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Human vocal tract In
articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists w ...
, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators ( speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a
speech sound In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. In contrast, a phoneme is a speech sound in a given language that, if swapped with another ph ...
. One parameter of manner is ''stricture,'' that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another. Others include those involved in the r-like sounds (
taps "Taps" is a bugle call plays the bugle during the Gulf War, in March 1991. A bugle call is a short melody, tune, originating as a military Military communications, signal announcing scheduled and certain non-scheduled events on a military inst ...
and trills), and the sibilancy of
fricative Fricatives are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pron ...
s. The concept of manner is mainly used in the discussion of
consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of th ...
s, although the movement of the articulators will also greatly alter the resonant properties of the
vocal tract The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the ...
, thereby changing the
formant 250px, Spectrogram of American English vowels showing the formants ''F''1 and ''F''2 In speech science and phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, ...

formant
structure of speech sounds that is crucial for the identification of
vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...

vowel
s. For consonants, the
place of articulation In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , p ...
and the degree of
phonation The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign ...
of voicing are considered separately from manner, as being independent parameters.
Homorganic consonants In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical p ...
, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and
laterality The term laterality refers to the preference most humans Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank ...
are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as
Peter Ladefoged Peter Nielsen Ladefoged ( , ; 17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken ...
, consider them to be independent.


Broad classifications

Manners of articulation with substantial obstruction of the airflow (stops, fricatives, affricates) are called
obstruentAn obstruent is a speech sound such as , , or that is manner of articulation, formed by ''obstructing'' airflow. Obstruents contrast with sonorants, which have no such obstruction and so resonate. All obstruents are consonants, but sonorants include ...
s. These are prototypically voiceless, but voiced obstruents are extremely common as well. Manners without such obstruction (nasals, liquids, approximants, and also
vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...

vowel
s) are called
sonorant In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is manner of articulation, produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voice (phonetics), voi ...
s because they are nearly always voiced. Voiceless sonorants are uncommon, but are found in Welsh and
Classical Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, nati ...
(the spelling "rh"), in
Standard Tibetan Lhasa Tibetan (), or Standard Tibetan, is the Tibetan dialect spoken by educated people of Lhasa Lhasa (; Lhasa dialect: ; bo, text=ལྷ་ས, translation=Place of Gods) is the urban center of the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level ...
(the "lh" of
Lhasa Lhasa (; Lhasa dialect: ; bo, text=ལྷ་ས, translation=Place of Gods) is the urban center of the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level Lhasa (prefecture-level city), Lhasa City and the administrative capital of Tibet. The inner urban ...
), and the "wh" in those dialects of English that distinguish "which" from "witch". Sonorants may also be called resonants, and some linguists prefer that term, restricting the word 'sonorant' to non-
vocoid A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...
resonants (that is, nasals and liquids, but not vowels or semi-vowels). Another common distinction is between occlusives (stops, nasals and affricates) and continuants (all else).


Stricture

From greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as
stop consonant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical ...
s (with ''occlusion'', or blocked airflow),
fricative consonant Fricatives are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pron ...
s (with partially blocked and therefore strongly turbulent airflow),
approximant Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow. Therefore, approximants fall between fricatives Fricatives are cons ...
s (with only slight turbulence), tense
vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...

vowel
s, and finally
lax Los Angeles International Airport , commonly referred to as LAX (with each of its letters pronounced individually), is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles and its Greater Los Angeles, surrounding metropolitan area. LAX is lo ...
vowels (with full unimpeded airflow).
Affricate An affricate is a consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pr ...
s often behave as if they were intermediate between stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along the cline toward less stricture in a process called
lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
or towards more stricture in a process called
fortition Fortition, also known as strengthening, is a consonantal change that increases the degree of stricture. It's the opposite of the more common lenition. For example, a fricative or an approximant may become a stop consonant, stop (i.e. becomes o ...
.


Other parameters

Sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth. Fricatives at
coronal Coronal may refer to: * a nuptial crown * anything relating to a Corona (disambiguation), corona * Coronal plane, an anatomical term of location * The Commonly used terms of relationship and comparison in dentistry, coronal direction on a tooth * Co ...
places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant, sibilants being the more common. Flaps (also called taps) are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are distinct enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just
length Length is a measure of distance. In the International System of Quantities The International System of Quantities (ISQ) is a set of quantities and the equation In mathematics, an equation is a statement that asserts the equality (mathema ...
. The main articulatory difference between flaps and stops is that, due to the greater length of stops compared to flaps, a build-up of air pressure occurs behind a stop which does not occur behind a flap. This means that when the stop is released, there is a burst of air as the pressure is relieved, while for flaps there is no such burst. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs. Since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative. Trilled affricates are also known. Nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and
nasal vowel A nasal vowel is a vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, ...
s, but nasalized fricatives, taps, and approximants are also found. When a sound is not nasal, it is called ''oral.''
Laterality The term laterality refers to the preference most humans Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank ...
is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue. This can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants (such as the pronunciation of the letter L in the English word "let"), lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates.


Individual manners

* Stop, often called a plosive, is an oral occlusive, where there is ''occlusion'' (blocking) of the oral
vocal tract The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the ...
, and no nasal air flow, so the air flow stops completely. Examples include
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
(
voiceless In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
) and (
voiced Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize i ...
). If the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion; if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the ''onset'' of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel, as well as the
release Release may refer to: * Film release, the public distribution of a film * Legal release, a legal instrument * News release, a communication directed at the news media * Release (ISUP), a code to identify and debug events in ISUP signaling * Release ...
burst and its effect on the following vowel. The shape and position of the tongue (the ''place'' of articulation) determine the
resonant Resonance describes the phenomenon of increased amplitude The amplitude of a Periodic function, periodic Variable (mathematics), variable is a measure of its change in a single Period (mathematics), period (such as frequency, time or Wavelen ...

resonant
cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds. All languages have stops. * Nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds. Examples include English . Nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of
Puget Sound Puget Sound () is a sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such waves and ...
and a single language on
Bougainville Island Bougainville Island ( Tok Pisin: ''Bogenvil'') is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, which is part of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini; tcs, Op Deudai), offic ...

Bougainville Island
. *
Fricative Fricatives are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pron ...
, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous ''frication'' (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation. Examples include English (voiceless), (voiced), etc. Most languages have fricatives, though many have only an . However, the
Indigenous Australian languages The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated 28 language family, language families and language isolate, isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby i ...
are almost completely devoid of fricatives of any kind. **
Sibilant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ...
s are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth, creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound. These are by far the most common fricatives. Fricatives at
coronal Coronal may refer to: * a nuptial crown * anything relating to a Corona (disambiguation), corona * Coronal plane, an anatomical term of location * The Commonly used terms of relationship and comparison in dentistry, coronal direction on a tooth * Co ...
(front of tongue) places of articulation are usually, though not always, sibilants. English sibilants include and . **
Lateral Lateral is a geometric term of location {{unreferenced, date=March 2014 Geometric terms of location describe directions or positions relative to the shape of an object. These terms are used in descriptions of engineering, physics, and other scienc ...
fricatives are a rare type of fricative, where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue. The "ll" of
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
and the "hl" of
Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in southern Africa * Zulu people, an ethnic group of southern Africa Arts, entertainment, and med ...
are lateral fricatives. *
Affricate An affricate is a consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pr ...
, which begins like a stop, but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. The English letters "ch" and "j" represent affricates. Affricates are quite common around the world, though less common than fricatives. *
Flap Flap may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Flap'' (film), a 1970 American film * Flap, a boss character in the arcade game ''Gaiapolis'' * Flap, a minor character in the film ''Little Nemo: Adventures in Slumberland'' Biology and heal ...
, often called a tap, is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. The "tt" of "utter" and the "dd" of "udder" are pronounced as a flap in
North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of a single continent, Americas, America. It is bordered to the north by the A ...
and
Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Australian English is the country's national and ''de facto'' common language. English is the Lang ...
. Many linguists distinguish ''taps'' from ''flaps'', but there is no consensus on what the difference might be. No language relies on such a difference. There are also lateral flaps. *
Trill Trill most often refers to: * Trill consonant, a type of sound used in some languages * Trill (music), a type of musical ornament Trill may also refer to: Fictional entities * Trill (The Legend of Zelda), Trill (''The Legend of Zelda''), a bird ...
, in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place, and the airstream causes it to vibrate. The double "r" of
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
"perro" is a trill. Trills and flaps, where there are one or more brief occlusions, constitute a class of consonant called rhotics. *
Approximant Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow. Therefore, approximants fall between fricatives Fricatives are conso ...
, where there is very little obstruction. Examples include English and . In some languages, such as Spanish, there are sounds that seem to fall between ''fricative'' and ''approximant''. ** One use of the word
semivowel In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical p ...
, sometimes called a glide, is a type of approximant, pronounced like a vowel but with the tongue closer to the roof of the mouth, so that there is slight turbulence. In English, is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel , and (spelled "y") is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel in this usage. Other descriptions use ''semivowel'' for vowel-like sounds that are not syllabic, but do not have the increased stricture of approximants. These are found as elements in
diphthong A diphthong ( or ; from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''diphthongos'', literally "double sound" or "double tone"; from ''δίς'' "twice" and ''φθόγγος'' "sound"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds w ...
s. The word may also be used to cover both concepts. The term glide is newer than semivowel, being used to indicate an essential quality of sounds such as and , which is the movement (or glide) from their initial position ( and , respectively) to a following vowel. **
Lateral Lateral is a geometric term of location {{unreferenced, date=March 2014 Geometric terms of location describe directions or positions relative to the shape of an object. These terms are used in descriptions of engineering, physics, and other scienc ...
approximants, usually shortened to lateral, are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue. English is a lateral. Together with the ''rhotics'', which have similar behavior in many languages, these form a class of consonant called
liquids A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or external force. Fluids are a Phase (matter), phase of matter and incl ...
.


Other airstream initiations

All of these manners of articulation are pronounced with an
airstream mechanism In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ...
called
pulmonic egressive In human speech, egressive sounds are sounds in which the air stream upright=1.25, Different air masses which affect North America as well as other continents, tend to be separated by frontal boundaries In meteorology Meteorology is a bran ...
, meaning that the air flows outward, and is powered by the lungs (actually the ribs and
diaphragm Diaphragm may refer to: * Diaphragm (anatomy) or thoracic diaphragm, a thin sheet of muscle between the thorax and the abdomen * Diaphragm (optics), a stop in the light path of a lens, having an aperture that regulates the amount of light that pass ...
). Other airstream mechanisms are possible. Sounds that rely on some of these include: *
Ejective In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical p ...
s, which are ''glottalic egressive''. That is, the airstream is powered by an upward movement of the
glottis The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds In humans, vocal cords, also known as vocal chords, vocal folds or voice reeds, are folds of tissue in the throat that are key in creating sounds through vocalization. The size of vocal cor ...
rather than by the lungs or diaphragm. Stops, affricates, and occasionally fricatives may occur as ejectives. All ejectives are voiceless, or at least transition from voiced to voiceless. *
Implosive Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.''Phonetics for communication disorders.'' Martin J. Ball and Nicole Müller. Rout ...
s, which are ''glottalic ingressive''. Here the glottis moves downward, but the lungs may be used simultaneously (to provide voicing), and in some languages no air may actually flow into the mouth. Implosive stops are not uncommon, but implosive affricates and fricatives are rare. Voiceless implosives are also rare. * Clicks, which are ''
lingual ingressive Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Gene ...
''. Here the back of the tongue is used to create a vacuum in the mouth, causing air to rush in when the forward occlusion (tongue or lips) is released. Clicks may be oral or nasal, stop or affricate, central or lateral, voiced or voiceless. They are extremely rare in normal words outside
Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Pro ...
. However, English has a click in its "tsk tsk" (or "tut tut") sound, and another is often used to say "giddy up" to a horse. * Combinations of these, in some analyses, in a single consonant: ''
linguo-pulmonic Pulmonic-contour clicks, also called sequential linguo-pulmonic consonants, are consonants that transition from a click consonant, click to an ordinary pulmonic consonant, pulmonic sound, or more precisely, have an audible delay between the front ...
'' and ''
linguo-glottalic Ejective-contour clicks, also called sequential linguo-glottalic consonants, are consonants that transition from a click consonant, click to an ejective sound, or more precisely, have an audible delay between the front and rear release of the cli ...
(ejective)'' consonants, which are clicks released into either a pulmonic or ejective stop/fricative.


See also

*
Index of phonetics articles A * Acoustic phonetics Acoustic phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians— ...
*
Articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of different physiological structu ...
*
Place of articulation In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sig ...
*
Basis of articulationIn phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical prop ...
*
Diction Diction ( la, dictionem (nom. ), "a saying, expression, word"), in its original meaning, is a writer's or speaker's distinctive vocabulary choices and style of expression in a poem or story.Crannell (1997) ''Glossary'', p. 406 In its common meaning ...
*
Phonation The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign ...
*
Airstream mechanism In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ...
*
Relative articulation In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner of articulation, manner and place of articulation, place of articulation (phonetics), articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point. Typically, the co ...
*
Nonexplosive stop In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pro ...
*
Vocal tract The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the ...
*
Human voice The human voice consists of sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such wa ...
* Source-filter model of speech production


Bibliography

*


External links


Movie clip showing the human articulators in actionInteractive Flash website for American English, Spanish and German sounds
{{Articulation navbox Phonetics Articulatory phonetics Articles containing video clips