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Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (, , ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
,
Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Cabaret Voltaire (c. 1916). New York Dada began c. 1915, and after 1920 ...

Dada
, and
conceptual art Conceptual art, also referred to as conceptualism, is art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is n ...
. Duchamp is commonly regarded, along with
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
and
Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a drawing, draughtsman, printmaking, printmaker, and sculpture, scul ...

Henri Matisse
, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the
plastic arts Plastic arts are art form Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects, sensations, and ideas in the mind File:Descartes mind ...
in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Duchamp has had an immense impact on twentieth-century and twenty first-century art, and he had a seminal influence on the development of conceptual art. By the time of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
he had rejected the work of many of his fellow artists (such as Henri Matisse) as "
retina The retina (from la, rete "net") is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well ...

retina
l" art, intended only to please the eye. Instead, Duchamp wanted to use art to serve the
mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fund ...

mind
.


Early life and education

Marcel Duchamp was born at Blainville-Crevon in Normandy, France, to Eugène Duchamp and Lucie Duchamp (formerly Lucie Nicolle) and grew up in a family that enjoyed cultural activities. The art of painter and engraver Émile Frédéric Nicolle, his maternal grandfather, filled the house, and the family liked to play chess, read books, paint, and make music together. Of Eugene and Lucie Duchamp's seven children, one died as an infant and four became successful artists. Marcel Duchamp was the brother of: *
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or w ...
(1875–1963), painter, printmaker *
Raymond Duchamp-Villon Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a France, French sculptor. Duchamp-Villon was born Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp in Damville, Eure, Damville, Eure, in the Normandy region of France, the second son of Eugène and Lu ...
(1876–1918), sculptor * Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti (1889–1963), painter. As a child, with his two elder brothers already away from home at school in
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the prefecture of the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy and the Departments of France, department of Seine-Maritime. Formerly one of ...

Rouen
, Duchamp was closer to his sister Suzanne, who was a willing accomplice in games and activities conjured by his fertile imagination. At eight years old, Duchamp followed in his brothers' footsteps when he left home and began schooling at the
Lycée Pierre-Corneille The Lycée Pierre-Corneille (also known as the Lycée Corneille) is a state secondary school located in the city of Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy Norm ...
, in Rouen. Two other students in his class also became well-known artists and lasting friends:
Robert Antoine Pinchon Robert Antoine Pinchon (, 1 July 1886 in Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the prefecture of the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy and the Departments of Fra ...
and Pierre Dumont. For the next eight years, he was locked into an educational regime which focused on intellectual development. Though he was not an outstanding student, his best subject was mathematics and he won two mathematics prizes at the school. He also won a prize for drawing in 1903, and at his commencement in 1904 he won a coveted first prize, validating his recent decision to become an artist. He learned academic drawing from a teacher who unsuccessfully attempted to "protect" his students from
Impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, ...

Impressionism
, Post-Impressionism, and other
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or unorthodox with respect to , , or .John Picchione, The New Avant-garde in Italy: Theoretical Debate and Poetic Practices' (Tor ...
influences. However, Duchamp's true artistic mentor at the time was his brother Jacques Villon, whose fluid and incisive style he sought to imitate. At 14, his first serious art attempts were drawings and watercolors depicting his sister Suzanne in various poses and activities. That summer he also painted landscapes in an Impressionist style using oils.


Early work

Duchamp's early art works align with Post-Impressionist styles. He experimented with classical techniques and subjects. When he was later asked about what had influenced him at the time, Duchamp cited the work of Symbolist painter
Odilon Redon Odilon Redon (born Bertrand Redon; ; 20 April 18406 July 1916) was a French Symbolism (arts), symbolist painter, printmaker, Drawing, draughtsman and pastellist. Early in his career, both before and after fighting in the Franco-Prussian War, he ...

Odilon Redon
, whose approach to art was not outwardly anti-academic, but quietly individual. He studied art at the
Académie Julian The Académie Julian () was a private art school 's Waterman Building, Providence, Rhode Island, Providence, RI. An art school is an educational institution with a primary focus on the visual arts, including fine art – especially illustratio ...

Académie Julian
from 1904 to 1905, but preferred playing billiards to attending classes. During this time Duchamp drew and sold cartoons which reflected his ribald humor. Many of the drawings use verbal
pun The pun, also known as paronomasia, is a form of word play Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique A narrative technique (known for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fict ...
s (sometimes spanning multiple languages),
visual pun A visual pun is a pun involving an image or images (in addition to or instead of language), often based on a rebus. Visual puns in which the image is at odds with the inscription are common in cartoons such as ''Lost Consonants'' or ''The Far Sid ...
s, or both. Such play with words and symbols engaged his imagination for the rest of his life. In 1905, he began his compulsory military service with the 39th Infantry Regiment,François Lespinasse, ''Robert Antoine Pinchon: 1886–1943'', 1990, repr. Rouen: Association les amis de l'École de Rouen, 2007, working for a printer in Rouen. There he learned
typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...

typography
and printing processes—skills he would use in his later work. Owing to his eldest brother Jacques' membership in the prestigious
Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (; en, "Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture") was founded in 1648 in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most popu ...
Duchamp's work was exhibited in the 1908
Salon d'Automne The Salon d'Automne (; en, Autumn Salon), or Société du Salon d'automne, is an art exhibition held annually in Paris, France. Since 2011, it is held on the Champs-Élysées, between the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, in mid-October. The fi ...
, and the following year in the
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...

Salon des Indépendants
. Fauves and
Paul Cézanne Paul Cézanne ( , , ; ; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically di ...

Paul Cézanne
's
proto-Cubism #REDIRECT Proto-Cubism#REDIRECT Proto-Cubism Proto-Cubism (also referred to as Protocubism, Early Cubism, and Pre-Cubism or Précubisme) is an intermediary transition phase in the history of art chronologically extending from 1906 to 1910. Evidenc ...
influenced his paintings, although the critic
Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art. Their written ...

Guillaume Apollinaire
—who was eventually to become a friend—criticized what he called "Duchamp's very ugly nudes" ("les nus très vilains de Duchamp"). Duchamp also became lifelong friends with exuberant artist
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or uno ...

Francis Picabia
after meeting him at the 1911 Salon d'Automne, and Picabia proceeded to introduce him to a lifestyle of fast cars and "high" living. In 1911, at Jacques' home in
Puteaux Puteaux () is a Communes of France, commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in the heart of the Hauts-de-Seine Departments of France, department, from the Kilometre zero, centre of Paris. In 2016, it had a population of 44,9 ...
, the brothers hosted a regular discussion group with
Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.John Picch ...
artists including Picabia,
Robert Delaunay Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism (art), Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His later works wer ...
,
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
,
Roger de La Fresnaye Roger de La Fresnaye (; 11 July 1885 – 27 November 1925) was a French Cubist Painting, painter. Early years and education La Fresnaye was born in Le Mans where his father, an officer in the French army, was temporarily stationed. The La Fresnaye ...

Roger de La Fresnaye
,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
,
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
, and
Alexander Archipenko Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; uk, Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian and American ...
. Poets and writers also participated. The group came to be known as the
Puteaux Group Puteaux () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
, or the
Section d'Or , 1911, '' La Chasse (the Hunt)'', oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99 cm. Published in '' L'Intransigeant'', 10 October 1911, ''The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, Les Peintres Cubistes'' 1913, by G. Apollinaire, and Au Salon d'Automne', Revue d'Eur ...
. Uninterested in the Cubists' seriousness, or in their focus on visual matters, Duchamp did not join in discussions of Cubist theory and gained a reputation of being shy. However, that same year he painted in a Cubist style and added an impression of motion by using repetitive imagery. During this period Duchamp's fascination with transition, change, movement, and distance became manifest, and as many artists of the time, he was intrigued with the concept of depicting the
fourth dimension in art New possibilities opened up by the concept of four-dimensional space A four-dimensional space (4D) is a mathematical extension of the concept of three-dimensional or 3D space. Three-dimensional space Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or ...
. His painting ''Sad Young Man on a Train'' embodies this concern:
First, there's the idea of the movement of the train, and then that of the sad young man who is in a corridor and who is moving about; thus there are two parallel movements corresponding to each other. Then, there is the distortion of the young man—I had called this ''elementary parallelism''. It was a formal decomposition; that is, linear elements following each other like parallels and distorting the object. The object is completely stretched out, as if elastic. The lines follow each other in parallels, while changing subtly to form the movement, or the form of the young man in question. I also used this procedure in the ''Nude Descending a Staircase''.
In his 1911 ''Portrait of Chess Players'' (''Portrait de joueurs d'échecs'') there is the Cubist overlapping frames and multiple perspectives of his two brothers playing chess, but to that Duchamp added elements conveying the unseen mental activity of the players. Works from this time also included his first "machine" painting, ''Coffee Mill (Moulin à café)'' (1911), which he gave to his brother Raymond Duchamp-Villon. The later more figurative machine painting of 1914, "Chocolate Grinder" (''Broyeuse de chocolat''), prefigures the mechanism incorporated into the ''Large Glass'' on which he began work in New York the following year.


''Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2''

Duchamp's first work to provoke significant controversy was '' Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2'' ''(Nu descendant un escalier n° 2)'' (1912). The painting depicts the mechanistic motion of a nude, with superimposed facets, similar to motion pictures. It shows elements of both the fragmentation and synthesis of the Cubists, and the movement and dynamism of the
Futurists Futurists (also known as futurologists, prospectivists, Foresight (futures studies), foresight practitioners and horizon scanning, horizon scanners) are people whose specialty or interest is Futures studies, futurology or the attempt to systematic ...
. He first submitted the piece to appear at the Cubist
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...

Salon des Indépendants
, but
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
(according to Duchamp in an interview with Pierre Cabanne, p. 31)Peter Brooke, The 'rejection' of Nude Descending a Staircase
asked Duchamp's brothers to have him voluntarily withdraw the painting, or to paint over the title that he had painted on the work and rename it something else. Duchamp's brothers did approach him with Gleizes' request, but Duchamp quietly refused. However, there was no jury at the Salon des Indépendants and Gleizes was in no position to reject the painting. The controversy, according to art historian Peter Brooke, was not whether the work should be hung or not, but whether it should be hung with the Cubist group. Of the incident Duchamp later recalled, "I said nothing to my brothers. But I went immediately to the show and took my painting home in a taxi. It was really a turning point in my life, I can assure you. I saw that I would not be very much interested in groups after that." Yet Duchamp did appear in the illustrations to ''
Du "Cubisme" ''Du "Cubisme"'', also written ''Du Cubisme'', or ''Du « Cubisme »'' (and in English, ''On Cubism'' or ''Cubism''), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. This was the first major text on Cubism, predating ''The Cubist Pai ...
'', he participated in the ''
La Maison Cubiste ''La Maison Cubiste'' (''The Cubist House''), also called ''Projet d'hôtel'', was an architectural installation in the ''Art Décoratif'' section of the 1912 Paris ''Salon d'Automne The Salon d'Automne (; en, Autumn Salon), or Société du Sal ...
(Cubist House)'', organized by the designer
André Mare Charles André Mare (1885–1932), or André-Charles Mare, was a French painter and textile designer, and co-founder of the Company of French Art (''la Compagnie des Arts Français'') in 1919. He was a designer of colorful textiles, and was one of ...
for the
Salon d'Automne The Salon d'Automne (; en, Autumn Salon), or Société du Salon d'automne, is an art exhibition held annually in Paris, France. Since 2011, it is held on the Champs-Élysées, between the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, in mid-October. The fi ...
of 1912 (a few months after the Indépendants); he signed the
Section d'Or , 1911, '' La Chasse (the Hunt)'', oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99 cm. Published in '' L'Intransigeant'', 10 October 1911, ''The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, Les Peintres Cubistes'' 1913, by G. Apollinaire, and Au Salon d'Automne', Revue d'Eur ...
invitation and participated in the Section d'Or exhibition during the fall of 1912. The impression is, Brooke writes, "it was precisely because he wished to remain part of the group that he withdrew the painting; and that, far from being ill treated by the group, he was given a rather privileged position, probably through the patronage of Picabia". The painting was exhibited for the first time at
Galeries Dalmau , c. 1921-22, ''Optophone I'', encre, aquarelle et mine de plomb sur papier, 72 x 60 cm. Reproduced in Galeries Dalmau, ''Picabia'', exhibition catalogue, Barcelona, November 18 - December 8, 1922 Galeries Dalmau was an art gallery An art gallery ...
, ''Exposició d'Art Cubista'', Barcelona, 1912; the first exhibition of Cubism in SpainWilliam H. Robinson, Jordi Falgàs, Carmen Belen Lord, ''Barcelona and Modernity: Picasso, Gaudí, Miró, Dalí''
Cleveland Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), Yale University Press, 2006,
Duchamp later submitted the painting to the 1913 "
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
" in New York City. In addition to displaying works of American artists, this show was the first major exhibition of modern trends coming out of Paris, encompassing experimental styles of the European
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or unorthodox with respect to , , or .John Picchione, The New Avant-garde in Italy: Theoretical Debate and Poetic Practices' (Tor ...
, including Fauvism, Cubism, and
Futurism Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally a ...

Futurism
. American show-goers, accustomed to realistic art, were scandalized, and the ''Nude'' was at the center of much of the controversy.


Leaving "retinal art" behind

At about this time, Duchamp read
Max Stirner Johann Kaspar Schmidt (25 October 1806 – 26 June 1856), known professionally as Max Stirner, was a German post-Hegelian philosopher, dealing mainly with the Hegelian notion of social alienation and self-consciousness. Stirner is often seen as ...

Max Stirner
's philosophical tract, ''
The Ego and Its Own ''The Ego and Its Own'' (german: Der Einzige und sein Eigentum) is an 1844 work by German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For ...
'', the study which he considered another turning point in his artistic and intellectual development. He called it "a remarkable book ... which advances no formal theories, but just keeps saying that the ego is always there in everything." While in Munich in 1912, he painted the last of his Cubist-like paintings. He started ''
The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even ''The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even'' ('), most often called ''The Large Glass'' ('), is an artwork by Marcel Duchamp over tall, and freestanding. Duchamp worked on the piece from 1915 to 1923, creating two panes of glass with materia ...
'' image, and began making plans for ''The Large Glass'' – scribbling short notes to himself, sometimes with hurried sketches. It would be more than ten years before this piece was completed. Not much else is known about the two-month stay in Munich except that the friend he visited was intent on showing him the sights and the nightlife, and that he was influenced by the works of the sixteenth century German painter
Lucas Cranach the Elder Lucas Cranach the Elder (german: Lucas Cranach der Ältere ;  – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known ...
in Munich's famed
Alte Pinakothek The Alte Pinakothek (, ''Old Pinakothek'') is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be ac ...

Alte Pinakothek
, known for its Old Master paintings. Duchamp recalled that he took the short walk to visit this museum daily. Duchamp scholars have long recognized in Cranach the subdued ochre and brown color range Duchamp later employed. The same year, Duchamp also attended a performance of a stage adaptation of
Raymond Roussel Raymond is a male given name. It was borrowed into English from French (older French spellings were Reimund and Raimund (disambiguation), Raimund, whereas the modern English and French spellings are identical). It originated as the Germanic langu ...

Raymond Roussel
's 1910 novel, ''Impressions d'Afrique,'' which featured plots that turned in on themselves, word play, surrealistic sets and humanoid machines. He credited the drama with having radically changed his approach to art, and having inspired him to begin the creation of his ''The Bride Stripped Bare By Her Bachelors, Even'', also known as ''The Large Glass''. Work on ''The Large Glass'' continued into 1913, with his invention of inventing a repertoire of forms. He made notes, sketches and painted studies, and even drew some of his ideas on the wall of his apartment. Toward the end of 1912, he traveled with Picabia, Apollinaire and Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia through the
Jura mountains The Jura Mountains ( , , , ; french: Massif du Jura; german: Juragebirge; it, Massiccio del Giura, rm, Montagnas da Jura) are a sub-alpine mountain range a short distance north of the Western Alps and mainly demarcate a long part of the ...

Jura mountains
, an adventure that Buffet-Picabia described as one of their "forays of demoralization, which were also forays of witticism and clownery ... the disintegration of the concept of art".Mink, J. (2004). Duchamp. Taschen. Duchamp's notes from the trip avoid logic and sense, and have a surrealistic, mythical connotation. Duchamp painted few canvases after 1912, and in those he did, he attempted to remove "
painterly Eugenie Baizerman, ''Mother and Child'', c. 1949 Painterliness is a concept based on ''german: malerisch'' ('painterly'), a word popularized by Swiss art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) to help focus, enrich and standardize the ter ...
" effects, and to use a technical drawing approach instead. His broad interests led him to an exhibition of aviation technology during this period, after which Duchamp said to his friend
Constantin Brâncuși Constantin Brâncuși (; February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957) was a Romanian sculptor Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture Sculpture is the ...
, "Painting is washed up. Who will ever do anything better than that propeller? Tell me, can you do that?". Brâncuși later sculpted bird forms. U.S. Customs officials mistook them for aviation parts and attempted to collect import duties on them. In 1913, Duchamp withdrew from painting circles and began working as a librarian in the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève to be able to earn a living wage while concentrating on scholarly realms and working on his ''Large Glass''. He studied math and physics – areas where exciting new discoveries were taking place. The theoretical writings of
Henri Poincaré Jules Henri Poincaré ( S: stress final syllable ; 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the s ...
particularly intrigued and inspired Duchamp. Poincaré postulated that the laws believed to govern matter were created solely by the minds that "understood" them and that no theory could be considered "true". "The things themselves are not what science can reach..., but only the relations between things. Outside of these relations there is no knowable reality", Poincaré wrote in 1902. Reflecting the influence of Poincaré's writings, Duchamp tolerated any interpretation of his art by regarding it as the creation of the person who formulated it, not as truth. Duchamp's own art-science experiments began during his tenure at the library. To make one of his favorite pieces, ''3 Standard Stoppages'' (''3 stoppages étalon''), he dropped three 1-meter lengths of thread onto prepared canvases, one at a time, from a height of 1 meter. The threads landed in three random undulating positions. He varnished them into place on the blue-black canvas strips and attached them to glass. He then cut three wood slats into the shapes of the curved strings, and put all the pieces into a croquet box. Three small leather signs with the title printed in gold were glued to the "stoppage" backgrounds. The piece appears to literally follow Poincaré's ''School of the Thread'', part of a book on classical mechanics. In his studio he mounted a bicycle wheel upside down onto a stool, spinning it occasionally just to watch it. Although it is often assumed that the ''Bicycle Wheel'' represents the first of Duchamp's "Readymades", this particular installation was never submitted for any art exhibition, and it was eventually lost. However, initially, the wheel was simply placed in the studio to create atmosphere: "I enjoyed looking at it just as I enjoy looking at the flames dancing in a fireplace." After World War I started in August 1914, with his brothers and many friends in military service and himself exempted (due to a heart murmur),Cabanne, P., & Duchamp, M. (1971). ''Dialogues with Marcel Duchamp''
. New York: Viking Press. Hachette UK, 21 July 2009
Duchamp felt uncomfortable in Paris. Meanwhile, '' Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2'' had scandalized Americans at the
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
, and helped secure the sale of all four of his paintings in the exhibition. Thus, being able to finance the trip, Duchamp decided to emigrate to the United States in 1915. To his surprise, he found he was a celebrity when he arrived in New York in 1915, where he quickly befriended art patron
Katherine Dreier Katherine Sophie Dreier (September 10, 1877 – March 29, 1952) was an American artist, lecturer, patron of the arts, and social reformer A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in i ...
and artist
Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in . He was a significant contributor to the and movements, although his ties to each were informal. He p ...
. Duchamp's circle included art patrons Louise and
Walter Conrad Arensberg Walter Conrad Arensberg (April 4, 1878 – January 29, 1954) was an American art collector, critic and poet. His father was part owner and president of a crucible steel company. He majored in English and philosophy at Harvard University. With his w ...
, actress and artist Beatrice Wood and
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or uno ...

Francis Picabia
, as well as other
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or unorthodox with respect to , , or .John Picchione, The New Avant-garde in Italy: Theoretical Debate and Poetic Practices' (Tor ...
figures. Though he spoke little English, in the course of supporting himself by giving French lessons, and through some library work, he quickly learned the language. Duchamp became part of an artist colony in
Ridgefield, New Jersey } Ridgefield is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term ...

Ridgefield, New Jersey
, across the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
from New York City. For two years the Arensbergs, who would remain his friends and patrons for 42 years, were the landlords of his studio. In lieu of rent, they agreed that his payment would be ''The Large Glass''. An art gallery offered Duchamp $10,000 per year in exchange for all of his yearly production, but he declined the offer, preferring to continue his work on ''The Large Glass''.


Société Anonyme

Duchamp created the
Société Anonyme S.A. or SA designates a type of limited company in certain countries, most of which have a Romance languages, Romance language as its official language and employ civil law (legal system), civil law. Originally, shareholders could be literally ...
in 1920, along with Katherine Dreier and Man Ray. This was the beginning of his lifelong involvement in art dealing and collecting. The group collected modern art works, and arranged modern art exhibitions and lectures throughout the 1930s. By this time
Walter Pach Walter Pach (July 1, 1883 – November 27, 1958) was an artist, critic, lecturer, art adviser, and art historian who wrote extensively about modern art and championed its cause. Through his numerous books, articles, and translations of European art ...
, one of the coordinators of the 1913 Armory Show, sought Duchamp's advice on modern art. Beginning with Société Anonyme, Dreier also depended on Duchamp's counsel in gathering her collection, as did Arensberg. Later
Peggy Guggenheim Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim ( ; August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector, bohemian and socialite. Born to the wealthy New York City Guggenheim family, she was the daughter of Benjamin Guggenheim, who went down with the ...
,
Museum of Modern Art The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street (Manhattan), 53rd Street between Fifth Avenue, Fifth and Sixth Avenues. It plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art ...
directors
Alfred Barr Alfred Hamilton Barr Jr. (January 28, 1902 – August 15, 1981) was an American art historian and the first director of the Museum of Modern Art The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 5 ...
and
James Johnson Sweeney James Johnson Sweeney (1900–1986) was an American curator, and writer about modern art. Sweeney graduated from Georgetown University Georgetown University is a private Jesuit research university A research university is a university A ...
consulted with Duchamp on their modern art collections and shows.


Dada

Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Cabaret Voltaire (c. 1916). New York Dada began c. 1915, and after 1920 ...

Dada
or Dadaism was an
art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defin ...
of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. It began in , Switzerland, in 1916, and spread to
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
shortly thereafter. To quote Dona Budd's ''The Language of Art Knowledge'',
Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality, and intuition. The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsense word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara (; ; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are exper ...

Tristan Tzara
and
Marcel Janco Marcel Janco (, , common rendition of the Romanian name Marcel Hermann Iancu , last name also Ianco, Janko or Jancu; 24 May 1895 – 21 April 1984) was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist. He was the co-inventor of Dada ...

Marcel Janco
's frequent use of the words da, da, meaning yes, yes in the
Romanian language Romanian (obsolete spellings: Rumanian or Roumanian; autonym: ''limba română'' , or ''românește'', ) is a Balkan Romance language spoken by approximately 22–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania Romani ...
. Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German dictionary happened to point to 'dada', a French word for 'hobbyhorse'.
The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry,
art manifesto manifesto, 1918 An art manifesto is a public declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of an artist or artistic movement. Manifesto A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an indiv ...
es,
art theory Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of m ...

art theory
, theatre, and
graphic design Graphic design is the profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recogni ...
, and concentrated its
anti-war An anti-war movement (also ''antiwar'') is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term anti-war can also refer to p ...

anti-war
politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through
anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point o ...
cultural works. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was also anti-
bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeois
and had political affinities with the radical left. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Key figures in the movement, apart from Duchamp, included:
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
,
Emmy Hennings Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen, 17 January 1885 – 10 August 1948) was a performer and poet. She was also the wife of celebrated Dadaist Hugo Ball. Life and work Hennings was born on 17 January 1885 in Flensburg, German Empire, desc ...
,
Hans Arp Hans Peter Wilhelm Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966), better known as Jean Arp in English, was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. He was known as a Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in ...
,
Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in t ...

Raoul Hausmann
,
Hannah Höch Hannah Höch (; 1 November 1889 – 31 May 1978) was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar Republic, Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage. Photomontage, or fotomontage, is a type of collage ...
,
Johannes Baader Johannes Baader (June 21/22, 1875/76 – January 14/15, 1955), originally trained as an architect, was a German writer and artist associated with Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; ...
,
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara (; ; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are exper ...

Tristan Tzara
,
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or uno ...

Francis Picabia
,
Richard Huelsenbeck Carl Wilhelm Richard Hülsenbeck (23 April 189220 April 1974) was a German writer, poet, and psychoanalyst born in Frankenau, Hessen-Nassau. Huelsenbeck was a medical student on the eve of World War I. He was invalided out of the army and emigra ...
,
Georg Grosz George Grosz (; born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricature, caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin life in the 1920s. He was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and ...
,
John Heartfield John Heartfield (born Helmut Herzfeld; 19 June 1891 – 26 April 1968) was a German visual artist who pioneered the use of art as a political weapon. Some of his most famous photomontages were anti-Nazi and anti-fascist statements. Heartfield al ...
, Beatrice Wood,
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lo ...
, and Hans Richter, among others. The movement influenced later styles, such as the avant-garde and
downtown music Downtown music is a subdivision of Music of the United States, American music, closely related to experimental music, which developed in downtown Manhattan in the 1960s. History The scene the term describes began in 1960, when Yoko Ono, one of th ...
movements, and groups including
surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

surrealism
,
Nouveau réalisme Nouveau réalisme (French: new realism) refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and the painter Yves Klein during the first collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan. Pierre Restany wrote ...
, , and
Fluxus Fluxus was an international, interdisciplinary community of artists, composers, designers and poets during the 1960s and 1970s who engaged in experimental art performances which emphasized the artistic process over the finished product. Fluxus ...
.
Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to
postmodernism Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of philosophical skepticism, skepticism toward what it describes as the meta-narrative, grand narratives and ideology, ideologies of modernism, as well as oppos ...
, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism.
New York Dada Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas ...

New York Dada
had a less serious tone than that of European Dadaism, and was not a particularly organized venture. Duchamp's friend
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or uno ...

Francis Picabia
connected with the Dada group in Zürich, bringing to New York the Dadaist ideas of absurdity and "anti-art". Duchamp and Picabia first met in September 1911 at the Salon d'Automne in Paris, where they were both exhibiting. Duchamp showed a larger version of his ''Young Man and Girl in Spring'' 1911, a work that had an Edenic theme and a thinly veiled sexuality also found in Picabia's contemporaneous ''Adam and Eve'' 1911. According to Duchamp, "our friendship began right there". A group met almost nightly at the Arensberg home, or caroused in
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of , the central for business, culture, and in . Lower Manh ...

Greenwich Village
. Together with Man Ray, Duchamp contributed his ideas and humor to the New York activities, many of which ran concurrent with the development of his Readymades and ''The Large Glass''. The most prominent example of Duchamp's association with Dada was his submission of ''
Fountain A fountain, from the "fons" ( "fontis"), meaning source or , is a decorative reservoir for discharging into a basin to supply . It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were original ...
'', a urinal, to the
Society of Independent Artists A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from individual agenc ...
exhibit in 1917. Artworks in the Independent Artists shows were not selected by jury, and all pieces submitted were displayed. However, the show committee insisted that ''Fountain'' was not art, and rejected it from the show. This caused an uproar among the Dadaists, and led Duchamp to resign from the board of the Independent Artists. Along with Henri-Pierre Roché and Beatrice Wood, Duchamp published multiple Dada magazines in New York—including '' The Blind Man'' and ''''—which included art, literature, humor and commentary. When he returned to Paris after World War I, Duchamp did not participate in the Dada group.


Readymades

"Readymades" were found objects which Duchamp chose and presented as art. In 1913, Duchamp installed a ''Bicycle Wheel'' in his studio. However, the idea of ''Readymades'' did not fully develop until 1915. The idea was to question the very notion of Art, and the adoration of art, which Duchamp found "unnecessary".Interview, BBC TV, Joan Bakewell, 1966 ''Bottle Rack'' (1914), a bottle-drying rack signed by Duchamp, is considered to be the first "pure" readymade. ''In Advance of the Broken Arm'' (1915), a snow shovel, also called ''Prelude to a Broken Arm'', followed soon after. His ''
Fountain A fountain, from the "fons" ( "fontis"), meaning source or , is a decorative reservoir for discharging into a basin to supply . It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were original ...
'', a urinal signed with the pseudonym "R. Mutt", shocked the art world in 1917. ''Fountain'' was selected in 2004 as "the most influential artwork of the 20th century" by 500 renowned artists and historians. In 1919, Duchamp made a parody of the ''Mona Lisa'' by adorning a cheap reproduction of the painting with a mustache and goatee. To this he added the inscription ''L.H.O.O.Q.'', a phonetic game which, when read out loud in French quickly sounds like ''"Elle a chaud au cul"''. This can be translated as "She has a hot ass", implying that the woman in the painting is in a state of sexual excitement and availability. It may also have been intended as a Freudian joke, referring to Leonardo da Vinci's alleged homosexuality. Duchamp gave a "loose" translation of L.H.O.O.Q. as "there is fire down below" in a late interview with Arturo Schwarz. According to Rhonda Roland Shearer, the apparent ''Mona Lisa'' reproduction is in fact a copy modeled partly on Duchamp's own face. Research published by Shearer also speculates that Duchamp himself may have created some of the objects which he claimed to be "found objects".


''The Large Glass''

Duchamp worked on his complex
Futurism Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally a ...

Futurism
-inspired piece ''
The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even ''The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even'' ('), most often called ''The Large Glass'' ('), is an artwork by Marcel Duchamp over tall, and freestanding. Duchamp worked on the piece from 1915 to 1923, creating two panes of glass with materia ...
(The Large Glass)'' from 1915 to 1923, except for periods in Buenos Aires and Paris in 1918–1920. He executed the work on two panes of glass with materials such as lead foil, fuse wire, and dust. It combines chance procedures, plotted perspective studies, and laborious craftsmanship. He published notes for the piece, ''The Green Box'', intended to complement the visual experience. They reflect the creation of unique rules of physics, and a mythology which describes the work. He stated that his "hilarious picture" is intended to depict the erotic encounter between a bride and her nine bachelors. A performance of the stage adaptation of
Raymond Roussel Raymond is a male given name. It was borrowed into English from French (older French spellings were Reimund and Raimund (disambiguation), Raimund, whereas the modern English and French spellings are identical). It originated as the Germanic langu ...

Raymond Roussel
's novel ''Impressions d'Afrique'', which Duchamp attended in 1912, inspired the piece. Notes, sketches and plans for the work were drawn on his studio walls as early as 1913. To concentrate on the work free from material obligations, Duchamp found work as a librarian while living in France. After immigrating to the United States in 1915, he began work on the piece, financed by the support of the Arensbergs. The piece is partly constructed as a retrospective of Duchamp's works, including a three-dimensional reproduction of his earlier paintings ''Bride'' (1912), ''Chocolate Grinder'' (1914) and ''Glider containing a water mill in neighboring metals'' (1913–1915), which has led to numerous interpretations. The work was formally declared "Unfinished" in 1923. Returning from its first public exhibition in a shipping crate, the glass suffered a large crack. Duchamp repaired it, but left the smaller cracks in the glass intact, accepting the chance element as a part of the piece. Joseph Nechvatal has cast a considerable light on ''The Large Glass'' by noting the autoerotic implications of both bachelorhood and the repetitive, frenetic machine; he then discerns a larger constellation of themes by insinuating that autoeroticsm – and with the machine as omnipresent partner and practitioner – opens out into a subversive pan-sexuality as expressed elsewhere in Duchamp's work and career, in that a trance-inducing pleasure becomes the operative principle as opposed to the dictates of the traditional male-female coupling; and he as well documents the existence of this theme cluster throughout modernism, starting with Rodin's controversial Monument to Balzac, and culminating in a Duchampian vision of a techno-universe in which one and all can find themselves welcomed. Until 1969 when the Philadelphia Museum of Art revealed Duchamp's ''Étant donnés'' tableau, ''The Large Glass'' was thought to have been his last major work.


Kinetic works

Duchamp's interest in kinetic art works can be discerned as early as the notes for ''The Large Glass'' and the ''Bicycle Wheel'' readymade, and despite losing interest in "retinal art", he retained interest in visual phenomena. In 1920, with help from Man Ray, Duchamp built a motorized sculpture, ''Rotative plaques verre, optique de précision'' ("Rotary Glass Plates, Precision Optics"). The piece, which he did not consider to be art, involved a motor to spin pieces of rectangular glass on which were painted segments of a circle. When the apparatus spins, an optical illusion occurs, where the segments appear to be closed Concentric objects, concentric circles. Man Ray set up equipment to photograph the initial experiment, but when they turned the machine for the second time, a belt broke, and caught a piece of the glass, which after glancing off Man Ray's head, shattered into bits. After moving back to Paris in 1923, at André Breton's urging, with financing by Jacques Doucet (fashion designer), Jacques Doucet, Duchamp built another optical device based on the first one, ''Rotative Demisphère, optique de précision'' (Rotary Demisphere, Precision Optics). This time the optical element was a globe cut in half, with black concentric circles painted on it. When it spins, the circles appear to move backward and forward in space. Duchamp asked that Doucet not exhibit the apparatus as art. ''Rotoreliefs'' were the next phase of Duchamp's spinning works. To make the optical "play toys", he painted designs on flat cardboard circles and spun them on a phonographic turntable. When spinning, the flat disks appeared three-dimensional. He had a printer produce 500 sets of six of the designs, and set up a booth at a 1935 Paris inventors' show to sell them. The venture was a financial disaster, but some optical scientists thought they might be of use in restoring three-dimensional stereoscopic sight to people who have lost vision in one eye. In collaboration with Man Ray and Marc Allégret, Duchamp filmed early versions of the ''Rotoreliefs'', and they named the film ''Anémic Cinéma'' (1926). Later, in Alexander Calder's studio in 1931, while looking at the sculptor's kinetic works, Duchamp suggested that these should be called ''Mobile (sculpture), mobiles''. Calder agreed to use this novel term in his upcoming show. To this day, sculptures of this type are called "mobiles".


Musical ideas

Between 1912 and 1915, Duchamp worked with various musical ideas. At least three pieces have survived: two compositions and a note for a musical happening. The two compositions are based on Aleatoric music, chance operations. ''Erratum Musical'', written for three voices, was published in 1934. ''La Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires même. Erratum Musical'' is unfinished and was never published or exhibited during Duchamp's lifetime. According to the manuscript, the piece was intended for a mechanical instrument "in which the virtuoso intermediary is suppressed". The manuscript also contains a description for "An apparatus automatically recording fragmented musical periods," consisting of a funnel, several open-end cars and a set of numbered balls. These pieces predate John Cage's ''Music of Changes'' (1951), which is often considered the first modern piece to be conceived largely through random procedures. In 1968, Duchamp and John Cage appeared together at a concert entitled "Reunion", playing a game of chess and composing Aleatoric music by triggering a series of photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard.


Rrose Sélavy

"Rrose Sélavy", also spelled Rose Sélavy, was one of Duchamp's pseudonyms. The name, a
pun The pun, also known as paronomasia, is a form of word play Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique A narrative technique (known for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fict ...
, sounds like the French phrase , which may be translated as "Eros, such is life." It has also been read as ("to make a toast to life"). Sélavy emerged in 1921 in a series of photographs by Man Ray showing Duchamp dressed as a woman. Through the 1920s Man Ray and Duchamp collaborated on more photos of Sélavy. Duchamp later used the name as the byline on written material and signed several creations with it. Duchamp used the name in the title of at least one sculpture, ''Why Not Sneeze Rose Selavy?'' (1921). The sculpture, a type of readymade called an assemblage (art), assemblage, consists of an Medical thermometer#Oral, oral thermometer, a couple of dozen small cubes of marble resembling sugar cubes and a cuttlefish bone inside a birdcage. Sélavy also appears on the label of ''Belle Haleine, Eau de Voilette'' (1921), a readymade that is a perfume bottle in the original box. Duchamp also signed his film ''Anémic Cinéma'' (1926) with the Sélavy name. The inspiration for the name Rrose Sélavy has been thought to be Belle da Costa Greene, J. P. Morgan's librarian at The Morgan Library & Museum (formerly The Pierpont Morgan Library) who, following his death, became the Library's director, working there for a total of forty-three years. Empowered by J. P. Morgan, and then by his son Jack, Greene built the collection buying and selling rare manuscripts, books and art. Rrose Sélavy, and the other pseudonyms Duchamp used, may be read as a comment on the fallacy of romanticizing the conscious individuality or subjectivity of the artist, a theme that is also a prominent subtext of the Readymades of Marcel Duchamp, readymades. Duchamp said in an interview, "You think you're doing something entirely your own, and a year later you look at it and you see actually the roots of where your art comes from without your knowing it at all." From 1922, the name Rrose Sélavy also started appearing in a series of aphorisms, puns, and spoonerisms by the French surrealism, surrealist poet Robert Desnos. Desnos tried to portray Rrose Sélavy as a long-lost aristocrat and rightful queen of France. Aphorism 13 paid homage to Marcel Duchamp: ‒ in English: "Rrose Sélavy knows the merchant of salt well"; in French the final words sound like Mar-champ Du-cel. Note that the 'salt seller' aphorism – "mar-chand-du-sel" – is a phonetic anagram of the artist's name: "mar-cel-du-champ." (Duchamp's compiled notes are entitled, 'Salt Seller'.) In 1939 a collection of these aphorisms was published under the name of Rrose Sélavy, entitled, .


Transition from art to chess

In 1918, Duchamp took leave of the New York art scene, interrupting his work on the ''Large Glass'', and went to Buenos Aires, where he remained for nine months and often played chess. He woodcarving, carved his own chess set from wood with help from a local craftsman who made the Knight (chess), knights. He moved to Paris in 1919, and then back to the United States in 1920. Upon his return to Paris in 1923, Duchamp was, in essence, no longer a practicing artist. Instead, his main interest was chess, which he studied for the rest of his life to the exclusion of most other activities. Duchamp is seen, briefly, playing chess with Man Ray in the short film ''Entr'acte (film), Entr'acte'' (1924) by René Clair. He designed the 1925 Poster for the Third French Chess Championship, and as a competitor in the event, finished at fifty percent (3–3, with two draws), earning the title of chess master. During this period his fascination with chess so distressed his first wife that she glued his pieces to the chessboard. Duchamp continued to play in the French Championships and also in the Chess Olympiads from 1928 to 1933, favoring hypermodernism (chess), hypermodern openings such as the Nimzo-Indian. Sometime in the early 1930s, Duchamp reached the height of his ability, but realized that he had little chance of winning recognition in top-level chess. In the following years, his participation in chess tournaments declined, but he discovered correspondence chess and became a chess journalist, writing weekly newspaper columns. While his contemporaries were achieving spectacular success in the art world by selling their works to high-society collectors, Duchamp observed, "I am still a victim of chess. It has all the beauty of art—and much more. It cannot be commercialized. Chess is much purer than art in its social position." On another occasion, Duchamp elaborated, "The chess pieces are the block alphabet which shapes thoughts; and these thoughts, although making a visual design on the chess-board, express their beauty abstractly, like a poem. ... I have come to the personal conclusion that while all artists are not chess players, all chess players are artists." In 1932, Duchamp teamed with chess theorist Vitaly Halberstadt to publish ''L'opposition et cases conjuguées sont réconciliées'' (Opposition (chess), Opposition and Sister Squares are Reconciled), known as corresponding squares. This treatise describes the Corresponding squares#Lasker-Reichhelm position, Lasker-Reichhelm position, an extremely rare type of position that can arise in the Chess endgame, endgame. Using Enneagram (geometry), enneagram-like charts that fold upon themselves, the authors demonstrated that in this position, the most Black can hope for is a Draw (chess), draw. The theme of the "endgame" is important to an understanding of Duchamp's complex attitude toward his artistic career. Irish playwright Samuel Beckett was an associate of Duchamp, and used the theme as the narrative device for the 1957 play of the same name, ''Endgame (play), Endgame''. In 1968, Duchamp played an artistically important chess match with avant-garde composer John Cage, at a concert entitled "Reunion". Music was produced by a series of photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard, triggered sporadically by normal game play. On choosing a career in chess, Duchamp said, "If Bobby Fischer came to me for advice, I certainly would not discourage him—as if anyone could—but I would try to make it positively clear that he will never have any money from chess, live a monk-like existence and know more rejection than any artist ever has, struggling to be known and accepted." Duchamp left a legacy to chess in the form of an enigmatic endgame problem he composed in 1943. The problem was included in the announcement for Julian Levi's gallery exhibition ''Through the Big End of the Opera Glass'', printed on translucent paper with the faint inscription: "White to play and win". Grandmasters and endgame specialists have since grappled with the problem, with most concluding that there is no solution.


Later artistic involvement

Although Duchamp was no longer considered to be an active artist, he continued to consult with artists, art dealers and collectors. From 1925 he often traveled between France and the United States, and made New York's Greenwich Village his home in 1942. He also occasionally worked on artistic projects such as the short film ''Anémic Cinéma'' (1926), ''De ou par Marcel Duchamp ou Rrose Sélavy (La Boîte-en-valise), Box in a Valise'' (1935–1941), ''Self Portrait in Profile'' (1958) and the larger work ''Étant Donnés'' (1946–1966). In 1943, he participated with Maya Deren in her unfinished film ''The Witch's Cradle'', filmed in
Peggy Guggenheim Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim ( ; August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector, bohemian and socialite. Born to the wealthy New York City Guggenheim family, she was the daughter of Benjamin Guggenheim, who went down with the ...
's Art of This Century gallery. From the mid-1930s onward he collaborated with the Surrealists; however, he did not join the movement, despite the coaxing of André Breton. From then until 1944, together with Max Ernst, Eugenio Granell, and Breton, Duchamp edited the Surrealist periodical ''VVV (magazine), VVV'', and served as an advisory editor for the magazine ''View (magazine), View'', which featured him in its March 1945 edition, thus introducing him to a broader American audience. Duchamp's influence on the art world remained behind the scenes until the late 1950s, when he was "discovered" by young artists such as Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, who were eager to escape the dominance of Abstract Expressionism. He was a co-founder of the international literary group Oulipo in 1960. Interest in Duchamp was reignited in the 1960s, and he gained international public recognition. In 1963, the Pasadena Art Museum mounted his first retrospective exhibition, and there he appeared in an iconic photograph playing chess opposite nude model Eve Babitz. The photograph was later described by the Smithsonian Archives of American Art as being "among the key documentary images of American modern art". The Tate Gallery hosted a large exhibit of his work in 1966. Other major institutions, including the Philadelphia Art Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, followed with large showings of Duchamp's work. He was invited to lecture on art and to participate in formal discussions, as well as sitting for interviews with major publications. As the last surviving member of the Duchamp family of artists, in 1967 Duchamp helped to organize an exhibition in Rouen, France, called ''Les Duchamp: Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Marcel Duchamp, Suzanne Duchamp''. Parts of this family exhibition were later shown again at the Musée National d'Art Moderne in Paris.


Exhibition design and installation art

Duchamp participated in the design of the 1938 Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, held at the Galerie des Beaux-arts, Paris. The show was organised by André Breton and Paul Éluard, and featured "Two hundred and twenty-nine artworks by sixty exhibitors from fourteen countries... at this multimedia exhibition." The Surrealists wanted to create an exhibition which in itself would be a creative act, thus working collaboratively in its staging. Marcel Duchamp was named as "Generateur-arbitre", Salvador Dalí and Max Ernst were listed as technical directors, Man Ray was chief lighting technician and Wolfgang Paalen responsible for "water and foliage". ''Plus belles rues de Paris'' (The most beautiful streets of Paris) filled one side of the lobby with mannequins dressed by various Surrealists. The main hall, or the ''Salle de Superstition'' (Room of Superstition), was "a cave-like Gesamtkunstwerk" notably including Duchamp's Installation art, installation, ''Twelve Hundred Coal Bags Suspended from the Ceiling over a Stove'', which was literally 1,200 stuffed coal bags suspended from the ceiling. The floor was covered by Paalen with dead leaves and mud from the Montparnasse Cemetery. In the middle of the grand hall underneath Duchamp's coal sacks, Paalen installed an artificial water-filled pond with real Nymphaeaceae, water lilies and reeds, which he called ''Avant La Mare''. A single light bulb provided the only illumination, so patrons were given flashlights with which to view the art (an idea of Man Ray), while the aroma of Coffee roasting, roasting coffee filled the air. Around midnight, the visitors witnessed the dancing shimmer of a scantily dressed girl who suddenly arose from the reeds, jumped on a bed, shrieked hysterically, then disappeared just as quickly. Much to the Surrealists' satisfaction, the exhibition scandalized many of the guests. In 1942, for the ''First Papers of Surrealism'' show in New York, surrealists called on Duchamp to design the exhibition. He created an installation, ''His Twine'', commonly known as the 'mile of string', it was a three-dimensional web of string throughout the rooms of the space, in some cases making it almost impossible to see the works. Duchamp made a secret arrangement with an associate's son to bring young friends to the opening of the show. When the formally-dressed patrons arrived, they found a dozen children in athletic clothes kicking and passing balls, and skipping rope. When questioned, the children were told to say "Mr. Duchamp told us we could play here". Duchamp's design of the catalog for the show included "found", rather than posed, photographs of the artists. Breton with Duchamp organized the exhibition "Le surréalisme en 1947" in the Galerie Maeght in Paris after the war and named set designer Frederick John Kiesler, Frederick Kiesler as architect.


''Étant donnés''

Duchamp's final major art work surprised the art world, which believed he had given up art for chess 25 years earlier. Entitled ''Étant donnés: 1° la chute d'eau / 2° le gaz d'éclairage'' ("Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas"), it is a tableau, visible only through a peep hole in a wooden door. A nude woman may be seen lying on her back with her face hidden, legs spread, and one hand holding a gas lamp in the air against a landscape backdrop. Duchamp had worked secretly on the piece from 1946 to 1966 in his
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of , the central for business, culture, and in . Lower Manh ...

Greenwich Village
studio while even his closest friends thought he had abandoned art. The torso of the nude figure is based on Duchamp's lover, the Brazilian sculptor Maria Martins (artist), Maria Martins, with whom he had an affair from 1946 to 1951.


Personal life

Throughout his adult life, Duchamp was a passionate smoker of Habana cigars. Duchamp became a United States citizen in 1955. In June 1927, Duchamp married :fr:Lydie Sarazin-Levassor, Lydie Sarazin-Lavassor; however, they divorced six months later. It was rumored that Duchamp had chosen a marriage of convenience, because Sarazin-Lavassor was the daughter of a wealthy automobile manufacturer. Early in January 1928, Duchamp said that he could no longer bear the responsibility and confinement of marriage, and they were soon divorced. Between 1946 and 1951 Maria Martins (artist), Maria Martins was his mistress. In 1954, he and Alexina Duchamp, Alexina "Teeny" Sattler married. They remained together until his death. Duchamp was an atheist.


Death and burial

Duchamp died suddenly and peacefully in the early morning of 2 October 1968 at his home in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. After an evening dining at home with his friends
Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in . He was a significant contributor to the and movements, although his ties to each were informal. He p ...
and :fr:Robert Lebel (critique), Robert Lebel, Duchamp retired at 1:05 am, collapsed in his studio, and died of heart failure. He is buried in the Rouen Cemetery, in Rouen, France, with the epitaph, "D'ailleurs, c'est toujours les autres qui meurent" ("Besides, it's always the others who die").


Legacy

Many critics consider Duchamp to be one of the most important artists of the 20th century, and his output influenced the development of post–World War I Art of Europe, Western art. He advised modern art collectors, such as Peggy Guggenheim and other prominent figures, thereby helping to shape the tastes of Western art history, Western art during this period.Tomkins: ''Duchamp: A Biography''. He challenged conventional thought about artistic processes and rejected the emerging art market, through subversive anti-art. He famously dubbed a urinal art and named it ''
Fountain A fountain, from the "fons" ( "fontis"), meaning source or , is a decorative reservoir for discharging into a basin to supply . It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were original ...
''. Duchamp produced relatively few artworks and remained mostly aloof of the avant-garde circles of his time. He went on to pretend to abandon art and devote the rest of his life to chess, while secretly continuing to make art. In 1958 Duchamp said of creativity,
The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act.
Duchamp in his later life explicitly expressed negativity toward art. In a BBC interview with Duchamp conducted by Joan Bakewell in 1968 he compared art with religion, saying that he wished to do away with art the same way many have done away with religion. Duchamp goes on to explain to the interviewer that "the word art etymologically means to do," that art means activity of any kind, and that it is our society that creates "purely artificial" distinctions of being an artist. A quotation erroneously attributed to Duchamp suggests a negative attitude toward later trends in 20th century art: However, this was written in 1961 by fellow Dadaist Hans Richter, in the second person, i.e. "You threw the bottle-rack...". Although a marginal note in the letter suggests that Duchamp generally approved of the statement, Richter did not make the distinction clear until many years later. Duchamp's attitude was more favorable, however, as evidenced by another statement made in 1964: The Marcel Duchamp Prize, Prix Marcel Duchamp (Marcel Duchamp Prize), established in 2000, is an annual award given to a young artist by the Centre Georges Pompidou. In 2004, as a testimony to the legacy of Duchamp's work to the art world, a panel of prominent artists and art historians voted ''Fountain'' "the most influential artwork of the 20th century".


Art market

On 17 November 1999, a version of ''Fountain'' (owned by Arturo Schwarz) was sold at Sotheby's, New York, for $1,762,500 to Dimitris Daskalopoulos, who declared that ''Fountain'' represented the origin of contemporary art. The price set a world record, at the time, for a work by Marcel Duchamp at public auction. The record has since been surpassed by a work sold at Christie's Paris, titled ''Belle Haleine, Eau de Voilette'' (1921). The readymade of a perfume bottle in its box sold for a record $11.5 million (€8.9 million).Laurie Hurwitz, ''Saint Laurent Collection Soars at Christie's Paris''
Duchamp's ''Belle haleine–Eau de voilette'', 1921


Selected works

File:Marcel Duchamp, 1910, Joueur d'échecs (The Chess Game), oil on canvas, 114 x 146.5 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art.jpg, Marcel Duchamp, 1910, ''Joueur d'échecs'' (''The Chess Game''), oil on canvas, 114 x 146.5 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art File:Marcel Duchamp, 1911, Coffee Mill (Moulin à café), oil and graphite on board, 33 x 12.7 cm, Tate, London.jpg, Marcel Duchamp, 1911, ''Coffee Mill (Moulin à café)'', oil and graphite on board, 33 x 12.7 cm, Tate, London. Reproduced in ''
Du "Cubisme" ''Du "Cubisme"'', also written ''Du Cubisme'', or ''Du « Cubisme »'' (and in English, ''On Cubism'' or ''Cubism''), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. This was the first major text on Cubism, predating ''The Cubist Pai ...
'' File:Marcel Duchamp, 1911, La sonate (Sonata), oil on canvas, 145.1 x 113.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art.jpg, Marcel Duchamp, 1911, ''La sonate (Sonata)'', oil on canvas, 145.1 x 113.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art. Exhibited at ''Exposició d'Art Cubista'', Barcelona,
Galeries Dalmau , c. 1921-22, ''Optophone I'', encre, aquarelle et mine de plomb sur papier, 72 x 60 cm. Reproduced in Galeries Dalmau, ''Picabia'', exhibition catalogue, Barcelona, November 18 - December 8, 1922 Galeries Dalmau was an art gallery An art gallery ...
, Barcelona, 1912 (reproduced in catalogue) File:Marcel Duchamp, 1912, Le Roi et la Reine entourés de Nus vites (The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes), oil on canvas, 114.6 x 128.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art.jpg, Marcel Duchamp, 1912, ''Le Roi et la Reine entourés de Nus vites'' (''The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes''), oil on canvas, 114.6 x 128.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art File:Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, in the Frederick C. Torrey home, c. 1913.jpg, Marcel Duchamp, '' Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2'', in the Frederick C. Torrey home, c. 1913


See also

* Shock art * Stereokinetic stimulus * Fourth dimension in art * ''Fountain Archive''


Notes


References

* Tomkins, Calvin: ''Duchamp: A Biography'', Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1996. * Tomkins, Calvin: ''Duchamp: The World of Marcel Duchamp 1887–'', Time Inc., 1966. * Ian Chilvers & John Glaves-Smith: ''A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art''. Oxford University Press, pp. 202–205 * Seigel, Jerrold: ''The Private Worlds of Marcel Duchamp'', University of California Press, 1995. * Hulten, Pontus (editor): ''Marcel Duchamp: Work and Life'', The MIT Press, 1993. * Yves Arman: ''Marcel Duchamp plays and wins'', ''Marcel Duchamp joue et gagne'', Marval Press, 1984 * Cabanne, Pierre: ''Dialogues with Marcel Duchamp'', Da Capo Press, Inc., 1987 Reprint of the 1979 London edition (1969 in French), . Notable for having contributions by Jasper Johns, Robert Motherwell, and Salvador Dalí * Irene Gammel, Gammel, Irene
''Baroness Elsa: Gender, Dada and Everyday Modernity''
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002. * by Bonnie Jean Garner (with text boxes by Stephen Jay Gould) * Gibson, Michael: Duchamp-Dada, (in French, Nouvelles Editions Françaises-Casterman, 1990) International Art Book Award of the Vasari Prize in 1991. * Sanouillet, Michel and Peterson, Elmer: ''The Writings of Marcel Duchamp''. NY: Da Capo Press, 1989. * Sanouillet, Michel and Matisse, Paul: ''Marcel Duchamp: Duchamp du signe'' suivi de ''Notes'', Flammarion, 2008. * Catherine Perret: Marcel Duchamp, le manieur de gravité, Ed. CNDP, Paris, 1998 * Stefan Banz, Banz, Stefan (ed.): ''Marcel Duchamp and the Forestay Waterfall'', JRP-Ringier, Zürich, 2010.


Further reading

* Arturo Schwarz, ''The Complete Works of Marcel Duchamp'', Delano Greenidge Editions, 1995 * Anne D'Harnoncourt (Intro), ''Joseph Cornell/Marcel Duchamp... in resonance'', Menil Foundation, Houston, 1998, * Linda Dalrymple Henderson, ''Duchamp in Context: Science and Technology in the Large Glass and Related Works'', Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1998 * Paola Magi, ''Caccia al tesoro con Marcel Duchamp'', Edizioni Archivio Dedalus, Milano, 2010, * Paola Magi: ''Treasure Hunt With Marcel Duchamp'', Edizioni Archivio Dedalus, Milano, 2011, * Marc Décimo: ''Marcel Duchamp mis à nu. A propos du processus créatif'' (''Marcel Duchamp Stripped Bare. Apropos of the creative Act''), Les presses du réel, Dijon (France), 2004 . * Marc Décimo:''The Marcel Duchamp Library'', perhaps (''La Bibliothèque de Marcel Duchamp, peut-être''), Les presses du réel, Dijon (France), 2002. * Marc Décimo, ''Le Duchamp facile'', Les presses du réel, coll. "L'écart absolu / Poche", Dijon, 2005 * Marc Décimo (dir.), ''Marcel Duchamp et l'érotisme'', Les presses du réel, coll. « L'écart absolu / Chantier », Dijon, 2008 * T.J. Demos, ''The Exiles of Marcel Duchamp'', Cambridge, MIT Press, 2007. * Lydie Fischer Sarazin-Levassor, ''A Marriage in Check. The Heart of the Bride Stripped by her Bachelor, even'', Les presses du réel, Dijon (France), 2007. * J-T. Richard, ''M. Duchamp mis à nu par la psychanalyse, même'' (M. Duchamp stripped bare even by psychoanalysis), éd. L'Harmattan, Paris (France), 2010. * Chris Allen (Trans), Dawn Ades (Intro), ''Three New York Dadas and The Blind Man: Marcel Duchamp, Henri-Pierre Roché, Beatrice Wood'', Atlas Press, London, 2013,


External links

Duchamp works * * Philadelphia Museum of Art houses the Walter Conrad Arensberg, Arensbergs' large collection of Duchamp's work.
website
* * An explanation about the ''Roue de bicyclette'' by Duchamp





(1911). * ''[http://www.toutfait.com/popup/articles/wallis/popup24.htm Philadelphia Museum of Art The Green Box]''. Notes and studies for ''
The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even ''The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even'' ('), most often called ''The Large Glass'' ('), is an artwork by Marcel Duchamp over tall, and freestanding. Duchamp worked on the piece from 1915 to 1923, creating two panes of glass with materia ...
''. (1915–1923) *
Anémic Cinéma
' film (1926)
Marcel Duchamp "Apropos of Myself" The Baltimore Museum of Art: Baltimore, Maryland, 1963
Accessed 26 June 2012
Duchamp Research Centre
at the Staatliches Museum Schwerin * Essays by Duchamp * Marcel Duchamp: ''The Creative Act'' (1957
Audio
General resources
''Toutfait'': The Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal

Inventing Marcel Duchamp: The Dynamics of Poraiture
– online exhibition from the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
Oral history interview with Eve Babitz, 2000 Jun 14
a model of Duchamp's from the Smithsonian Archives of American Art
"Marcel Duchamp and Chess" by Edward Winter
Audio and video

Duchamp audio CD ''Musical Erratum + In Conversation'' at LTM Recordings, LTM

Marcel Duchamp: Various Statements and Interviews at Ubuweb
''Voices of Dada'', ''Futurism & Dada Reviewed'' and ''Surrealism Reviewed''
– readings by Duchamp on audio CDs

Films of Marcel Duchamp at Ubuweb

with Richard Hamilton (artist), Richard Hamilton and Sarat Maharaj from Tate Britain. (RealPlayer required.)
An Conversation with Marcel Duchamp and James Johnson Sweeney
National Broadcasting Company, 1956 {{DEFAULTSORT:Duchamp, Marcel Marcel Duchamp works, 1887 births 1968 deaths 20th-century chess players 20th-century French male writers 20th-century French non-fiction writers 20th-century French painters 20th-century male artists 20th-century French sculptors Artists from New York City Alumni of the Académie Julian Chess Olympiad competitors French conceptual artists Cubist artists Dada French atheists French chess players French chess writers French experimental filmmakers French emigrants to the United States French librarians French male painters French male sculptors French mixed-media artists French surrealist artists Lycée Pierre-Corneille alumni Modern artists Oulipo members Pataphysicians People from Blainville-Crevon People from Greenwich Village People from Ridgefield, New Jersey People with acquired American citizenship Sibling artists Sportspeople from Seine-Maritime Recycled art artists French dadaist