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''Maṇḍala'' is a
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
word meaning 'circle'. The
mandala A mandala ( sa, मण्डल, maṇḍala, circle, ) is a geometric configuration of symbols. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for e ...

mandala
is a model for describing the patterns of diffuse political power distributed among
Mueang Mueang ( th, เมือง ''mɯ̄ang'', ), Muang ( lo, ເມືອງ ''mɯ́ang'', ; Tai Nuea Tai Nuea or Tai Nüa (Tai Nüa: ; also called Tai Le, Dehong Dai or Chinese Shan; own name: ''Tai2 Lə6'', which means "Upper Tai" or "Northern Ta ...
or Kedatuan (principalities) in early Southeast Asian history, when local power was more important than the central leadership. The concept of the mandala balances modern tendencies to look for unified political power, eg. the power of large
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
s and
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (news ...
s of later history – an inadvertent byproduct of 15th century advances in map-making technologies. In the words of
O. W. Wolters Oliver William Wolters OBE (8 June 1915 – 5 December 2000) was a British academic, historian and author. He was also a Malayan civil servant and administrator. At his death, he was the Goldwin Smith Professor of Southeast Asian History Em ...
who further explored the idea in 1982:
The map of earlier Southeast Asia which evolved from the prehistoric networks of small settlements and reveals itself in historical records was a patchwork of often overlapping mandalas.
It is employed to denote traditional
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
n political formations, such as
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...

federation
of kingdoms or vassalized polity under a
center of domination
center of domination
. It was adopted by 20th century European historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term "
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
" in the conventional sense. Not only did Southeast Asian
polities A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between ind ...
except Vietnam not conform to
classical Chinese Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese (古文 ''gǔwén'' "ancient text", or 文言 ''wényán'' "text speak"; Written vernacular Chinese, modern vernacular: 文言文 ''wényánwén'' "text speak text"), is the language of the cla ...
and European views of a territorially defined state with fixed
border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called . Some borders—such as mos ...

border
s and a
bureaucratic apparatus
bureaucratic apparatus
, but they diverged considerably in the opposite direction: the polity was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries, and it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration. In some ways similar to the
feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disco ...
of Europe, states were linked in
suzerain Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity controls the foreign policy and relations of a tributary state, while allowing the tributary state to have internal autonomy. The dominant state is called the "suzerain." Suzeraint ...
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...

tributary
relationships.


Terminology

The term draws a comparison with the
mandala A mandala ( sa, मण्डल, maṇḍala, circle, ) is a geometric configuration of symbols. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for e ...

mandala
of the
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
and
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
worldview A worldview or world-view is the fundamental cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual ...

worldview
; the comparison emphasises the radiation of power from each power center, as well as the non-physical basis of the system. Other
metaphors A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
such as S. J. Tambiah's original idea of a "
galactic Galactic is an American jam band A jam band is a musical group whose live albums and concerts relate to a fan culture that began in the 1960s with the Grateful Dead, who held lengthy improvisational "jam session, jams" during their conce ...

galactic
polity" describe political patterns similar to the mandala. The historian Victor Lieberman prefers the "solar polity" metaphor, referencing the gravitational pull the sun exerts over the planets.


History

Historically, the main suzerain or overlord states were the
Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire ( km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ), or the Angkorian Empire ( km, ចក្រភពអង្គរ, link=no), are the terms that historians use to refer to Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ព ...

Khmer Empire
of
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
;
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
of
South Sumatra South Sumatra ( id, Sumatra Selatan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-l ...
; the successive kingdoms of
Medang Medang Island (Indonesian: ''Pulau Medang'') is an island off the north coast of Sumbawa Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province, I ...

Medang
,
Kediri
Kediri
,
Singhasari Singhasari ( jv, ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦱꦶꦔ꧀ꦲꦱꦫꦶ, translit=Karaton Singhasari or , id, Kerajaan Singasari) was an Greater India, Indianized Javanese people, Javanese Hindu–Buddhist Monarchy, kingdom located in east Java (island ...

Singhasari
and
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
of
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
; the Ayutthaya Kingdom of
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
;
Champa Champa (Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams The Chams or Cham people ( Cham: ''Urang Campa'' / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, vi, người Chăm or người Chàm, km, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethni ...

Champa
and early
Đại Việt Đại Việt (, ; literally Great Việt), often known as Annam, was a Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Viet ...
. China occupies a special place in that the others often in turn paid tribute to China, although in practice the obligations imposed on the lesser kingdoms were minimal. The most notable tributary states were post-Angkor Cambodia,
Lan Xang existed as a unified kingdom from 1353 to 1707. For three and a half centuries, Lan Xang was one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The meaning of the kingdom's name alludes to the power of the kingship and formidable war machine of the ea ...
(succeeded by the
Kingdom of Vientiane Kingdom of Vientiane was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang. The kingdom was a Burmese vassal from 1765 to 1824. It then became a Siamese vassal until 1828 when it was annexed by Siam. History In 1779, under t ...
and
Luang Prabang Luang Phabang, (Lao language, Lao: wikt:ຫລວງພະບາງ, ຫລວງພະບາງ/wikt:ຫຼວງພະບາງ, ຫຼວງພະບາງ) or ''Louangphabang'' (pronounced ), commonly Transliteration, transliterated into We ...

Luang Prabang
) and
Lanna The Lan Na or Lan Na Kingdom ( nod, , , "Kingdom of a Million Rice Fields"; th, อาณาจักรล้านนา, , ), also known as Lannathai, and most commonly called Lanna or Lanna Kingdom, was an Greater India#Indianized states, ...
. Cambodia in the 18th century was described by the Vietnamese emperor
Gia Long Gia Long (; 8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh, was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn dynasty, the last of the ...
as "an independent country that is slave of two" (Chandler p. 119). The system was eventually ended by the arrival of the Europeans in the mid-19th century. Culturally, they introduced Western geographical practices, which assumed that every area was subject to one sovereign. Practically, the colonisation of
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
,
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
,
British Malaya The term "British Malaya" (; ms, Tanah Melayu British) loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (: ''Semenanjung Tanah Melayu'') is a in . The runs approximately north–south and, at its terminus, ...
and Burma brought pressure from the colonisers for fixed boundaries to their possessions. The tributary states were then divided between the colonies and Siam, which exercised much more centralised power but over a smaller area than thitherto. The advent of Islam in the archipelago saw the application of this system which is still continued in the formation of the government, such as the formation of the 18th century
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspa ...
coalition which focused on
Seri Menanti of Negeri Sembilan '' Yamtuan Besar'', the Istana Besar Seri Menanti Image:Seri Menanti palace.jpg, 250px, Seri Menanti Old Palace Seri Menanti is a town, a mukim and a state assembly constituency in the Kuala Pilah District, in central Neger ...
as a center flanked by four inner ''luak serambi'' and four outer districts. Another example is the post-Majapahit Islamic kingdoms in Java. Historian
Martin Stuart-Fox Martin Stuart-Fox (born 1939) is a retired Australian professor and journalist who writes about the history of Southeast Asia, primarily Laos. In 1963 he was a contributor for the United Press International in Laos. In 1965 he moved to Vietnam and ...
uses the term "mandala" extensively to describe the history of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang as a structure of loosely held together
mueang Mueang ( th, เมือง ''mɯ̄ang'', ), Muang ( lo, ເມືອງ ''mɯ́ang'', ; Tai Nuea Tai Nuea or Tai Nüa (Tai Nüa: ; also called Tai Le, Dehong Dai or Chinese Shan; own name: ''Tai2 Lə6'', which means "Upper Tai" or "Northern Ta ...
that disintegrated after Lan Xang's conquest by Thailand starting in the 18th century. Thai historian Sunait Chutintaranond made an important contribution to study of the mandala in Southeast Asian history by demonstrating that "three assumptions responsible for the view that Ayudhya was a strong centralized state" did not hold and that "in Ayudhya the
hegemony Hegemony (, , ) is the political, economic, and military predominance of one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (ne ...
of provincial governors was never successfully eliminated."


Obligations

The obligations on each side of the relationship varied according to the strength of the relationship and the circumstances. In general, the tributary was obliged to pay ''
bunga mas The bunga emas dan perak ( "golden and silver flowers", th, ต้นไม้เงินต้นไม้ทอง ), often abbreviated to bunga mas (Jawi script, Jawi: "golden flowers"), was a tribute sent every three years to the king of A ...

bunga mas
'', a regular tribute of various valuable goods and slaves, and miniature trees of
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
and
silver Silver is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical ele ...

silver
(''bunga mas dan perak''). The overlord ruler reciprocated with presents often of greater value than those supplied by the tributary. However, the tributary also had to provide men and supplies when called on, most often in time of war. The main benefit to the tributary was protection from invasion by other powers, although as South East Asia historian
Thongchai Winichakul Thongchai Winichakul ( th, ธงชัย วินิจจะกูล; , ; born 1957), is a Thai historian and researcher of Southeast Asian studies. He is professor emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is a ...
notes, this was often "mafia-like protection" from the threats of the overlord himself. In some cases, the overlord also controlled the succession in the tributary, but in general interference with the tributary's domestic affairs was minimal: he would retain his own army and powers of taxation, for example. In the case of the more tenuous relationships, the "overlord" might regard it as one of tribute, while the "tributary" might consider the exchange of gifts to be purely commercial or as an expression of goodwill (Thongchai p. 87).


Personal relationships

The emphasis on personal relationships was one of the defining characteristics of the mandala system. The tributary ruler was subordinate to the overlord ruler, rather than to the overlord state in the abstract. This had many important implications. A strong ruler could attract new tributaries, and would have strong relationships over his existing tributaries. A weaker ruler would find it harder to attract and maintain these relationships. This was put forward as one cause of the sudden rise of Sukhothai under
Ramkhamhaeng Ram Khamhaeng ( th, รามคำแหง, ) or Pho Khun Ram Khamhaeng Maharat ( th, พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช, ), also spelled Ramkhamhaeng, was the third king of the Phra Ruang Dynasty, ruling the Sukhothai ...
, for example, and for its almost equally steep decline after his death (Wyatt, 45 and 48). The tributary ruler could repudiate the relationship and seek either a different overlord or complete independence. The system was non-territorial. The overlord was owed allegiance by the tributary ruler, or at most by the tributary's main town, but not by all the people of a particular area. The tributary owner in turn had power either over tributary states further down the scale, or directly over "his" people, wherever they lived. No ruler had authority over unpopulated areas. The personal relationship between overlord and subordinate rulers is also defining the dynamic of relationship within mandala. The relations between Dharmasetu of Srivijaya and
Samaratungga Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world built by the Sailendra dynasty under Samaratungga. Samaratungga was the head of the Sailendra dynasty who ruled Medang Kingdom, Central Java and Srivijaya in the 8th and the 9th century. He was ...
of
Sailendra The Shailendra dynasty (, derived from Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch o ...
for instance, defining the succession of these dynastic family. Dharmasetu was the Srivijayan Maharaja overlord, while the house of Sailendra in Java is suggested to be related and was subscribed to Srivijayan mandala domination. After Samaratungga married Princess Tara, the daughter of Dharmasetu, Samaratungga become his successor and the house of Sailendra was promoted to become the dynastic lineage of later Srivijayan kings, and for a century period the center of Srivijaya was shifted from Sumatra to Java.


Non-exclusivity

The overlord-tributary relationship was not necessarily exclusive. A state in border areas might pay tribute to two or three stronger powers. The tributary ruler could then play the stronger powers off against each other in order to minimise interference by either one, while for the major powers the tributaries served as a
buffer zone
buffer zone
to prevent direct conflict between them. For example, the Malay kingdoms in
Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language f ...
,
Langkasuka Langkasuka was an ancient Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malays ...
and
Tambralinga Tambralinga ( sa, Tāmbraliṅga) was an Indianised kingdom located on the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Tanah Melayu'') is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north–sou ...
, earlier were the subject to Srivijayan mandala, and in later period contested by either Ayutthaya mandala in north and Majapahit mandala in south, before finally gain its own gravity during
Malacca Sultanate #REDIRECT Malacca Sultanate The Malacca Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: کسلطانن ملايو ملاک) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c ...
.


See also

*
Indianisation Indianisation may refer to the spread of Indian religions, culture, diaspora, soft power, economic reach and impact since India is one of the greatest influencers since ancient times and the current century has been called the Indian Century. ...
- mandalas led to Indianisation of Southeast Asia **
Chakravartin In Indian religions, a ''chakravarti'' (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branc ...
- universal ruler **
Devaraja "Devarāja" was the religious order of the "god-king", or Divinity, deified monarch in medieval Southeast Asia. The devarāja order grew out of both Hinduism and separate local traditions depending on the area. It taught that the monarch, king ...
- Hindu-Buddhist concept of deified royalty in Southeast Asia **
Greater India Greater India, or the Indian cultural sphere, is an area composed of many countries and regions in South Asia, South and Southeast Asia that were historically influenced by Indian culture, which itself formed from the various distinct indigen ...
- mandalas were key components **
History of Indian influence on Southeast Asia History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
- expansion of Indianised mandalas **
Indian influences in early Philippine polities The Indian influences in early Philippine polities, particularly the influence of the Srivijaya Srivijaya (; ; ; ) was a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural s ...
- mandalas of Srivijaya empire **
Indian maritime history (2400 BCE) lies the Kutch peninsula. Proximity to the Gulf of Khambhat The Gulf of Khambhat, also known as the Gulf of Cambay, is a bay on the Arabian Sea coast of India, bordering the state of Gujarat right north of city of Mumbai. The Gulf o ...
- responsible for spread of mandalas **
Indosphere Indosphere is a term coined by the linguist James Matisoff for areas of Indian linguistic and cultural influence in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cult ...
- term mandalas originated from Sanskrit **
Monthon''Monthon'' ( th, มณฑล) were administrative subdivisions of Thailand at the beginning of the 20th century. The Thai word ''monthon'' is a translation of the word ''mandala'' (', literally "circle A circle is a shape consisting of all po ...
- Siamese system of local administration from 1897 to 1933 **
Rajamandala The Rajamandala (or ''Raja-mandala'' meaning "circle of kings"; , ''mandala'' is a Sanskrit word that means "circle") was formulated by the Indian author Chanakya (Kautilya) in his work on politics, the ''Arthashastra'' (written between 4th century ...
- "circle of states" in India from 4th century BC to 2nd century AD * Similar models elsewhere **
Chiefdom A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship In , kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, alth ...
**
Fealty An oath Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (B ...
– European analogue **
Hegemony Hegemony (, , ) is the political, economic, and military predominance of one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (ne ...
- similar European concept **
Homage (feudal) Homage (from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
- similar European system **
Honour (feudal barony) Honour (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, whi ...
- similar 11th and 12th centuries European system **
Metropole The metropole (from the Greek ''metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

Metropole
- a term for the centre of British Empire **
Tusi ''Tusi'' (; mnc, ᠠᡳᠮᠠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ; vi, Thổ ty), often translated as "headmen" or "chieftains", were hereditary tribal leaders recognized as imperial officials by the Yuan, Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the ...

Tusi
– system of local chiefdoms in southern China * General **
Palace economy A palace economy or redistribution economy is a system of economic organization in which a substantial share of the wealth flows into the control of a centralized administration, the palace, and out from there to the general population, which may b ...
- centralized administration methods in antiquity **
Political geography Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms ...
- impact of geography on the politics **
Sacred king Image:God by eyck.JPG, 200px, Figure of Christ from the Ghent Altarpiece (1432). In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a Sacred, sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and judge. The concept of ...
- position of kingship carries a sacred meaning **
Sphere of influence In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and ...
**
Suzerainty Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized soci ...
– allowing limited self-rule ** Zomia (geography) - a term used for those on the periphery


Notes


Additional references

*Chandler, David. ''A History of Cambodia''. Westview Press, 1983. * * Lieberman, Victor, ''Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800-1830, Volume 1: Integration on the Mainland'', Cambridge University Press, 2003. * Stuart-Fox, Martin, ''The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang: Rise and Decline'', White Lotus, 1998. * Tambiah, S. J., ''World Conqueror and World Renouncer'', Cambridge, 1976. *Thongchai Winichakul. ''Siam Mapped''. University of Hawaii Press, 1994. *Wolters, O.W. ''History, Culture and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives''. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1982. *Wolters, O.W. ''History, Culture and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives''. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Revised Edition, 1999. *Wyatt, David. ''Thailand: A Short History'' (2nd edition). Yale University Press, 2003.


Further reading

*Political reasons for survey and map making in
Siam ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai language, ...
detailed in * * * {{Citation , author=Stanley J. Tambiah , title=The Galactic Polity. The Structure of Traditional Kingdoms in Southeast Asia , work=Anthropology and the Climate of Opinion , series=Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , volume=293 , issue=1 , place=New York , year=1977 , pages=69–97, bibcode=1977NYASA.293...69T , doi=10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb41806.x , s2cid=84461786 Cultural assimilation Diplomacy Globalization Feudalism in Asia History of Southeast Asia Indianized kingdoms Political geography Political theories Power (social and political) theories Sanskrit words and phrases