He also confirmed Ariarathes X of Cappadocia, Ariarathes X as king of Cappadocia after the execution of his brother Ariobarzanes III of Cappadocia by Cassius before the
Battle of Philippi The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman poli ...
. In Hasmonean dynasty, Hasmonean Judea, several Jewish delegations complained to Antony of the harsh rule of Phasael and Herod the Great, Herod, the sons of Rome's assassinated chief Jewish minister Antipater the Idumaean. After Herod offered him a large financial gift, Antony confirmed the brothers in their positions. Subsequently, influenced by the beauty and charms of Glaphyra (hetaera), Glaphyra, the widow of Archelaus (father of Archelaus of Cappadocia), Archelaüs (formerly the high priest of Comana (Cappadocia), Comana), Antony deposed Ariarathes, and appointed Glaphyra's son, Archelaus of Cappadocia, Archelaüs, to rule Cappadocia. In October 41, Antony requested Rome's chief eastern vassal, the queen of Ptolemaic Egypt
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-gre, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, Ancient ...

Cleopatra
, meet him at Tarsus in Cilicia. Antony had first met a young Cleopatra while campaigning in Egypt in 55 BC and again in 48 BC when Caesar had backed her as queen of Egypt over the claims of her half-sister Arsinoe IV of Egypt, Arsinoe. Cleopatra would bear Caesar a son, Caesarion, in 47 BC and the two living in Rome as Caesar's guests until his assassination in 44 BC. After Caesar's assassination, Cleopatra and Caesarion returned to Egypt, where she named the child as her co-ruler. In 42 BC, the Triumvirate, in recognition for Cleopatra's help towards Publius Cornelius Dolabella (consul 44 BC), Publius Cornelius Dolabella in opposition to the Liberators, granted official recognition to Caesarion's position as king of Egypt. Arriving in Tarsus aboard her magnificent ship, Cleopatra invited Antony to a grand banquet to solidify their alliance. As the most powerful of Rome's eastern vassals, Egypt was indispensable in Rome's planned military invasion of the Parthian Empire. At Cleopatra's request, Antony ordered the execution of Arsinoe, who, though marched in Caesar's Roman triumph, triumphal parade in 46 BC, had been granted sanctuary at the temple of Artemis in Ephesus. Antony and Cleopatra then spent the winter of 41 BC together in Alexandria. Cleopatra bore Antony twin children, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II, in 40 BC, and a third, Ptolemy Philadelphus, in 36 BC. Antony also granted formal control over Cyprus, which had been under Egyptian control since 47 BC during the turmoil of Caesar's civil war, to Cleopatra in 40 BC as a gift for her loyalty to Rome. Antony, in his first months in the East, raised money, reorganized his troops, and secured the alliance of Rome's client kingdoms. He also promoted himself as Hellenistic ruler, which won him the affection of the Greek peoples of the East but also made him the target of Octavian's propaganda in Rome. According to some ancient authors, Antony led a carefree life of luxury in Alexandria. Upon learning the Parthian Empire had invaded Rome's territory in early 40 BC, Antony left Egypt for Syria to confront the invasion. However, after a short stay in Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre, he was forced to sail with his army to Italy to confront Octavian due to Perusine War, Octavian's war against Antony's wife and brother.


Fulvia's Civil War

Following the defeat of Brutus and Cassius, while Antony was stationed in the East, Octavian had authority over the West. Octavian's chief responsibility was distributing land to tens of thousands of Caesar's veterans who had fought for the Triumvirate. Additionally, tens of thousands of veterans who had fought for the Republican cause in the war also required land grants. This was necessary to ensure they would not support a political opponent of the Triumvirate. However, the Triumvirs did not possess sufficient state-controlled land to allot to the veterans. This left Octavian with two choices: alienating many Roman citizens by confiscating their land, or alienating many Roman soldiers who might back a military rebellion against the Triumvirate's rule. Octavian chose the former. As many as eighteen Roman towns through Italy were affected by the confiscations of 41 BC, with entire populations driven out.Eck, p. 19 Led by Fulvia, the wife of Antony, the senators grew hostile towards Octavian over the issue of the land confiscations. According to the ancient historian Cassius Dio, Fulvia was the most powerful woman in Rome at the time. According to Dio, while Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus (consul 48 BC), Publius Servilius Vatia and Lucius Antonius (brother of Mark Antony), Lucius Antonius were the consuls for the year 41 BC, real power was vested in Fulvia. As the mother-in-law of Octavian and the wife of Antony, no action was taken by the senate without her support. Fearing Octavian's land grants would cause the loyalty of the Caesarian veterans to shift away from Antony, Fulvia traveled constantly with her children to the new veteran settlements in order to remind the veterans of their debt to Antony. Fulvia also attempted to delay the land settlements until Antony returned to Rome, so that he could share credit for the settlements. With the help of Antony's brother, the consul of 41 BC Lucius Antonius (brother of Mark Antony), Lucius Antonius, Fulvia encouraged the senate to oppose Octavian's land policies. The conflict between Octavian and Fulvia caused great political and social unrest throughout Italy. Tensions escalated into open war, however, when Octavian divorced Claudia (wife of Octavian), Claudia, Fulvia's daughter from her first husband
Publius Clodius Pulcher Publius Clodius Pulcher (93–52 BC) was a populist Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''E ...
. Outraged, Fulvia, supported by Lucius, raised an army to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian. According to the ancient historian Appian, Fulvia's chief reason for the war was her jealousy of Antony's affairs with Cleopatra in Egypt and desire to draw Antony back to Rome. Lucius and Fulvia took a political and martial gamble in opposing Octavian and Lepidus, however, as the Roman army still depended on the Triumvirs for their salaries. Lucius and Fulvia, supported by their army, marched on Rome and promised the people an end to the Triumvirate in favor of Antony's sole rule. However, when Octavian returned to the city with his army, the pair were forced to retreat to Perusia in Etruria. Octavian placed the city under siege while Lucius waited for Antony's legions in Gaul to come to his aid. Away in the East and embarrassed by Fulvia's actions, Antony gave no instructions to his legions. Without reinforcements, Lucius and Fulvia were forced to surrender in February 40 BC. While Octavian pardoned Lucius for his role in the war and even granted him command in Spain as his chief lieutenant there, Fulvia was forced to flee to Greece with her children. With the war over, Octavian was left in sole control over Italy. When Antony's governor of Gaul died, Octavian took over his legions there, further strengthening his control over the West. Despite the Parthian Empire's invasion of Rome's eastern territories, Fulvia's civil war forced Antony to leave the East and return to Rome in order to secure his position. Meeting her in Athens, Antony rebuked Fulvia for her actions before sailing on to Italy with his army to face Octavian, laying siege to Brundisium. This new conflict proved untenable for both Octavian and Antony, however. Their centurions, who had become important figures politically, refused to fight due to their shared service under Caesar. The legions under their command followed suit. Meanwhile, in Sicyon, Fulvia died of a sudden and unknown illness. Fulvia's death and the mutiny of their soldiers allowed the triumvirs to effect a reconciliation through a new power sharing agreement in September 40 BC. The Roman world was redivided, with Antony receiving the Eastern provinces, Octavian the Western provinces, and Lepidus relegated to a clearly junior position as governor of Africa. This agreement, known as the ''Treaty of Brundisium'', reinforced the Triumvirate and allowed Antony to begin preparing for Caesar's long-awaited campaign against the Parthian Empire. As a symbol of their renewed alliance, Antony married Octavia, Octavian's sister, in October 40 BC.


Antony's Parthian War


Roman–Parthian relations

The rise of the Parthian Empire in the 3rd century BC and Rome's expansion into the Eastern Mediterranean during the 2nd century BC brought the two powers into direct contact, causing centuries of tumultuous and strained relations. Though periods of peace developed cultural and commercial exchanges, war was a constant threat. Influence over the buffer state of the Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Armenia, located to the north-east of Roman Syria, was often a central issue in the Roman-Parthian conflict. In 95 BC, Tigranes the Great, a Parthian ally, became king. Tigranes would later aid Mithridatic Wars, Mithradates of Pontus against Rome before being decisively defeated by
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
in 66 BC. Thereafter, with his son Artavasdes II of Armenia, Artavasdes in Rome as a hostage, Tigranes would rule Armenia as an ally of Rome until his death in 55 BC. Rome then released Artavasdes, who succeeded his father as king. In 53 BC, Rome's governor of Syria,
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
, led an expedition across the Euphrates River into Parthian territory to confront the Parthian Shah Orodes II of Parthia, Orodes II. Artavasdes II offered Crassus the aid of nearly forty thousand troops to assist his Parthian expedition on the condition that Crassus invade through Armenia as the safer route. Crassus refused, choosing instead the more direct route by crossing the Euphrates directly into desert Parthian territory. Crassus' actions proved disastrous as his army was defeated at the
Battle of Carrhae The Battle of Carrhae () was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae (present-day Harran, Turkey). The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the comma ...
by a numerically inferior Parthian force. Crassus' defeat forced Armenia to shift its loyalty to Parthia, with Artavasdes II's sister marrying Orodes' son and heir Pacorus I of Parthia, Pacorus. In early 44 BC, Julius Caesar announced his intentions to invade Parthia and restore Roman power in the East. His reasons were to punish the Parthians for assisting Pompey in the Caesar's Civil War, recent civil war, to avenge Crassus' defeat at Carrhae, and especially to match the glory of Alexander the Great for himself. Before Caesar could launch his campaign, however, he was assassinated. As part of the compromise between Antony and the Republicans to restore order following Caesar's murder, Publius Cornelius Dolabella (consul 44 BC), Publius Cornelius Dolabella was assigned the governorship of Syria and command over Caesar's planned Parthian campaign. The compromise did not hold, however, and the Republicans were forced to flee to the East. The Republicans directed Quintus Labienus to attract the Parthians to their side in the Liberators' civil war, resulting war against Antony and Octavian. After the Republicans were defeated at the
Battle of Philippi The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman poli ...
, Labienus joined the Parthians. Despite Rome's internal turmoil during the time, the Parthians did not immediately benefit from the power vacuum in the East due to Orodes II's reluctance despite Labienus' urgings to the contrary.Hinard, 2000, p. 857 In the summer of 41 BC, Antony, to reassert Roman power in the East, conquered Palmyra on the Roman-Parthian border. Antony then spent the winter of 41 BC in Alexandria with Cleopatra, leaving only two legions to defend the Syrian border against Parthian incursions. The legions, however, were composed of former Republican troops and Labienus convinced Orodes II to invade.


Parthian Invasion

A Parthian army, led by Orodes II's eldest son Pacorus I of Parthia, Pacorus, invaded
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
in early 40 BC. Labienus, the Republican ally of Brutus and Cassius, accompanied him to advise him and to rally the former Republican soldiers stationed in Syria to the Parthian cause. Labienus recruited many of the former Republican soldiers to the Parthian campaign in opposition to Antony. The joint Parthian–Roman force, after initial success in Syria, separated to lead their offensive in two directions: Pacorus marched south toward Hasmonean dynasty, Hasmonean Judea while Labienus crossed the Taurus Mountains to the north into Roman Cilicia, Cilicia. Labienus conquered southern Anatolia with little resistance. The Roman governor of Asia (Roman province), Asia, Lucius Munatius Plancus, a partisan of Antony, was forced to flee his province, allowing Labienus to recruit the Roman soldiers stationed there. For his part, Pacorus advanced south to Phoenicia and Syria Palaestina, Palestine. In Hasmonean dynasty, Hasmonean Judea, the exiled prince Antigonus the Hasmonean, Antigonus allied himself with the Parthians. When his brother, Rome's client king
Hyrcanus II John Hyrcanus II (, ''Yohanan Hurqanos'') (died 30 BCE), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an i ...

Hyrcanus II
, refused to accept Parthian domination, he was deposed in favor of Antigonus as Parthia's client king in Judea. Pacorus' conquest had captured much of the Syrian and Palestinian interior, with much of the Phoenician coast occupied as well. The city of Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre remained the last major Roman outpost in the region.Hinard, 2000, p. 858 Antony, then in Egypt with Cleopatra, did not respond immediately to the Parthian invasion. Though he left Alexandria for Tyre in early 40 BC, when he learned of Perusine War, the civil war between his wife and Octavian, he was forced to return to Italy with his army to secure his position in Rome rather than defeat the Parthians. Instead, Antony dispatched Publius Ventidius Bassus to check the Parthian advance. Arriving in the East in spring 39 BC, Ventidius surprised Labienus near the Taurus Mountains, claiming victory at Battle of the Cilician Gates, the Cilician Gates. Ventidius ordered Labienus executed as a traitor and the formerly rebellious Roman soldiers under his command were reincorporated under Antony's control. He then met a Parthian army at the border between Cilicia and Syria, defeating it and killing a large portion of the Parthian soldiers at Battle of Amanus Pass, the Amanus Pass. Ventidius' actions temporarily halted the Parthian advance and restored Roman authority in the East, forcing Pacorus to abandon his conquests and return to Parthia. In the spring of 38 BC, the Parthians resumed their offensive with Pacorus leading an army across the Euphrates. Ventidius, in order to gain time, leaked disinformation to Pacorus implying that he should cross the Euphrates River at their usual ford. Pacorus did not trust this information and decided to cross the river much farther downstream; this was what Ventidius hoped would occur and gave him time to get his forces ready. The Parthians faced no opposition and proceeded to the town of Gindarus in Cyrrhestica where Ventidius' army was waiting. At the Battle of Mount Gindarus, Battle of Cyrrhestica, Ventidius inflicted an overwhelming defeat against the Parthians which resulted in the death of Pacorus. Overall, the Roman army had achieved a complete victory with Ventidius' three successive victories forcing the Parthians back across the Euphrates. Pacorus' death threw the Parthian Empire into chaos. Shah Orodes II, overwhelmed by the grief of his son's death, appointed his younger son Phraates IV as his successor. However, Phraates IV assassinated Orodes II in late 38 BC, succeeding him on the throne. Ventidius feared Antony's wrath if he invaded Parthian territory, thereby stealing his glory; so instead he attacked and subdued the eastern kingdoms, which had revolted against Roman control following the disastrous defeat of Crassus at Carrhae. One such rebel was King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene, Antiochus of Kingdom of Commagene, Commagene, whom he besieged in Samosata. Antiochus tried to make peace with Ventidius, but Ventidius told him to approach Antony directly. After peace was concluded, Antony sent Ventidius back to Rome where he celebrated a Roman triumph, triumph, the first Roman to triumph over the Parthians.


Conflict with Sextus Pompey

While Antony and the other Triumvirs ratified the Treaty of Brundisium to redivide the Roman world among themselves, the rebel Sextus Pompey, the son of Caesar's rival Pompey the Great, was largely ignored. From his stronghold on Sicilia (Roman province), Sicily, he continued his piratical activities across Italy and blocked the shipment of grain to Rome. The lack of food in Rome caused the public to blame the Triumvirate and shift its sympathies towards Pompey. This pressure forced the Triumvirs to meet with Sextus in early 39 BC. While Octavian wanted an end to the ongoing blockade of Italy, Antony sought peace in the West in order to make the Triumvirate's legions available for his service in his planned campaign against the Parthians. Though the Triumvirs rejected Sextus' initial request to replace Lepidus as the third man within the Triumvirate, they did grant other concessions. Under the terms of the Treaty of Misenum, Sextus was allowed to retain control over Sicily and Corsica et Sardinia, Sardinia, with the provinces of Corsica et Sardinia, Corsica and Achaea (Roman province), Greece being added to his territory. He was also promised a future position with the Augur, Priestly College of Augurs and the consulship for 35 BC. In exchange, Sextus agreed to end his naval blockade of Italy, supply Rome with grain, and halt his piracy of Roman merchant ships. However, the most important provision of the Treaty was the end of the proscription the Trimumvirate had begun in late 43 BC. Many of the proscribed senators, rather than face death, fled to Sicily seeking Sextus' protection. With the exception of those responsible for Caesar's assassination, all those proscribed were allowed to return to Rome and promised compensation. This caused Sextus to lose many valuable allies as the formerly exiled senators gradually aligned themselves with either Octavian or Antony. To secure the peace, Octavian betrothed his three-year-old nephew and Antony's stepson Marcus Claudius Marcellus (Julio-Claudian dynasty), Marcus Claudius Marcellus to Sextus' daughter Pompeia (daughter of Sextus Pompeius), Pompeia. With peace in the West secured, Antony planned to retaliate against Parthia by invading their territory. Under an agreement with Octavian, Antony would be supplied with extra troops for his campaign. With this military purpose on his mind, Antony sailed to Greece with Octavia, where he behaved in a most extravagant manner, assuming the attributes of the Greek mythology, Greek god Dionysus in 39 BC. The peace with Sextus was short-lived, however. When Sextus demanded control over Greece as the agreement provided, Antony demanded the province's tax revenues be to fund the Parthian campaign. Sextus refused. Meanwhile, Sextus' admiral Menas (freedman), Menas betrayed him, shifting his loyalty to Octavian and thereby granting him control of Corsica, Sardinia, three of Sextus' legions, and a larger naval force. These actions worked to renew Sextus' blockade of Italy, preventing Octavian from sending the promised troops to Antony for the Parthian campaign. This new delay caused Antony to quarrel with Octavian, forcing Octavia to mediate a truce between them. Under the Treaty of Tarentum, Antony provided a large naval force for Octavian's use against Sextus while Octavian promised to raise new legions for Antony to support his invasion of Parthia. As the term of the Triumvirate was set to expire at the end of 38 BC, the two unilaterally extended their term of office another five years until 33 BC without seeking approval of the senate or the popular assemblies. To seal the Treaty, Antony's elder son Marcus Antonius Antyllus, then only 6 years old, was betrothed to Octavian's only daughter Julia the Elder, Julia, then only an infant. With the Treaty signed, Antony returned to the East, leaving Octavia in Italy.


Reconquest of Judea

With Publius Ventidius Bassus returned to Rome in triumph for his defensive campaign against the Parthians, Antony appointed Gaius Sosius as the new governor of Syria and Cilicia in early 38 BC. Antony, still in the West negotiating with Octavian, ordered Sosius to depose Antigonus II Mattathias, Antigonus, who had been installed in the recent Parthian invasion as the ruler of Hasmonean dynasty, Hasmonean Judea, and to make Herod the Great, Herod the new Roman client king in the region. Years before in 40 BC, the Roman senate had proclaimed Herod "King of the Jews" because Herod had been a loyal supporter of
Hyrcanus II John Hyrcanus II (, ''Yohanan Hurqanos'') (died 30 BCE), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an i ...

Hyrcanus II
, Rome's previous client king before the Parthian invasion, and was from a Herodian dynasty, family with long standing connections to Rome. The Romans hoped to use Herod as a bulwark against the Parthians in the coming campaign. Advancing south, Sosius captured the island-city of Arwad, Aradus on the coast of Phoenicia by the end of 38 BC. The following year, the Romans Siege of Jerusalem (37 BC), besieged Jerusalem. After a forty-day siege, the Roman soldiers stormed the city and, despite Herod's pleas for restraint, acted without mercy, pillaging and killing all in their path, prompting Herod to complain to Antony. Herod finally resorted to bribing Sosius and his troops in order that they would not leave him "king of a desert". Antigonus was forced to surrender to Sosius, and was sent to Antony for the Roman triumph, triumphal procession in Rome. Herod, however, fearing that Antigonus would win backing in Rome, bribed Antony to execute Antigonus. Antony, who recognized that Antigonus would remain a permanent threat to Herod, ordered him beheaded in Antioch. Now secure on his throne, Herod would rule the Herodian Kingdom until his death in 4 BC, and would be an ever-faithful client king of Rome.


Parthian Campaign

With the Triumvirate renewed in 38 BC, Antony returned to Athens in the winter with his new wife Octavia Major, Octavia, the sister of Octavian. With the assassination of the Parthian king Orodes II of Parthia, Orodes II by his son Phraates IV, who then seized the Parthian throne, in late 38 BC, Antony prepared to invade Parthia himself. Antony, however, realized Octavian had no intention of sending him the additional legions he had promised under the Treaty of Tarentum. To supplement his own armies, Antony instead looked to Rome's principal vassal in the East: his lover Cleopatra. In addition to significant financial resources, Cleopatra's backing of his Parthian campaign allowed Antony to amass the largest army Rome had ever assembled in the East. Wintering in Antioch during 37, Antony's combined Roman–Egyptian army numbered some 200,000, including sixteen legions (approximately 160,000 soldiers) plus an additional 40,000 auxiliaries. Such a force was twice the size of
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
's army from his failed Parthian invasion of 53 BC and three times those of Lucullus, Lucius Licinius Lucullus and Sulla, Lucius Cornelius Sulla during the Mithridatic Wars. The size of his army indicated Antony's intention to conquer Parthia, or at least receive its submission by capturing the Parthian capital of Ecbatana. Antony's rear was protected by Rome's client kingdoms in Anatolia, Syria, and Judea, while the client kingdoms of Cappadocia, Pontus, and Commagene would provide supplies along the march. Antony's first target for his invasion was the kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Armenia. Ruled by King Artavasdes II of Armenia, Armenia had been an ally of Rome since the defeat of Tigranes the Great by Pompey, Pompey the Great in 66 BC during the Third Mithridatic War. However, following
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
's defeat at the
Battle of Carrhae The Battle of Carrhae () was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae (present-day Harran, Turkey). The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the comma ...
in 53 BC, Armenia was forced into an alliance with Parthia due to Rome's weakened position in the East. Antony dispatched Publius Canidius Crassus to Armenia, receiving Artavasdes II's surrender without opposition. Canidius then led an invasion into the South Caucasus, subduing Kingdom of Iberia (antiquity), Iberia. There, Canidius forced the Iberian King Pharnavaz II of Iberia, Pharnavaz II into an alliance against Zober, king of neighboring Caucasian Albania, Albania, subduing the kingdom and reducing it to a Roman protectorate. With Armenia and the Caucasus secured, Antony marched south, crossing into the Parthian province of Media Atropatene. Though Antony desired a pitched battle, the Parthians would not engage, allowing Antony to march deep into Parthian territory by mid-August of 36 BC. This forced Antony to leave his logistics train in the care of two legions (approximately 10,000 soldiers), which was then attacked and completely destroyed by the Parthian army before Antony could rescue them. Though the Armenian King Artavasdes II and his cavalry were present during the massacre, they did not intervene. Despite the ambush, Antony continued the campaign. However, Antony was soon forced to retreat in mid-October after a failed two-month siege of the provincial capital. The retreat soon proved a disaster as Antony's demoralized army faced increasing supply difficulties in the mountainous terrain during winter while constantly being harassed by the Parthian army. According to the Greek historian
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, eighteen battles were fought between the retreating Romans and the Parthians during the month-long march back to Armenia, with approximately 20,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry dying during the retreat alone. Once in Armenia, Antony quickly marched back to
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
to protect his interests there by late 36 BC, losing an additional 8,000 soldiers along the way. In all, two-fifths of his original army (some 80,000 men) had died during his failed campaign.


Antony and Cleopatra

Meanwhile, in Rome, the triumvirate was no more. Octavian forced Lepidus to resign after the older triumvir attempted to take control of Sicily after the defeat of Sextus. Now in sole power, Octavian was occupied in wooing the traditional Republican aristocracy to his side. He married Livia and started to attack Antony in order to raise himself to power. He argued that Antony was a man of low morals to have left his faithful wife abandoned in Rome with the children to be with the promiscuous queen of Egypt. Antony was accused of everything, but most of all, of "wikt:Special:Search/go native, going native", an unforgivable crime to the proud Romans. Several times Antony was summoned to Rome, but remained in Alexandria with Cleopatra. Again with Egyptian money, Antony invaded Armenia, this time successfully. In the return, a mock Roman triumph was celebrated in the streets of Alexandria. The parade through the city was a pastiche of Rome's most important military celebration. For the finale, the whole city was summoned to hear a very important political statement. Surrounded by Cleopatra and her children, Antony ended his alliance with Octavian. He distributed kingdoms among his children: Alexander Helios was named king of Armenia, Medes, Media and Parthia (territories which were not for the most part under the control of Rome), his twin Cleopatra Selene II, Cleopatra Selene got Cyrenaica and Libya, and the young Ptolemy Philadelphus (Cleopatra), Ptolemy Philadelphus was awarded Syria and Cilicia. As for Cleopatra, she was proclaimed Queen of Kings and Queen of Egypt, to rule with Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Caesar, son of Cleopatra by Julius Caesar), King of Kings and King of Egypt. Most important of all, Caesarion was declared legitimate son and heir of Caesar. These proclamations were known as the ''Donations of Alexandria'' and caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Rome. While the distribution of nations among Cleopatra's children was hardly a conciliatory gesture, it did not pose an immediate threat to Octavian's political position. Far more dangerous was the acknowledgment of Caesarion as legitimate and heir to Caesar's name. Octavian's base of power was his link with Caesar through Adoption in Rome, adoption, which granted him much-needed popularity and loyalty of the legions. To see this convenient situation attacked by a child borne by the richest woman in the world was something Octavian could not accept. The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed. Another civil war was beginning. During 33 and 32 BC, a propaganda war was fought in the political arena of Rome, with accusations flying between sides. Antony (in Egypt) divorced Octavia and accused Octavian of being a social upstart, of usurping power, and of forging the adoption papers by Caesar. Octavian responded with treason charges: of illegally keeping provinces that should be given to other men by Cleromancy, lots, as was Rome's tradition, and of starting wars against foreign nations (Armenia and Parthia) without the consent of the senate. Antony was also held responsible for Sextus Pompey's execution without a trial. In 32 BC, the senate deprived him of his powers and declared war against Cleopatra – not Antony, because Octavian had no wish to advertise his role in perpetuating Rome's internecine bloodshed. Both consuls, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32 BC), Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius, and a third of the senate abandoned Rome to meet Antony and Cleopatra in Greece. In 31 BC, the war started. Octavian's general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa captured the Greek city and naval port of Methoni, Messenia, Methone, loyal to Antony. The enormous popularity of Octavian with the legions secured the defection of the provinces of Cyrenaica and Greece to his side. On 2 September, the naval
Battle of Actium The Battle of Actium was a naval battle in the , fought between the fleet of and the combined forces of and Queen of . It took place on 2 September 31 BC in the near the promontory of in . Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his p ...
took place. Antony and Cleopatra's navy was overwhelmed, and they were forced to escape to Egypt with 60 ships.


Death

Octavian, now close to absolute power, invaded Egypt in August, 30 BC, assisted by Agrippa. With no other refuge to escape to, Antony stabbed himself with his sword in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done so. When he found out that Cleopatra was still alive, his friends brought him to Cleopatra's monument in which she was hiding, and he died in her arms. Cleopatra was allowed to conduct Antony's burial rites after she had been captured by Octavian. Realising that she was destined for Octavian's Roman triumph, triumph in Rome, she made several attempts to take her life and finally succeeded in mid-August. Octavian had Caesarion and Antyllus killed, but he spared Iullus Antonius, Iullus as well as Antony's children by Cleopatra, who were paraded through the streets of Rome.


Aftermath and legacy

Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
's son, Cicero Minor, announced Antony's death to the senate. Antony's honours were revoked and his statues removed, but he was not subject to a complete damnatio memoriae. Cicero Minor also made a decree that no member of the Antonia gens, Antonii would ever bear the name Marcus (praenomen), Marcus again. "In this way Heaven entrusted the family of Cicero the final acts in the punishment of Antony." When Antony died, Octavian became uncontested ruler of Rome. In the following years, Octavian, who was known as Caesar Augustus, Augustus after 27 BC, managed to accumulate in his person all administrative, political, and military offices. When Augustus died in AD 14, his political powers passed to his adopted son Tiberius; the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
had begun. The rise of Caesar and the subsequent civil war between his two most powerful adherents effectively ended the credibility of the Roman oligarchy as a governing power and ensured that all future power struggles would centre upon which one individual would achieve supreme control of the government, eliminating the senate and the former magisterial structure as important foci of power in these conflicts. Thus, in history, Antony appears as one of Caesar's main adherents, he and Octavian Augustus being the two men around whom power coalesced following the assassination of Caesar, and finally as one of the three men chiefly responsible for the demise of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
.


Marriages and issue

Antony was known to have an obsession with women and sex. He had many mistresses (including Volumnia Cytheris, Cytheris) and was married in succession to Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia, Octavia and Cleopatra. He left a number of children. Through his daughters by Octavia, he would be ancestor to the
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becom ...
s Caligula, Claudius and Nero. # Marriage to Fadia, a daughter of a freedman. According to
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
, Fadia bore Antony several children. Nothing is known about Fadia or their children. Cicero is the only Roman source that mentions Antony's first wife. # Marriage to first paternal cousin Antonia Hybrida Minor. According to
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, Antony threw her out of his house in Rome because she slept with his friend, the tribune Publius Cornelius Dolabella (consul 44 BC), Publius Cornelius Dolabella. This occurred by 47 BC and Antony divorced her. By Antonia, he had a daughter: #* Antonia (wife of Pythodoros), Antonia, granddaughter of Gaius Antonius Hybrida, married the wealthy Greek Pythodoros of Tralles. # Marriage to Fulvia, by whom he had two sons: #* Marcus Antonius Antyllus, murdered by Octavian in 30 BC. #* Iullus Antonius, married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia. # Marriage to Octavia the Younger, sister of Octavian, later emperor Augustus; they had two daughters: #* Antonia the Elder married Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16 BC); maternal grandmother of the Empress Valeria Messalina and paternal grandmother of the emperor Nero. #* Antonia the Younger married Nero Claudius Drusus, the younger son of the Empress Livia Drusilla and brother of the emperor Tiberius; mother of the emperor Claudius, paternal grandmother of the emperor Caligula and empress Agrippina the Younger, and maternal great-grandmother of the emperor Nero. # Children with the Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, the former lover of Julius Caesar: #* Alexander Helios #* Cleopatra Selene II, married King Juba II Numidia, of Numidia and later Mauretania; the queen of Syria, Zenobia of Palmyra, was reportedly descended from Selene and Juba II. #* Ptolemy Philadelphus (son of Cleopatra), Ptolemy Philadelphus.


Descendants

Through his daughters by Octavia, he was the paternal great grandfather of Roman emperor Caligula, the maternal grandfather of emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-great-grandfather and paternal great-great uncle of the emperor Nero of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Through his eldest daughter, he was ancestor to the long line of kings and co-rulers of the Bosporan Kingdom, the longest-living Roman client state, client kingdom, as well as the rulers and royalty of several other Roman client states. Through his daughter by Cleopatra, Antony was ancestor to the royal family of Mauretania, another Roman client kingdom, while through his sole surviving son Iullus Antonius, Iullus, he was ancestor to several famous Roman statesmen. :1. Antonia, born 50 BC, had 1 child ::A. Pythodorida of Pontus, 30 BC or 29 BC – 38 AD, had 3 children :::I. Artaxias III, Artaxias III, King of Armenia, 13 BC – 35 AD, died without issue :::II. Polemon II of Pontus, Polemon II, King of Pontus, 12 BC or 11 BC – 74 AD, died without issue :::III. Antonia Tryphaena, Antonia Tryphaena, Queen of Thrace, 10 BC – 55 AD, had 4 children ::::a. Rhoemetalces II, Rhoemetalces II, King of Thrace, died 38 AD, died without issue ::::b. Gepaepyris, Gepaepyris, Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 2 children :::::i. Tiberius Julius Mithridates, Tiberius Julius Mithridates, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 68 AD, died without issue :::::ii. Tiberius Julius Cotys I, Tiberius Julius Cotys I, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 1 child ::::::i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I, Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 90 AD, had 1 child :::::::i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates I, Tiberius Julius Sauromates I, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 1 child ::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Cotys II, Tiberius Julius Cotys II, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 1 child :::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Rhoemetalces, Rhoemetalces, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 153 AD, had 1 child ::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Eupator, Eupator, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 174 AD, had 1 child :::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates II, Tiberius Julius Sauromates II, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 210 AD or 211 AD, had 2 children ::::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis II, Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis II, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 227 AD, had 1 child :::::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III, Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 227 AD ::::::::::::ii. Tiberius Julius Cotys III, Tiberius Julius Cotys III, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 235 AD, had 3 children :::::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates III, Tiberius Julius Sauromates III, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 232 AD :::::::::::::ii. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis IV, Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis IV, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 235 AD :::::::::::::iii. Tiberius Julius Ininthimeus, Tiberius Julius Ininthimeus, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 240 AD, had 1 child ::::::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis V, Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis V, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 276 AD, had 3 children :::::::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Pharsanzes, Tiberius Julius Pharsanzes, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 254 AD :::::::::::::::ii. Tiberius Julius Synges, Synges, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 276 AD :::::::::::::::iii. Tiberius Julius Teiranes, Tiberius Julius Teiranes, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 279 AD, had 2 children ::::::::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates IV, Tiberius Julius Sauromates IV, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 276 AD ::::::::::::::::ii. Tiberius Julius Theothorses, Theothorses, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 309 AD, had 3 children :::::::::::::::::i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis VI, Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis VI, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 342 AD :::::::::::::::::ii. Tiberius Julius Rhadamsades, Rhadamsades, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 323 AD :::::::::::::::::iii. Nana of Iberia, Nana, Queen of Caucasian Iberia, died 363 AD ::::::::::::::::::i. Rev II of Iberia :::::::::::::::::::i. Sauromaces II of Iberia :::::::::::::::::::ii. Trdat of Iberia ::::::::::::::::::ii. Aspacures II of Iberia ::::c. Cotys IX, Cotys IX, King of Lesser Armenia ::::d. Pythodoris II, Pythodoris II of Thrace, died without issue :2. Marcus Antonius Antyllus, 47–30 BC, died without issue :3. Iullus Antonius, 43–2 BC, had 3 children ::A. Antonius, died young, no issue ::B. Lucius Antonius (grandson of Mark Antony), Lucius Antonius, 20 BC – 25 AD, issue unknown ::C. Iulla Antonia ?? born after 19 BC, issue unknown :4. Alexander Helios, Prince Alexander Helios of Egypt, born 40 BC, died without issue (presumably)Roller, ''The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene'' pp. 84–89 :5. Cleopatra Selene II, Cleopatra Selene, Queen of Mauretania, 40 BC – 6 AD, had 2 children ::A. Ptolemy of Mauretania, Ptolemy, King of Mauretania, 1 BC – 40 AD, had 1 child :::I. Drusilla of Mauretania (born 38), Drusilla, Queen of Emesa, 38–79 AD, had 1 child ::::a. Gaius Julius Alexio, King of Emesa, had 1 child ::B. Drusilla of Mauretania (born 5), Princess Drusilla of Mauretania, born 5 AD or 8 BC :6. Antonia the Elder, Antonia Major, 39 BC – before 25 AD, had 3 children ::A. Domitia Lepida the Elder, c. 19 BC – 59 AD, had 1 child :::I. Quintus Haterius Antoninus ::B. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32), Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, 17 BC – 40 AD, had 1 child :::I. Nero, Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) (see line of Antonia Minor below) ::C. Domitia Lepida the Younger, 10 BC – 54 AD, had 3 children :::I. Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus (consul 58), Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus :::II. Valeria Messalina, 17 or 20–48 AD, had 2 children ::::a. (Messalina was the mother of the two youngest children of the Roman emperor Claudius listed below) :::III. Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, 22–62 AD, had 1 child ::::a. a son (this child and the only child of the Claudia Antonia listed below are the same person) :7. Antonia Minor, 36 BC – 37 AD, had 3 children ::A. Germanicus, Germanicus Julius Caesar, 16 or 15 BC – 19 AD, had 6 children :::I. Nero Julius Caesar, Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus, 6–30 AD, died without issue :::II. Drusus Caesar, Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus, 7–33 AD, died without issue :::III. Caligula, Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula), 12–41 AD, had 1 child; ::::a. Julia Drusilla (daughter of Caligula), Julia Drusilla, 39–41 AD, died young :::IV. Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina (Agrippina the Younger), 15–59 AD, had 1 child; ::::a. Nero, Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, 37–68 AD, had 1 child; :::::i. Claudia Augusta, January 63 AD – April 63 AD, died young :::V. Julia Drusilla, 16–38 AD, died without issue :::VI. Julia Livilla, 18–42 AD, died without issue ::B. Livilla, Claudia Livia Julia (Livilla), 13 BC – 31 AD, had three children :::I. Julia Livia, 5–43 AD, had 4 children ::::a. Gaius Rubellius Plautus, 33–62 AD, had several children ::::b. Rubellia Bassa, born between 33 AD and 38 AD, had at least 1 childSir Ronald Syme claims that Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus, consul in 131 under Emperor Hadrian, set up a dedication to his grandmother, Rubellia Bassa. :::::i. Octavius Laenas, had at least 1 child ::::::i. Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus ::::c. Gaius Rubellius Blandus ::::d. Rubellius Drusus :::II. Tiberius Gemellus, Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, 19–37 or 38 AD, died without issue :::III. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus II Gemellus, 19–23 AD, died young ::C. Claudius, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, 10 BC – 54 AD, had 4 children :::I. Claudius Drusus, Tiberius Claudius Drusus, died young :::II. Claudia Antonia, c. 30–66 AD, had 1 child ::::a. a son, died young :::III. Claudia Octavia, 39 or 40–62 AD, died without issue :::IV. Britannicus, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, 41–55 AD, died without issue :8. Ptolemy Philadelphus (son of Cleopatra), Prince Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt, 36–29 BC, died without issue (presumably)


Artistic portrayals

Works in which the character of Mark Antony plays a central role: * William Shakespeare's ''Julius Caesar (play), Julius Caesar'' ** ''Julius Caesar (1950 film)'' based on this (played by Charlton Heston) ** ''Julius Caesar (1953 film)'' based on this (played by Marlon Brando) ** ''Julius Caesar (1970 film)'' based on this (played by Charlton Heston again) * Antony and Cleopatra (disambiguation), Antony and Cleopatra, several works with that title * John Dryden's 1677 play ''All for Love (play), All for Love'' * Jules Massenet's 1914 opera ''Cléopâtre'' * The 1934 film ''Cleopatra (1934 film), Cleopatra'' (played by Henry Wilcoxon) * Orson Welles' innovative 1937 adaptation of William Shakespeare at Comedy Theatre (New York City), Mercury Theatre has George Coulouris as Marcus Antonius. * The 1953 film ''Serpent of the Nile'' (played by Raymond Burr) * The 1963 film ''Cleopatra (1963 film), Cleopatra'' (played by Richard Burton) * The 1964 film ''Carry On Cleo'' (played by Sid James) * The 1983 miniseries ''The Cleopatras'' (played by Christopher Neame) * The TV series ''Xena: Warrior Princess'' (played by Manu Bennett) * In the ''Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome'', Mark Antony featured as a short swordsman. * The 1999 film ''Cleopatra (1999 film), Cleopatra'' (played by Billy Zane) * The Capcom video game ''Shadow of Rome'', in which he is depicted as the main antagonist * The 2003 TV movie ''Imperium: Augustus'' (played by Massimo Ghini) * The 2005 TV mini series ''Empire (2005 TV series), Empire'' (played by Vincent Regan) * The 2005–2007 HBO/BBC TV series ''Rome (TV series), Rome'' (played by James Purefoy) * The 2009–2013 TV series ''Horrible Histories (2009 TV series), Horrible Histories'' (played by Mathew Baynton), and the 2015 Horrible Histories (2015 TV series), reboot series of the same name (portrayed by Tom Stourton in 2019) * The 2006 BBC One docudrama ''Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire#Episode one: Caesar, Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire'' (played by Alex Ferns) * As Cleopatra's guardian and level boss (of Lust) in the Xbox 360 game ''Dante's Inferno (video game), Dante's Inferno'' released by Visceral Games in 2010. * The Pixelberry Studios, Choices: Stories You Play visual novel ''A Courtesan of Rome'', in which he is depicted as one of the love interests. * The 2021 TV series ''Domina (TV series), Domina'' (played by Liam Garrigan)


Novels

* In Colleen McCullough's ''Masters of Rome'' series (1990–2007), Antony is portrayed as a deeply flawed character, a brave warrior but sexually promiscuous, often drunk and foolish, and a monster of vanity who loves riding in a chariot drawn by lions. * Margaret George's ''The Memoirs of Cleopatra'' (1997) * Conn Iggulden's ''Emperor'' novels (2003–13) * Robert Harris (novelist), Robert Harris's ''Dictator (Harris novel), Dictator'' (2015) * Michael Livingston's ''The Shards of Heaven'' (2015)


Poetry

* Geoffrey Chaucer's fourteenth-century poem ''The Legend of Good Women''. * William Haines Lytle, Lytle, William Haines (1826–1863), ''Antony and Cleopatra''. * Constantine P. Cavafy's poem ''The God Abandons Antony'' (1911), a hymn to human dignity, depicts the imaginary last moments of Mark Antony while he sees his fortunes turning around.


See also

* Flamen Divi Julii, priest of the Divus Iulius, cult of Caesar, of which Mark Antony was the first to serve. * Antonia gens, the ancestral ''gens'' of Mark Antony.


Notes


References


Citations


Primary sources

* Dio Cassius xli.–liii * Appian, ''Bell. Civ.'' i.–v. * Julius Caesar, Caesar, ''Commentarii de Bello Gallico'' and ''Commentarii de Bello Civili'' *
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
, ''Letters'' and ''Philippicae, Philippics'' *
''Orations: The fourteen Philippics against Marcus Antonius'' ~ Tufts University Classics Collection
*
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, ''Parallel Lives, Parallel Lives (Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans)'' *
Plutarch's ''Parallel Lives'': "Antony" ~ Internet Classics Archive
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT) *
Plutarch's ''Parallel Lives'': "Pompey" ~ Internet Classics Archive
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT) *
Plutarch's ''Parallel Lives'': "Life of Antony" – Loeb Classical Library edition, 1920
*

(MIT) * Josephus, ''The Jewish War'' * Velleius Paterculus, ''The Roman History'', II.60–87.


Secondary sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Renucci, Pierre. ''Marc Antoine, un destin inachevé entre César et Cléopâtre''(2014) * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

*
MarkAntony.org


* [https://web.archive.org/web/20130314185023/http://www.cristoraul.com/ENGLISH/readinghall/GalleryofHistory/Marc-Anthony/LIFE-MA-DOOR.html The Life of Marc Antony, in BTM Format] , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Antony, Mark Mark Antony, 83 BC births 30 BC deaths 1st-century BC Roman augurs 1st-century BC Roman consuls 1st-century BC Roman generals Ancient Egyptian royal consorts Magistri equitum (Roman Republic) Ancient Roman military personnel who committed suicide Ancient Romans who committed suicide Antonii, Mark Correspondents of Cicero Husbands of Cleopatra Husbands of Fulvia Military personnel of Julius Caesar People of the Roman–Parthian Wars Populares Ptolemaic dynasty Roman people of the Gallic Wars Suicides by sharp instrument in Egypt Tribunes of the plebs