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The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known as the Lugou Bridge Incident () or the Double-Seven Incident (), was a July 1937 battle between
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
's
National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as National Army () after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan ...
and the
Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the ...
. Since the
Japanese invasion of Manchuria The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army ''Kantō-gun'' , image=Kwantung Army Headquarters.JPG , image_size=300px , caption=Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo Manchukuo, officiall ...
in 1931, there had been many small incidents along the rail line connecting Beijing with the port of Tianjin, but all had subsided. On this occasion, a Japanese soldier was temporarily absent from his unit opposite Wanping, and the Japanese commander demanded the right to search the town for him. When this was refused, other units on both sides were put on alert, and with tension rising the Chinese Army fired on the Japanese Army which further escalated the situation, even though the missing Japanese soldier had returned to his lines. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident is generally regarded as the start of the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
.


Name

In English, the battle is usually known as the "Marco Polo Bridge Incident". The
Marco Polo Bridge The Marco Polo Bridge or Lugou Bridge () is a stone bridge located 15 km southwest of Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 s ...
is an eleven-arch granite bridge, an architecturally significant structure first erected under the Jin and later restored by the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Wester ...

Kangxi Emperor
in 1698. It gained its Western name from its appearance in
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in ' (also known as ''Book of the Marvels of the World '' and '' ...

Marco Polo
's record of his travels. It is also known as the "Lukouchiao", "Lugouqiao", or from the local name of the bridge, derived from a former name of the
Yongding River The Yongding River () is a river in northern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different coun ...
. This is the common name for the event in Japanese (, ''Rokōkyō Jiken'') and is an alternate name for it in Chinese and Korean (, ''Nogugyo Sageon''). The same name is also expressed or translated as the "", "Lugouqiao", or "Lukouchiao". In China and Korea, it is more often known as the .


Background

Tensions between the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Empire of Japan
and the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
had been heightened since the
Japanese invasion of Manchuria The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army ''Kantō-gun'' , image=Kwantung Army Headquarters.JPG , image_size=300px , caption=Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo Manchukuo, officiall ...
in 1931 and their subsequent creation of a puppet state,
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
, with
Puyi Puyi (; February 7, 1906 – October 17, 1967), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cult ...
, the deposed
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
Emperor, as its head. Following the invasion, Japanese forces extended their control further into northern China, seeking to obtain raw materials and industrial capacity. A commission of inquiry from the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
made the scathing
Lytton Report are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) ...
into their actions, leading to Japan pulling out of the League. The
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
(KMT) government of China refused to recognize Manchukuo but did agree to the
Tanggu Truce The Tanggu Truce, sometimes called the , was a ceasefire A ceasefire (or truce), also spelled cease fire (the antonym of 'open fire'), is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Histo ...

Tanggu Truce
with Japan in 1933. Subsequently, there were various "incidents", or armed clashes of a limited nature, followed by a return to uneasy peace. The significance of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident is that following it, tensions did not subside again; instead, there was an escalation, with larger forces committed by both sides and fighting spreading to other parts of China. With hindsight, this small incident can, therefore, be regarded as the starting point of a major conflict. Under the terms of the
Boxer Protocol The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Di ...
of 7 September 1901, China had granted nations with legations in
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
the right to station guards at twelve specific points along railways connecting Beijing with
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality and a coastal metropolis in North China, Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is ...

Tianjin
. This was to ensure open communications between the capital and the port. By a supplementary agreement on 15 July 1902, these forces were allowed to conduct maneuvers without informing the authorities of other nations in China.HyperWar:_International_Military_Tribunal_for_the_Far_East_[Chapter_5]
/ref>By_July_1937,_Japan_had_expanded_its_forces_in_China_to_an_estimated_7,000_to_15,000_men,_mostly_along_the_railways._This_number_of_men,_and_the_amount_of_concomitant_matériel,_was_several_times_the_size_of_the_detachments_deployed_by_the_European_powers,_and_greatly_in_excess_of_the_limits_set_by_the_Boxer_Protocol._By_this_time,_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army_ The__was_the_official_ground-based_armed_force_of_the_Empire_of_Japan_ The__was_a_historical__and__that_existed_from_the__in_1868_until_the_enactment_of_the_post-World_War_II__and_subsequent_formation_of_modern_._It_encompassed_the___...
_had_already_surrounded_Beijing_and_Tianjin. On_the_night_of_7_July,_the_Japanese_units_stationed_at_ HyperWar:_International_Military_Tribunal_for_the_Far_East_[Chapter_5]
/ref>By_July_1937,_Japan_had_expanded_its_forces_in_China_to_an_estimated_7,000_to_15,000_men,_mostly_along_the_railways._This_number_of_men,_and_the_amount_of_concomitant_matériel,_was_several_times_the_size_of_the_detachments_deployed_by_the_European_powers,_and_greatly_in_excess_of_the_limits_set_by_the_Boxer_Protocol._By_this_time,_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army_ The__was_the_official_ground-based_armed_force_of_the_Empire_of_Japan_ The__was_a_historical__and__that_existed_from_the__in_1868_until_the_enactment_of_the_post-World_War_II__and_subsequent_formation_of_modern_._It_encompassed_the___...
_had_already_surrounded_Beijing_and_Tianjin. On_the_night_of_7_July,_the_Japanese_units_stationed_at_Fengtai_District">Fengtai_crossed_the_border_to_conduct_military_exercises.Documentary_about_the_Marco_Polo_Bridge_Incident_https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dj7lWDz-sY8_Japanese_and_Chinese_forces_outside_the_town_of_Wanping_Fortress.html" ;"title="Fengtai_District.html" ;"title="hapter 5]">HyperWar: International Military Tribunal for the Far East [Chapter 5]
/ref>By July 1937, Japan had expanded its forces in China to an estimated 7,000 to 15,000 men, mostly along the railways. This number of men, and the amount of concomitant matériel, was several times the size of the detachments deployed by the European powers, and greatly in excess of the limits set by the Boxer Protocol. By this time, the
Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the ...
had already surrounded Beijing and Tianjin. On the night of 7 July, the Japanese units stationed at Fengtai District">Fengtai crossed the border to conduct military exercises.Documentary about the Marco Polo Bridge Incident https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dj7lWDz-sY8 Japanese and Chinese forces outside the town of Wanping Fortress">Wanping—a walled town 16.4 km (10.2 mi) southwest of Beijing—exchanged fire at approximately 23:00. The exact cause of this incident remains unknown. When a Japanese soldier, Private Shimura Kikujiro, failed to return to his post, Chinese regimental commander Ji Xingwen (219th Regiment, 37th Division, 29th Route Army) received a message from the Japanese demanding permission to enter Wanping to search for the missing soldier; the Chinese flatly refused. Although Private Shimura returned to his unit (he claimed that he was suffering from stomach ache, had to find immediate relief in the darkness and got lost), by this point both sides were mobilizing, with the Japanese deploying reinforcements to surround Wanping. Later that night, a unit of Japanese infantry attempted to breach Wanping's walled defenses but were repulsed. An ultimatum by the Japanese was issued two hours later. As a precautionary measure, Qin Dechun, the acting commander of the Chinese 29th Route Army, contacted the commander of the Chinese 37th Division, General
Feng Zhian Feng Zhi'an (; 16 December 1896 – 16 December 1954) was a Chinese Nationalist Lieutenant-General during the Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Repu ...

Feng Zhian
, ordering him to place his troops on heightened alert.


Incident

At 02:00 in the morning (of 8 July,
Qin Dechun Qin Dechun () (December 11, 1893 – September 7, 1963) was a military officer and politician of the Republic of China. He was born in Shandong Shandong (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal Provinces o ...

Qin Dechun
, executive officer and acting commander of the Chinese 29th Route Army, sent Wang Lengzhai, mayor of Wanping, alone to the Japanese camp to conduct negotiations. However, this proved to be fruitless, and the Japanese insisted that they be admitted into the town to investigate the cause of the incident. At around 04:00, reinforcements of both sides began to arrive. The Chinese also rushed an extra division of troops to the area. About an hour or so later the Chinese Army opened fire on the Japanese Army and attacked them at Marco Polo Bridge (210 meters 90 ftwest-southwest of Wanping), as well as at a modern railway bridge (334 meters ,095 ftnorth of Marco Polo Bridge). At 04:45 Wang Lengzhai had returned to Wanping, and on his way back he witnessed Japanese troops massing around the town. Within five minutes of Wang's return, the Chinese Army fired shots, thus marking the commencement of the
Battle of Beiping-Tianjin A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...
, and, by extension, the full scale commencement of the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
at 04:50 on 8 July 1937. Colonel Ji Xingwen led the Chinese defenses with about 100 men, with orders to hold the bridge at all costs. The Chinese were able to hold the bridge with the help of reinforcements, but suffered tremendous losses. At this point, the Japanese military and members of the Japanese Foreign Service began negotiations in Beijing with the Chinese Nationalist government. A verbal agreement with Chinese General Qin was reached, whereby: * An apology would be given by the Chinese to the Japanese. * Punishment would be dealt to those responsible. * Control of Wanping would be turned over to the Hopei Chinese civilian constabulary and not to the Chinese 219th Regiment. * The Chinese would attempt to better control "communists" in the area. This was agreed upon, though Japanese Garrison Infantry Brigade commander General
Masakazu Kawabe was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subseq ...

Masakazu Kawabe
initially rejected the truce and, against his superiors' orders, continued to shell Wanping for the next three hours, until prevailed upon to cease and to move his forces to the northeast.


Aftermath

Although a ceasefire had been declared, further efforts to de-escalate the conflict failed, largely due to actions by the
Chinese Communists The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of political parties in China, eight other ...
and the
Japanese China Garrison Army The was formed 1 June 1901 as the , as part of Japan's contribution to the international coalition in China during the Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was an armed and violent , , and insurrec ...
commanders. Due to constant Chinese attacks, Japanese Garrison Infantry Brigade commander General Masakazu Kawabe ordered Wanping to be shelled on 9 July. The following day, Japanese armored units joined the attack. The Chinese 219th regiment staged an effective resistance, and full scale fighting commenced at
Langfang Langfang () is a prefecture-level city of Hebei province of China, Province, which was known as Tianjin Prefecture until 1973. It was renamed Langfang Prefecture after Tianjin became a Direct-controlled municipalities of China, municipality a ...

Langfang
on 25 July. After launching a bitter and bloody attack on the Japanese lines on the 27 July, General Sung was defeated and forced to retreat behind the Yongding River by the next day.


Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

On 11 July, in accordance with the Goso conference, the
Imperial Japanese Army General Staff The , also called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and ...
authorized the deployment of an
infantry division A division is a large military unit or Formation (military), formation, usually consisting of between 6,000 and 25,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades; in turn, several divisions typically mak ...
from the Chōsen Army, two combined brigades from the
Kwangtung Army The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945. The Kwantung Army formed in 1906 as a security force for the Kwantung Leased Territory and South Manchurian Railway Zone after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904– ...
and an air regiment composed of 18 squadrons as reinforcements to Northern China. By 20 July, total Japanese military strength in the Beiping-Tianjin area exceeded 180,000 personnel. The Japanese gave Sung and his troops "free passage" before moving in to pacify resistance in areas surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. After 24 days of combat, the Chinese 29th Corps was forced to withdraw. The Japanese captured Beiping and the
Taku Forts The Taku Forts or Dagu Forts, also called the Peiho Forts are fort A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
at Tianjin on 29 and 30 July respectively, thus concluding the Beiping-Tianjin campaign. However, the Japanese Army had been given orders not to advance further than the Yongding River. In a sudden
volte-face Volte-face ( or ) is a total change of position, as in policy or opinion; an wiktionary:about-face, about-face. The expression comes from the French language. In the context of politics a volte-face is, in modern English, often referred to as ...

volte-face
, the Konoe government's foreign minister opened negotiations with
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured syst ...

Chiang Kai-shek
's government in Nanking and stated: "Japan wants Chinese cooperation, not Chinese land." Nevertheless, negotiations failed to move further. On 9 August 1937, a Japanese naval officer was shot in Shanghai, escalating the skirmishes and battles into full scale warfare. The 29th Army's resistance (and poor equipment) inspired the 1937 " Sword March", which—with slightly reworked lyrics—became the
National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as National Army () after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan ...
's standard marching cadence and popularized the
racial epithet The following is a list of ethnic slurs or ethnophaulisms or ethnic epithets that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given Ethnic group, ethnicity or racial group or to refer to them in a derogatory (tha ...
''
guizi ''Guizi'' () is a pejorative Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world ...
'' to describe the Japanese invaders.


Consequences

The heightened tensions of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident led directly to full-scale war between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China, with the
Battle of Beiping–Tianjin The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin (), also known as the Battle of Peiping, Battle of Beijing, Battle of Peking, and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the (25–31 July 1937) was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese W ...
at the end of July and the
Battle of Shanghai The Battle of Shanghai () was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as National Ar ...
in August. In 1937, during the
Battle of Beiping–Tianjin The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin (), also known as the Battle of Peiping, Battle of Beijing, Battle of Peking, and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the (25–31 July 1937) was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese W ...
the Chinese government was notified by Muslim General
Ma Bufang Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (, Xiao'erjing: ) was a Chinese Islamism, Islamist who was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai. His rank ...

Ma Bufang
of the
Ma clique The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "chi ...
that he was prepared to bring the fight to the Japanese in a telegram message. Immediately after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Ma Bufang arranged for a cavalry division under the Muslim General Ma Biao to be sent east to battle the Japanese. Ethnic Turkic Salar Muslims made up the majority of the first cavalry division which was sent by Ma Bufang. 7 July 1937 is sometimes given as an alternative starting date for
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
(as opposed to the more commonly-cited date of 1 September 1939, when
Germany invaded Poland The invasion of Poland (1 September – 6 October 1939), also known as the September campaign ( pl, Kampania wrześniowa), 1939 defensive war ( pl, Wojna obronna 1939 roku) and Poland campaign (german: Überfall auf Polen, Polenfeldzug), was a ...
, starting the European theatre of the war). In 1987, the bridge was renovated and the People's Anti-Japanese War Museum was built near the bridge to commemorate the anniversary of the start of the Sino-Japanese War.


Controversies

There is debate over whether the incident could have been planned like the earlier
Mukden Incident The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, known in Chinese as the 9.18 Incident (九・一八), was a false flag A false flag operation is an act committed with the intent of disguising the actual source of responsibility and pinning ...
, which served as a pretext for the
Japanese invasion of Manchuria The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army ''Kantō-gun'' , image=Kwantung Army Headquarters.JPG , image_size=300px , caption=Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo Manchukuo, officiall ...
. According to Jim Huffman this notion has been "widely rejected" by historians, as the Japanese would likely have been more concerned over the threat posed by the Soviets. Controversial conservative Japanese historian
Ikuhiko Hata is a Japanese historian. He earned his PhD at the University of Tokyo and has taught history at several universities. He is the author of a number of influential and well-received scholarly works, particularly on topics related to Japan's role ...
has suggested that the incident could have been caused by the
Chinese Communist Party The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of political parties in China, eight other ...

Chinese Communist Party
, hoping it would lead to a
war of attrition The War of Attrition ( ar, حرب الاستنزاف, Ḥarb al-Istinzāf; he, מלחמת ההתשה, Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْر ...
between the Japanese army and the Kuomintang. However, he himself still considers this less likely than the "accidental shot" hypothesis, that the first shot was fired by a low-ranking Chinese soldier in "an unplanned moment of fear".


Order of battle


National Revolutionary Army (Kuomintang)

In comparison to their Japanese counterparts, the 29th Route Army, and generally all of the NRA for that matter, was poorly equipped and under-trained. Most soldiers were armed only with a rifle and a ''
dao Tao or Dao is the natural order of the universe whose character one's human intuition Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is someth ...
'' (a single-edged
Chinese sword Historically, all Chinese swords are classified into two types, ''jian'' and ''Dao (Chinese sword), dao''. Jians are double-edged straight swords while daos are single-edged, and mostly curved from the Song dynasty forward. The jian has been tran ...
similar to a
machete Older machete from Latin America file:Gerber Machete.jpg, Gerber Legendary Blades, Gerber machete/saw combo file:Agustín Cruz Tinoco working.jpg, Agustín Cruz Tinoco of San Agustín de las Juntas, Oaxaca uses a machete to carve wood file:Mexi ...

machete
). Moreover, the Chinese garrison in the Lugouqiao area was completely outnumbered and outgunned; it consisted only of about 100 soldiers.


Imperial Japanese Army

The
Japanese China Garrison Army The was formed 1 June 1901 as the , as part of Japan's contribution to the international coalition in China during the Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was an armed and violent , , and insurrec ...
was a combined force of infantry,
tank A tank is an armored fighting vehicle An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be wheeled or tr ...

tank
s, mechanized forces,
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
and
cavalry Historically, cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via O ...

cavalry
, which had been stationed in China since the time of the
Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was an armed and violent , , and insurrection in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the . It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (''Yìhéquán''), kno ...

Boxer Rebellion
. Its headquarters and bulk for its forces were in Tianjin, with a major detachment in Beijing to protect the Japanese embassy.


See also

*
Marco Polo Bridge The Marco Polo Bridge or Lugou Bridge () is a stone bridge located 15 km southwest of Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 s ...
*
Huanggutun incident The Huanggutun Incident (), also known as the , was the assassination of the Fengtian clique, Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin near Shenyang on 4 June 1928. Zhang was killed when his personal train was destroyed by an explosion at the Huanggutun Ra ...

Huanggutun incident
(1928) * Jinan incident (1928) *
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
**
Japanese invasion of Manchuria The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army ''Kantō-gun'' , image=Kwantung Army Headquarters.JPG , image_size=300px , caption=Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo Manchukuo, officiall ...
***
Mukden Incident The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, known in Chinese as the 9.18 Incident (九・一八), was a false flag A false flag operation is an act committed with the intent of disguising the actual source of responsibility and pinning ...
(1931) ** January 28 Incident (Shanghai, 1932) **
Defense of the Great Wall The defense of the Great Wall () (January 1 – May 31, 1933) was a battle, campaign between the armies of Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and Empire of Japan, which took place before the Second Sino-Japanese War officially com ...
(1933) **
Battle of Shanghai The Battle of Shanghai () was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as National Ar ...
(1937) **
Battle of Nanking The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republ ...
(Nanjing, 1937) *
National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as National Army () after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan ...
* " The Sword March"


References


Citations


Sources

* * * *


External links


International Military Tribunal Proceedings







Marco Polo Bridge Incident – July 7, 1937
{{Authority control Battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War Combat incidents Conflicts in 1937 1937 in China 1937 in Japan History of Beijing 20th century in Beijing July 1937 events