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Manus Island is part of
Manus Province Manus Province is the smallest province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisi ...
in northern
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania ...

Papua New Guinea
and is the largest of the
Admiralty Islands The Admiralty Islands are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Examples of ar ...

Admiralty Islands
. It is the fifth-largest island in Papua New Guinea, with an area of , measuring around . Manus Island is covered in rugged jungles which can be broadly described as lowland
tropical rain forest Tropical rainforests are rainforest Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape ...

tropical rain forest
. The highest point on Manus Island is Mt. Dremsel, above sea level at the centre of the south coast. Manus Island is
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet ar ...

volcanic
in origin and probably broke through the ocean's surface in the late
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first Epoch (geology), geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma). The Miocene was named by Scottish geologist Charles Lyell; its name comes from the Greek words (', "less") and (', "new") and mean ...
, 8 to 10 million years ago. The substrate of the island is either directly volcanic or from uplifted
coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a vert ...

coral
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

limestone
.
Lorengau Lorengau is the major town in Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. The town is located on the edge of Seeadler Harbour on Manus Island, in the Admiralty Islands, and in 2000 Lorengau was recorded to have a population of 5,829. History World War II ...

Lorengau
, the capital of Manus Province, is located on the island.
Momote Airport Momote Airport is an airport on Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea. It also serves Manus Island, which is connected to Los Negros by a bridge. History Hayne Airfield Built by the Imperial Japanese at Momote during World ...
, the terminal for Manus Province, is located on nearby
Los Negros Island Los Negros Island is the third largest of the . It is significant because it contains the main airport of on its eastern coastline, at . It is connected to , the capital of the province, on via a highway and bridge across the Lonui Passage, whi ...
. A bridge connects Los Negros Island to Manus Island and the provincial capital of Lorengau. In the 2000 census, the whole Manus Province had a population of 50,321. The Austronesian
Manus languages The Manus languages are a subgroup of about two dozen Oceanic languages located on Manus Island and nearby offshore islands in Manus Province of Papua New Guinea. The exact number of languages is difficult to determine because they form a dialect c ...
are spoken on the island. The Australian-run
Manus Regional Processing Centre The Manus Regional Processing Centre, or Manus Island Regional Processing Centre (MIRCP), was one of a number of List of Australian immigration detention facilities, offshore Australian immigration detention facilities. The Centre was located on ...
was situated on Los Negros Island from 2001 to 2017, to house asylum seekers arriving by boat found within Australia's defined territorial borders. Manus Island is home to the
emerald green snail The emerald green snail, green tree snail, or Manus Island, Manus green tree snail, scientific name ''Papustyla pulcherrima'', sometimes listed as ''Papuina pulcherrima'', is a species of large, air-breathing tree snail, a terrestrial animal, terr ...
, whose shells were harvested to be sold as jewellery; this continues, albeit at a lesser scale, as due to the snail's status as a threatened species, its sale for this purpose is now illegal in many jurisdictions.


History

The first recorded sighting of Manus Island by Europeans was by Spanish explorer Álvaro de Saavedra on board the
carrack 300px, The large carrack, thought to be the '' Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai'', and other Portuguese carracks of various sizes. From painting, attributed to either Gregório Lopes or Cornelis Antoniszoon, showing voyage of the marriage party of ...
''Florida'' on 15 August 1528, while trying to return to
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
from the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
. Saavedra circled Manus Island, and landed possibly on Murai
islet An islet is a very small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll ( ...

islet
to the south west. Murai was found to be inhabited and some natives came out in
canoes A canoe is a lightweight narrow watercraft, water vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle. In British English, ...

canoes
, attacking with bows and
arrow An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile launched by a bow and arrow, bow. A typical arrow usually consists of a long, stiff, straight ''shaft'' with a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) ''arrowhead'' attached to the front end, multiple fi ...

arrow
s. Three of these men were captured by the Spaniards, and were returned by Saavedra to the same island, on his second attempt to return to North America the following year. Manus Island was charted as ''Urays la Grande'' or Big Urays, which is probably a projection of Murai to signify "big Murai". In
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
Manus Island was the site of an observation post manned by No. 4 Section, 'B' Platoon, 1st Independent Company, Australian Imperial Force, who also provided medical treatment to the inhabitants. Manus was first bombed by the Japanese on 25 January 1942, the radio mast being the main target. On 8 April 1942 an Imperial Japanese force consisting of the light cruiser ''Tatsuta'', destroyer ''Mutsuki'' and a troop transport ship ''Mishima Maru'' entered
Lorengau Lorengau is the major town in Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. The town is located on the edge of Seeadler Harbour on Manus Island, in the Admiralty Islands, and in 2000 Lorengau was recorded to have a population of 5,829. History World War II ...

Lorengau
harbour and several hundred Japanese soldiers of the 8th Special Base Force swarmed ashore onto the Australian-mandated island. The vastly outnumbered Australians withdrew into the jungle. Later in 1942, Japan established a military base on Manus Island. This was attacked by United States forces in the
Admiralty Islands campaign The Admiralty Islands campaign (Operation Brewer) was a series of battles in the New Guinea campaign of World War II in which the United States Army's 1st Cavalry Division (United States), 1st Cavalry Division took the Empire of Japan, Japanese- ...
of February – March 1944. An
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
naval base was established at
Seeadler Harbor Seeadler Harbor, also known as Port Seeadler, is located on Manus Island, Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea and played an important role in World War II. In German, "Seeadler" means sea eagle, pointing to German New Guinea, German colonial activit ...
on the island and it later supported the
British Pacific Fleet The British Pacific Fleet (BPF) was a Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the ...
. The ammunition ship exploded in Seeadler Harbor on 10 November 1944 with a heavy loss of life of US Navy personnel. In 1950–51 the Australian government conducted the last trials against
Japanese war criminals War crimes were committed by the Empire of Japan in many Asian-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese militarism, Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. These incidents have been described ...
on the island. One case heard was that of
Takuma Nishimura was a Japanese army general in the Imperial Japanese Army Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * I ...
, who faced an Australian military court. He had already been tried by a British military court in relation to the
Sook Ching massacre The Sook Ching (, meaning 'purge through cleansing') was a systematic purge of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese Singaporean, Chinese in Singapore and Chinese Malayans by the Imperial Japanese Army, Japanese military during the Japa ...
in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
and sentenced to life imprisonment. While on a stopover in Hong Kong he was intercepted by Australian Military Police. Evidence was presented stating that Nishimura had ordered the shootings of wounded Australian and Indian soldiers at
Parit Sulong Parit Sulong is a small town in Batu Pahat District, Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar (town), Muar. The historical Jambatan Parit Sulong, Parit Sulong Bridge constructed during World War II is a main feature in t ...
and the disposal of bodies so that there was no trace of evidence. In this trial he was found guilty and was hanged on 11 June 1951. American
anthropologist An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns of behaviour, while studies cultural meaning, including ...
Margaret Mead Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior ...
lived on Manus Island before and after the war, and gave detailed accounts in ''Growing up in New Guinea'' and ''New Lives for Old''.


Detention centre

In addition to its resident population, asylum seekers have been located on Los Negros between 2001 and 2004 and since 2012.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
set up the Manus Regional Processing Centre on Manus Island in 2001 as part of its
Pacific Solution The Pacific Solution is the name given to the Government of Australia The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australi ...
. In August 2012, the Australian Government controversially announced it would resume offshore processing; in November 2012 the relocation of asylum-seekers to Manus Island resumed. On 26 April 2016, the
Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea The Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea has been the highest court of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini; tcs, Op Deudai), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independ ...
ruled that the detention of asylum seekers on Manus Island was illegal, and Prime Minister
Peter O'Neill Peter Charles Paire O'Neill, CMG (born 13 February 1965) is a Papua New Guinean politician who served as the seventh Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea between 2011–2019. A member of the People's National Congress (Papua New Guinea), People's ...

Peter O'Neill
announced that the centre would be closed. After a stand-off involving PNG military and police, all remaining men were removed to new accommodation at the East Lorengau Refugee Transit Centre, Hillside Haus and West Lorengau Haus by 23 November 2017. In late 2019, the remaining asylum seekers were moved to
Port Moresby (; Tok Pisin: ''Pot Mosbi''), also referred to as Pom City or simply Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea. It is one of the largest cities in the southwestern Pacific (along with Jayapura) outside of Australia and New Ze ...

Port Moresby
, and upon request by the PNG government, the
Australian Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the ...
terminated the contracts of the service providers for the detention centre and other facilities as of 30 November 2019.


Naval bases

On 20 September 2018, ''
The Australian ''The Australian'', with its Saturday edition, ''The Weekend Australian'', is a broadsheet newspaper published by News Corp Australia since 14 July 1964.Bruns, Axel. "3.1. The active audience: Transforming journalism from gatekeeping to gatewat ...
'' reported that Australia and Papua New Guinea were discussing providing port facilities to the
Royal Australian Navy The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the principal naval force A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riveri ...
and
US Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh "Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval A ...
on Manus Island. Australia and the United States would help expand Lombrum Naval Base, so there would be facilities for Australian naval vessels there. The newspaper reported that Australia was countering interest
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
had placed in expanding Papua New Guinea's port facilities at
Wewak Wewak is the capital of the East Sepik East Sepik is a province in Papua New Guinea. Its capital is Wewak. East Sepik has an estimated population of 433,481 people (2010 census) and is 43,426 km square in size. History Cherubim Dambui was ap ...

Wewak
,
Kikori Kikori is a small town in the Gulf Province A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body ...
,
Vanimo Vanimo is the capital of Sandaun Province Sandaun Province (formerly West Sepik Province) is the northwesternmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...
and Manus Island. Manus Island is the most important of these four ports, as it is a deep-water port near important shipping lanes. The RAN operated a naval base on Manus Island from the 1950s until transferred to the
Papua New Guinea Defence Force The Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF) is the military organisation Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy m ...
in 1974.


See also

*
Admiralty Islands languages The Admiralty Islands languages are a group of some thirty Oceanic languages The approximately 450 Oceanic languages are a branch of the Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages () are a language family A language is a structur ...
**
Manus languages The Manus languages are a subgroup of about two dozen Oceanic languages located on Manus Island and nearby offshore islands in Manus Province of Papua New Guinea. The exact number of languages is difficult to determine because they form a dialect c ...


Notes


References

*


External links


ManusIsland.com
{{authority control Islands of Papua New Guinea Volcanoes of Papua New Guinea Miocene volcanoes Manus Province