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Manchuria is an
exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
for a historical and geographic region of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
in
Northeast Asia Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Eart ...
(mostly in
Northeast China Northeast China () is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Northeast China
today). Its extent may vary depending on the context: * Modern geographical region: ** (most often) Northeast China, specifically the three provinces of
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
,
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
, and
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
, but broadly also including the eastern
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
n
prefectures A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international ...
of
Hulunbuir Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir ( mn, , ''Kölün buyir'', Mongolian Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, ''Khölönbuir''; zh, s=呼伦贝尔, ''Hūlúnbèi'ěr'') is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.j ...

Hulunbuir
, Hinggan,
Tongliao Tongliao (; mn, ''Tüŋliyou qota'', Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). Th ...

Tongliao
, and
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin Coun ...

Chifeng
, and sometimes
Xilin Gol Xilingol, Xilin Gol, Shiliin Gol or Xilinguole Aimag/League (; mn, ''Shiliyin gool ayimag'', Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian cyrillic.Шилийн Гол аймаг) is one of 12 Leagues of China, leagues of Inner Mongolia. The seat is X ...
; ** Greater Manchuria, the region of Northeast Asia that served as the historical homeland of the
Jurchens Jurchen (: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of peoples, descended from the . They lived in the northeast of China, later known as , before the 18th century. The Jurchens were the ance ...
who became the
Manchus The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
, now divided between China (Northeast China, also known as "Inner Manchuria") and Russia (the southeastern part of the
Russian Far East Koryaksky volcano in Kamchatka The Russian Far East ( rus, Дальний Восток России, r=Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, p=ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ) is a region in Northeast Asia. It is the easternmost part of Russia and the A ...

Russian Far East
south of the Uda River, also known as "Russian Manchuria", "Outer Northeast" or "
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
"); * Historical polities usually referred to as Manchuria: ** The
Later Jin (1616–1636) The Later Jin (1616–1636) was a dynastic khanate in Manchuria ruled by the Jurchen people, Jurchen Aisin Gioro leaders Nurhaci and Hong Taiji. Established in 1616 by the Jianzhou Jurchens, Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain Nurhaci upon his Jurchen ...
, the Manchu-led dynasty which was the predecessor to the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, or the subsequent duration of the Qing Dynasty prior to the its conquest of China proper (1644); ** the northeastern provinces of the Qing Empire, the homeland of Manchus, known as "Guandong" or "Guanwai" during the Qing dynasty; **
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
(1932–1945), a
puppet state A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government or dummy government is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...
of
Imperial Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the and several , s, , and other . Under the slogans of and Japan underwent ...
. First used in the 17th century by the Japanese, it remains a common term elsewhere but is deprecated within China, where it is associated with ethnic chauvinism and
Japanese imperialism This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of Japan, 1947 constituti ...

Japanese imperialism
. Instead, the term Northeast Region (东北; Dōngběi) is used in official state documents to describe the region. Northeast China is now predominantly
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
due to internal Chinese migrations and
Sinicization of the Manchus Sinicization of the Manchus is the process in which the Manchu people became assimilated into Han Chinese The Han Chinese,Yemaek Yemaek or Yamaek () were an ancient tribal group in Northeast China and the northern Korean Peninsula Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became t ...
the
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
, the Shiwei, and the
Khitans The Khitan people (Khitan small script The Khitan small script () was one of two writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language Khitan or Kitan ( in large script or in small, ''Khitai''; , ''Qìdānyǔ''), also known as Liao, is a n ...
. The area is also home to many
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongols
and
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
. Manchuria is often referred to as the "Chinese rust belt", due to the shrinking cities that used to be the center of China's heavy industry and natural resource mining, but today face increasing economic decline.


Boundaries

Manchuria is now most often associated with the three Chinese provinces of
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
,
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
, and
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
. The former Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo further included the prefectures of
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area ...

Chengde
(now in
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
), and
Hulunbuir Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir ( mn, , ''Kölün buyir'', Mongolian Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, ''Khölönbuir''; zh, s=呼伦贝尔, ''Hūlúnbèi'ěr'') is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.j ...

Hulunbuir
, Hinggan,
Tongliao Tongliao (; mn, ''Tüŋliyou qota'', Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). Th ...

Tongliao
, and
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin Coun ...

Chifeng
(now in
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
). The region of the Qing Empire referenced as Manchuria originally further included
Ussuri The Ussuri or Wusuli (russian: Уссури; ) runs through Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хаба́ровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987 ...
and Primoskiy Krais and the southern part of Harbin Oblast. These districts were acknowledged as Qing territory by the 1689
Treaty of Nerchinsk The Treaty of Nerchinsk () of 1689 was the first treaty between the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoye tsarstvo''), also c ...
but ceded to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
due to the
Amur Annexation The Amur Annexation was the annexation Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Th ...
in the unequal 1858
Treaty of Aigun The Treaty of Aigun (Russian: Айгунский договор; ) was an 1858 treaty between the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Eart ...
and 1860 Convention of Beijing. (The
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
indirectly questioned the legitimacy of these treaties in the 1960s but has more recently signed agreements such as the 2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship which affirm the current status quo; a minor exchange nonetheless occurred in 2004 at the confluence of the
Amur The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably t ...

Amur
and
Ussuri The Ussuri or Wusuli (russian: Уссури; ) runs through Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хаба́ровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987 ...
rivers.) Various senses of Greater Manchuria sometimes further include
Sakhalin Island Sakhalin ( or ; rus, Сахали́н, r=Sakhalín, p=səxɐˈlʲin; ja, 樺太 ''Karafuto'') is the northernmost island of the Japanese archipelago and the largest island of the Russian Federation Russia (russian: link=no, Росси ...
, which despite its lack of mention in treaties was shown as Qing territory on period Chinese, Japanese, Russian, and French maps of the area. File:EB1911 Manchuria.png , Map of the three provinces of
Northeast China Northeast China () is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Northeast China
(1911) File:Manchukuo Railmap en.png , Map of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
and its rail network, c.1945


Etymology and names

"Manchuria"variations of which arrived in European languages through
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
is a
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
ate
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
of the Japanese place name ''Manshū'' "Region of the Manchus"), which dates from the 19th century. The name ''Manju'' was invented and given to the
Jurchen people Jurchen (Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northea ...
by
Hong Taiji Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of ...

Hong Taiji
in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the
Manchus The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland. According to the Japanese scholar Junko Miyawaki-Okada, the Japanese geographer Takahashi Kageyasu was the first to use the term ''Manshū'' as a place name in 1809 in the ''Nippon Henkai Ryakuzu'', and it was from that work that Westerners adopted the name.

According to Mark C. Elliott, the term ''Manshū'' first appeared as a place name in Katsuragawa Hoshū's 1794 work ''Hokusa Bunryaku'' in two maps, "Ashia zenzu" and "Chikyū hankyū sōzu", which were also created by Katsuragawa. ''Manshū'' then began to appear as a place names in more maps created by Japanese like Kondi Jūzō, Takahashi Kageyasu, Baba Sadayoshi and Yamada Ren, and these maps were brought to Europe by the Dutch Philipp von Siebold. According to Nakami Tatsuo, Philip Franz von Siebold was the one who brought the usage of the term ''Manchuria'' to Europeans after borrowing it from the Japanese, who were the first to use it in a geographic manner in the 18th century.ed. Wolff & Steinberg 2007
p. 514.
According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using the name Manchuria to refer to the location and it is "not a genuine geographic term". The historian
Gavan McCormack Gavan McCormack is a researcher specializing in East Asia who is Emeritus Professor and Visiting Fellow, Division of Pacific and Asian History of the Australian National University The Australian National University (ANU) is a national rese ...
agreed with Robert H. G. Lee's statement that "The term Manchuria or Man-chou is a modern creation used mainly by westerners and Japanese", with McCormack writing that the term Manchuria is imperialistic in nature and has no "precise meaning" since the Japanese deliberately promoted the use of "Manchuria" as a geographic name to promote its separation from China at the time they were setting up their puppet state of Manchukuo. The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria. The historian Norman Smith wrote that "The term 'Manchuria' is controversial". Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she "should use the term in quotation marks" when referring to Manchuria. In the 18th-century Europe, the region later known as "Manchuria" was most commonly referred to as " hinese
Tartary Tartary ( la, Tartaria, french: Tartarie, german: Tartarei) was a blanket term used in Western European literature and cartography for a vast part of Asia bounded by the Caspian Sea, the Ural Mountains, the Pacific Ocean, and the northern borders ...
". However, the term Manchuria (''Mantchourie'', in French) started appearing by the end of the century; French missionaries used it as early as 1800. The French-based geographers
Conrad Malte-Brun Conrad Malte-Brun (12 August 177514 December 1826), born Malthe Conrad Bruun, and sometimes referred to simply as Malte-Brun, was a Danish people, Dano-French people, French geographer and journalist. His second son, Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun, was ...

Conrad Malte-Brun
and
Edme Mentelle Edme Mentelle (11 October 1730 - 28 April 1816) was a French people, French geographer. Biography

Student of Jean-Baptiste Louis Crévier at the Collège de Beauvais (at the time a constituent college of the University of Paris#Colleges, Unive ...
promoted the use of the term Manchuria (''Mantchourie'', in French), along with "Mongolia", "Kalmykia", etc., as more precise terms than
Tartary Tartary ( la, Tartaria, french: Tartarie, german: Tartarei) was a blanket term used in Western European literature and cartography for a vast part of Asia bounded by the Caspian Sea, the Ural Mountains, the Pacific Ocean, and the northern borders ...
, in their world geography work published in 1804. In present-day Chinese, an inhabitant of the Northeast is a "Northeasterner" (). "The Northeast" is a term that expresses the entire region, encompassing its history and various cultures. It's usually restricted to the "Three East Provinces" or "Three Northeast Provinces", however, to the exclusion of northeastern Inner Mongolia. In China, the term Manchuria () is rarely used today, and the term is often negatively associated with the Japanese imperial legacy and the puppet state of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
. Manchuria has also been referred to as Guandong (), which literally means "east of the pass", and similarly Guanwai (), a reference to
Shanhai Pass Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major pass Pass, PASS, The Pass or Passed may refer to: Places *Pass, County Meath, a townland in Ireland *Pass, Poland, a village in Poland *Pass (strait), Pass, an alternate term for a numbe ...
in
Qinhuangdao Qinhuangdao (; ) is a port city on the coast of China in northern Hebei. It is administratively a prefecture-level city, about east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea. Its population during the Sixth National ...

Qinhuangdao
in today's
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
, at the eastern end of the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against Eurasian nomads, various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Step ...

Great Wall of China
. This usage is seen in the expression '' Chuǎng Guāndōng'' (literally "Rushing into Guandong") referring to the mass migration of
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
to Manchuria in the 19th and 20th centuries. The name Guandong later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the
Kwantung Leased Territory The Kwantung Leased Territory ( ja, 關東州, ''Kantō-shū''), () was a leased territory In international relations, a concession is a ":wikt:synallagmatic, synallagmatic act by which a State transfers the exercise of rights or functions ...
on the
Liaodong Peninsula The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the river mouth, mouths of the Daliao ...
. It is not to be confused with the southern province of
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
. During the Qing dynasty, the region was known as the "three eastern provinces" (;
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
, ''Dergi Ilan Golo'')Clausen 1995
p. 7.
since 1683 when Jilin and Heilongjiang were separated even though it was not until 1907 that they were turned into actual provinces. The administrators of the three areas were the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiyūn), General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), and General of Shengjing (Mukden i Jiyanggiyūn). The area of Manchuria was then converted into three
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
by the late
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
government in 1907. Since then, the phrase "Three Northeast Provinces" was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this region, and the post of Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces (dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban) was established to take charge of these provinces. After the
1911 revolution The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria ...
, which resulted in the collapse of the Manchu-established Qing dynasty, the name of the region where the Manchus originated was known as "the Northeast" in official documents in the newly founded
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
, in addition to the "Three Northeast Provinces". During the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
the area where the Jurchens lived was referred to as
Nurgan The Nurgan Regional Military Commission () was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...
. Nurgan was the area of modern
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
in Manchuria.


Geography and climate

Manchuria consists mainly of the northern side of the funnel-shaped
North China Craton The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

North China Craton
, a large area of tilled and overlaid
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
rocks spanning . The North China Craton was an independent continent before the
Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...

Triassic
period and is known to have been the northernmost piece of land in the world during the
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
. The
Khingan Mountains The Greater Khingan Range or Da Hinggan Range (; IPA: ), is a -long volcanic mountain range in the Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), offic ...
in the west are a Jurassic mountain range formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Craton, which marked the final stage of the formation of the
supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...
Pangaea Pangaea or Pangea () was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology) ...

Pangaea
. No part of Manchuria was
glaciated A glacier ( or ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow under str ...
during the
Quaternary The Quaternary ( ) is the current and most recent of the three period (geology), periods of the Cenozoic era (geology), Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). It follows the Neogene Period and spans ...
, but the surface geology of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of Manchuria consists of very deep layers of
loess Loess (, ; from German ''Löss'' ) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by ...
, which have been formed by wind-borne movement of
dust Dust is made of s of solid . On Earth, it generally consists of particles in the that come from various sources such as lifted by wind (an ), , and . Dust in homes is composed of about 20–50% dead . The rest, and in offices, and other ...
and
till image:Geschiebemergel.JPG, Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is d ...

till
particles formed in glaciated parts of the
Himalaya The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit: , "snow", "dwelling", "abode"), are a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has some of the planet's highest peaks, including the ...

Himalaya
s,
Kunlun Shan The Kunlun Mountains ( zh, s=昆仑山, t=崑崙山, p=Kūnlún Shān, ; ug, كۇئېنلۇن تاغ تىزمىسى) constitute one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending for more than . In the broadest sense, the chain forms the nor ...
and
Tien Shan The Tian Shan,; dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan- ...
, as well as the
Gobi The Gobi Desert () is a large desert or brushland region in East Asia. It covers parts of North China, Northern and Northeast China, Northeastern China and of Southern Mongolia. The desert basins of the Gobi are bounded by the Altai Mountains ...

Gobi
and
Taklamakan The Taklamakan Desert (; zh, s=, p=Tǎkèlāmǎgān Shāmò, Xiao'erjing: , dng, Такәламаган Шамә; ug, تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; also spelled Taklimakan and Teklimakan) is a desert in Southwest Xinjiang in Northwest ...

Taklamakan
Deserts. Soils are mostly fertile
mollisols Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy USDA soil taxonomy (ST) developed by United States Department of Agriculture The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the United States fe ...
and
fluvent In USDA soil taxonomy, Entisols are defined as soils that do not show any profile development other than an A horizon. An entisol has no diagnostic horizons, and most are basically unaltered from their parent material, which can be unconsolidated s ...
s except in the more mountainous parts where they are poorly developed orthents, as well as in the extreme north where
permafrost Permafrost is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years, located on land or under the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surfa ...

permafrost
occurs and orthels dominate. The climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in the winter. This pattern occurs because the position of Manchuria on the boundary between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the huge Pacific Ocean causes complete monsoonal wind reversal. In the summer, when the land heats faster than the ocean, low pressure forms over Asia and warm, moist south to southeasterly winds bring heavy, thundery rain, yielding annual rainfall ranging from , or less in the west, to over in the Changbai Mountains. Temperatures in the summer are very warm to hot, with July average maxima ranging from in the south to in the extreme north. Except in the far north near the Amur River, high humidity causes major discomfort at this time of year. In the winter, however, the vast Siberian Siberian High, High causes very cold, north to northwesterly winds that bring temperatures as low as in the extreme south and in the north where the zone of discontinuous permafrost reaches northern
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
. However, because the winds from Siberia are exceedingly dry, snow falls only on a few days every winter, and it is never heavy. This explains why corresponding latitudes of North America were fully glaciated during glacial periods of the Quaternary while Manchuria, though even colder, always remained too dry to form glaciers – a state of affairs enhanced by stronger westerly winds from the surface of the ice sheet in Europe.


History


Early history

Manchuria was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including Koreans, Manchu people, Manchu,
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongols
, Nani people, Nanai, Nivkhs, Ulchs, Hui and possibly Turkic peoples and Han Chinese, ethnic Han Chinese in southern Manchuria. Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Donghu people, Donghu,
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
, Wuhuan, Mohe people, Mohe, Khitan people, Khitan and Jurchens, have risen to power in Manchuria. Various Koreanic languages, Koreanic kingdoms such as Gojoseon (before 108 BCE), Buyeo kingdom, Buyeo (2nd century BCE to 494 CE) and Goguryeo (37 BCE to 688 CE) also became established in large parts of this area. The Han dynasty (202 BCE to 9 CE and 25 to 220 CE), the Cao Wei dynasty (220-266), the Western Jin dynasty (266-316), the Tang dynasty (618-690 and 705–907) and some other minor kingdoms of China established control in parts of Manchuria and in some cases tributary relations with peoples in the area. Parts of northwestern Manchuria came under the control of the First Turkic Khaganate of 552-603 and of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate of 581–630. Early Manchuria had a mixed economy of hunting, fishing, livestock, and agriculture. A number of world-renowned linguists, including Dr. Kim Bang-han, Bang-han Kim, Dr. Alexander Vovin, and Dr. J. Marshall Unger refer to the Goguryeo language and a number of other Koreanic languages like Ye-Maek language, Ye-Maek or Buyeo language, Buyeo as distinctly Old Korean. According to several linguists the Urheimat, linguistic homeland of proto-Korean is located somewhere in Manchuria. Later, Koreanic languages, Koreanic-speakers, already present in northern Korean Peninsula, Korea, started to expand further south, replacing or assimilating Peninsular Japonic, Japonic-speakers and likely causing the Yayoi people, Yayoi migration.Vovin, Alexander (2013). "From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean". ''Korean Linguistics''. 15 (2): 222–240. Whitman (2012) suggests that the proto-Koreans arrived in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula around 300 BCE and coexisted with the descendants of the Japonic Mumun cultivators (or assimilated them). Both had influence on each other and a later founder effect, founder-effect diminished the internal variety of both language families. With the Song dynasty (960-1269) to the south, the Khitan people of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
created the Liao dynasty (916-1125) and conquered Outer Mongolia and Manchuria, going on to control the adjacent part of the Sixteen Prefectures in North China, Northern China as well. The Liao dynasty became the first state to control all of Manchuria. In the early 12th century the Tungusic peoples, Tungusic Jurchen people, who were Liao's tributaries, overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynasty (1115–1234), which went on to control parts of Northern China and Mongolia Jurchen campaigns against the Song dynasty, after a series of successful military campaigns. During the Mongol Yuan dynasty rule of China (1271–1368), Manchuria was Manchuria under Yuan rule, administered as Liaoyang province. In 1375 Naghachu, a Mongol official of the Mongolia-based Northern Yuan dynasty of 1368–1635 in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong, but later Ming campaign against the Uriankhai, surrendered to the Ming dynasty in 1387. In order to protect the northern border areas, the Ming dynasty decided to "pacify" the Jurchens in order to deal with its problems with Yuan remnants along its northern border. The Ming Manchuria under Ming rule, solidified control over Manchuria under the Yongle Emperor (), establishing the Nurgan Regional Military Commission of 1409–1435. Starting in the 1580s, a Jianzhou Jurchens, Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain, Nurhaci (1558–1626), started to unify Jurchen tribes of the region. Over the next several decades, the Jurchen Manchuria under Qing rule, took control of most of Manchuria. In 1616 Nurhaci founded the Later Jin dynasty, which later became known as the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. The Qing defeated the Evenks, Evenk-Daur people, Daur federation led by the Evenki chief Bombogor (chief), Bombogor and beheaded Bombogor in 1640, with Qing armies massacring and deporting Evenkis and absorbing the survivors into the Eight Banners, Banners. Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", motifs such as the dragon, spirals, and scrolls, agriculture, husbandry, methods of heating, and material goods such as iron cooking-pots, silk, and cotton spread among the Amur natives including the Udege people, Udeghes, Ulchis, and Nani people, Nanais. In 1644, after peasant rebels sacked the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
's capital of Beijing, the Jurchens (now called Manchus) allied with Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing, overthrowing the short-lived Shun dynasty (1644-1649) and establishing Qing-dynasty rule (1644–1912) over all of China. The Manchu conquest of China involved the deaths of over 25 million people. The Qing dynasty built the Willow Palisade - a system of ditches and embankments - during the later 17th century to restrict the movement of Han civilians into Jilin and Heilongjiang. Only Eight Banners, bannermen, including Chinese bannermen, were allowed to settle in
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
and
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
. After conquering the Ming, the Qing often identified their state as "China" (中國, ''Zhongguo''; "Middle Kingdom"), and referred to it as ''Dulimbai Gurun'' ("Middle Kingdom") in Manchu. In the ''Qing shilu'' the lands of the Qing state (including Manchuria and present-day Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Tibet) are thus identified as "the Middle Kingdom" in both the Chinese and
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
languages in roughly two-thirds of the cases, while the term refers to the traditional Chinese provinces populated by the Han in roughly one third of the cases. It was also common to use "China" (''Zhongguo'', ''Dulimbai gurun'') to refer to the Qing in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs. In diplomatic documents, the term "Chinese language" (''Dulimbai gurun i bithe'') referred to the Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and the term "Chinese people" (中國人 Zhongguo ren; Manchu: Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all Han, Manchus, and Mongol subjects of the Qing. The Qing explicitly stated that the lands in Manchuria belonged to "China" (Zhongguo, Dulimbai gurun) in Qing edicts and in the 1689
Treaty of Nerchinsk The Treaty of Nerchinsk () of 1689 was the first treaty between the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoye tsarstvo''), also c ...
. Despite migration restrictions, Qing rule saw massively increasing numbers of Han Chinese both illegally and legally streaming into Manchuria and settling down to cultivate land - Manchu landlords desired Han Chinese peasants to rent their land and to grow grain; most Han Chinese migrants were not evicted as they crossed the Great Wall and Willow Palisade. During the eighteenth century Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares of privately owned land in Manchuria and 203,583 hectares of lands which were part of courier stations, noble estates, and Banner lands; in garrisons and towns in Manchuria Han Chinese made up 80% of the population. The Qing resettled Han Chinese farmers from north China to the area along the Liao River in order to restore the land to cultivation. Han Chinese squatters reclaimed wasteland, and other Han rented land from Manchu landlords. By the 18th century, despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on Manchu and Mongol lands, the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China - who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought - into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia by the 1780s. The Qianlong Emperor () allowed Han Chinese peasants suffering from drought to move into Manchuria despite his having issued edicts in favor of banning them from 1740 to 1776. Han Chinese then streamed into Manchuria, both illegally and legally, over the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against Eurasian nomads, various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Step ...

Great Wall of China
and the Willow Palisade. Chinese tenant farmers rented or even claimed title to land from the "imperial estates" and Manchu Bannerlands in the area. Besides moving into the Liao area in southern Manchuria, Han Chinese settled the path linking Jinzhou, Fengtian, Inner Mongolia, Fengtian, Tieling, Changchun, Hulun Buir, Hulun, and Ningguta during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, and Han Chinese had become the majority in urban areas of Manchuria by 1800. To increase the Imperial Treasury's revenue, the Qing sold formerly Manchu-only lands along the Songhua River, Sungari to Han Chinese at the beginning of the Daoguang Emperor's 1820-1850 reign, and Han Chinese filled up most of Manchuria's towns by the 1840s, according to Évariste Régis Huc, Abbé Huc. The Russian conquest of Siberia was met with indigenous resistance to colonization, but Russian Cossacks crushed the natives. The conquest of Siberia and Manchuria also resulted in the spread of infectious diseases. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... New diseases weakened and demoralized the indigenous peoples of Siberia. The worst of these was smallpox "because of its swift spread, the high death rates, and the permanent disfigurement of survivors." ... In the 1690s, smallpox epidemics reduced Yukagir numbers by an estimated 44 percent." At the behest of people like Vasilii Poyarkov in 1645 and Yerofei Khabarov in 1650, Russian Cossacks killed some peoples like the Daur people of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
and Xinjiang to the extent that some authors speak of genocide. The Daurs initially deserted their villages since they had heard about the cruelty of the Russians the first time Khabarov came. The second time he came, the Daurs decided to do battle against the Russians instead, but were slaughtered by Russian guns. The Russians came to be known as "red-beards". The Amur natives called Russian Cossacks ''luocha'' (羅剎), after demons in Buddhist mythology, because of their cruelty towards the Amur tribespeople, who were subjects of the Qing. The Qing viewed Russian proselytization of Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the indigenous peoples along the Amur River as a threat. In 1858 Russian diplomacy forced a weakening Qing Empire to cede Manchuria north of the Amur to Russia under the
Treaty of Aigun The Treaty of Aigun (Russian: Айгунский договор; ) was an 1858 treaty between the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Eart ...
. In 1860, with the Convention of Peking, Treaty of Peking, the Russians managed to obtain a further large slice of Manchuria, east of the Ussuri River. As a result, Manchuria became divided into a Russian half (known as "
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
", and a remaining Chinese half (known as "Inner Manchuria"). In modern literature, "Manchuria" usually refers to Inner (Chinese) Manchuria. As a result of the Treaties of Aigun and Peking, Qing China lost access to the Sea of Japan.


History after 1860

Inner Manchuria also came under strong Russian influence with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin, China, Harbin to Vladivostok. In the ''Chuang Guandong'' movement, many Han Chinese, Han farmers, mostly from the Shandong peninsula moved there. By 1921, Harbin, northern Manchuria's largest city, had a population of 300,000, including 100,000 Harbin Russians, Russians. Japan replaced Russian influence in the southern half of Inner Manchuria as a result of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905. Most of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway was transferred from Russia to Japan, and became the South Manchurian Railway. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917, but
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
had reverted to Soviet control by 1925. Manchuria was an important region due to its rich natural resources including coal, fertile soil, and various minerals. For Empire of Japan, pre–World War II Japan, Manchuria was an essential source of raw materials. Without occupying Manchuria, the Japanese probably could not have carried out their plan for conquest over Southeast Asia or taken the risk of attacking the United States and the British Empire in 1941. There was a major epidemic known as the Manchurian plague in 1910–1911, likely caused by the inexperienced hunting of marmots, many of whom are diseased. The cheap railway transport and the harsh winters, where the hunters sheltered in close confinement, helped to propagate the disease. The response required close coordination between the Chinese, Russian and Japanese authorities and international disease experts held a 'International Plague Conference' in the northern city of Shenyang after the disease was under control to learn the lessons. It was reported that among Banner people, both Manchu and Chinese (Hanjun) in Aihun, Heilongjiang in the 1920s, would seldom marry with Han civilians, but they (Manchu and Chinese Bannermen) would mostly intermarry with each other. Owen Lattimore reported that during his January 1930 visit to Manchuria, he studied a community in Jilin (Kirin), where both Manchu and Chinese Bannermen were settled at a town called Wulakai, and eventually the Chinese Bannermen there could not be differentiated from Manchus since they were effectively Manchufied (assimilated). The Han civilian population was in the process of absorbing and mixing with them when Lattimore wrote his article. Around the time of World War I, Zhang Zuolin established himself as a powerful warlord with influence over most of Manchuria. During his rule, the Manchurian economy grew tremendously, backed by immigration of Chinese from other parts of China. The Japanese assassinated him on 2 June 1928, in what is known as the Huanggutun Incident. Following the Mukden Incident in 1931 and the subsequent Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Japanese declared Inner Manchuria an "independent state", and appointed the deposed Qing emperor Puyi as Puppet government, puppet emperor of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
. Under Japanese control Manchuria was one of the most brutally run regions in the world, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local Russian and Chinese populations including arrests, organised riots and other forms of subjugation.Edward Behr, ''ibid'', p. 202 Manchukuo was used by Japan as a base to invade the rest of China. After the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, invaded from Soviet Outer Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. Soon afterwards, the Chinese Communist Party and Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) started fighting for control over Manchuria. The communists won in the Liaoshen Campaign and took complete control over Manchuria. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was then used as a staging area, staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Chinese Communist Party, which emerged victorious in 1949. Ambiguities in the treaties that ceded Outer Manchuria to Russia led to dispute over the political status of several islands. The Kuomintang government in Taiwan (Formosa) complained to the United Nations, which passed United Nations General Assembly Resolution 505, resolution 505 on February 1, 1952, denouncing Soviet actions over the violations of the 1945 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. As part of the Sino-Soviet split, this ambiguity led to armed conflict in 1969, called the Sino-Soviet border conflict, resulting in an agreement. In 2004, Russia agreed to transfer Yinlong Island and one half of Heixiazi Island to the PRC, ending an enduring border dispute.


See also

*Indigenous peoples of Siberia *Religion in Northeast China *Tungusic peoples


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * *Elliott, Mark C. "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies." ''Journal of Asian Studies'' 59, no. 3 (2000): 603–46. * * Gamsa, Mark, "Manchuria: A Concise History", Bloomsbury Academic, 2020. * * * Hata, Ikuhiro. "Continental Expansion: 1905–1941". In ''The Cambridge History of Japan''. Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. 1988. * *Jones, Francis Clifford, ''Manchuria Since 1931'', London, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1949 * * * Kwong, Chi Man. ''War and Geopolitics in Interwar Manchuria'' (2017). * * * Masafumi, Asada. "The China-Russia-Japan Military Balance in Manchuria, 1906–1918." ''Modern Asian Studies'' 44.6 (2010): 1283–1311. * Nish, Ian. ''The History of Manchuria, 1840-1948: A Sino-Russo-Japanese Triangle'' (2016) * * * * * * Tamanoi, Mariko Asano. ''Crossed Histories: Manchuria in the Age of Empire'' (2005) * * * * *Tao, Jing-shen, ''The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China''. University of Washington Press, 1976, . *KISHI Toshihiko, MATSUSHIGE Mitsuhiro and MATSUMURA Fuminori eds, 20 Seiki Manshu Rekishi Jiten [Encyclopedia of 20th Century Manchuria History], Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2012, * * *


External links

* {{Regions of the world Manchuria, Inner Asia Northeast Asia Regions of China Historical regions in Russia Historical regions