Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization
, whether it is a business
, a not-for-profit
organization, or government body.
Management includes the activities of setting the strategy
of an organization
and coordinating the efforts of its employee
s (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives
through the application of available resources
, such as financial
, and human resources
. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization—managers.
Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce
(B.Com.) Bachelor of Business Administration
(BBA.) Master of Business Administration
(MBA.) Master in Management
(MScM or MIM) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration
(MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management
(DM), the Doctor of Business Administration
(DBA), or the PhD
in Business Administration or Management. There has recently been a movement for evidence-based management
Larger organizations generally have three hierarchical
levels of managers, in a pyramid structure:
* Senior managers
, such as members of a board of directors
and a chief executive officer
(CEO) or a president
of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally executive-level
professionals, and provide direction to middle management
, who directly or indirectly report to them.
* Middle managers
: examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers, and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
* Lower managers
, such as supervisor
s and front-line team leader
s, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work.
In smaller organizations, a manager may have a much wider scope and may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.
study management as an academic discipline
, investigating areas such as social organization
, organizational adaptation
, and organizational leadership
The English verb "manage" comes from the Italian
''maneggiare'' (to handle, especially tools or a horse), which derives from the two Latin
words ''manus'' (hand) and ''agere'' (to act). The French word for housekeeping, ''ménagerie'', derived from ''ménager'' ("to keep house"; compare ''ménage'' for "household"), also encompasses taking care of domestic animals. ''Ménagerie''
is the French translation of Xenophon
's famous book ''Oeconomicus
'' ( grc-gre|Οἰκονομικός) on household matters and husbandry
. The French word ''mesnagement'' (or ''ménagement'') influenced the semantic development of the English word ''management'' in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Views on the definition and scope of management include:
* Henri Fayol
(1841-1925) stated: "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
* Fredmund Malik
(1944- ) defines management as "the transformation of resources into utility".
* Management is included as one of the factors of production
– along with machines, materials and money.
* Ghislain Deslandes
defines management as "a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint, imitation and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal, institutional and environmental levels".
* Peter Drucker
(1909–2005) saw the basic task of management as twofold: marketing
. Nevertheless, innovation is also linked to marketing (product innovation is a central strategic marketing issue). Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are generally understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge.
Management involves identifying the mission
, objective, procedures, rules and manipulation
of the human capital
of an enterprise
to contribute to the success of the enterprise. Scholars have focused on the management of individual, organizational, and inter-organizational relationships. This implies effective communication
: an enterprise environment (as opposed to a physical or mechanical mechanism) implies human motivation
and implies some sort of successful progress or system
outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism (machine or automated program), not the herding of animals, and can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment. From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen solely from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function in improving one's life
. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or through independent pursuit. Plans, measurements, motivational psychological tools, goals, and economic measures (profit, etc.) may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plan
s, meeting goal
s. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol
considers management to consist of five functions
# planning (forecasting)
In another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett
(1868–1933), allegedly defined management as "the art of getting things done through people".
She described management as a philosophy.
Critics, however, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely,
suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity
, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices
with the existence of a managerial cadre
or of a class
One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration
" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce
, as for example in charities
and in the public sector
. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, people, processes, technology, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business school
s". Some such institutions (such as the Harvard Business School
) use that name, while others (such as the Yale School of Management
) employ the broader term "management".
English-speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation
Historically this use of the term often contrasted with the term "labor"
– referring to those being managed.
But in the present era the concept of management is identified in the wide areas and its frontiers have been pushed to a broader range. Apart from profitable organizations even non-profitable organizations (NGOs
) apply management concepts. The concept and its uses are not constrained. Management on the whole is the process of planning, organizing, coordinating, leading
Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. First-line managers are the lowest level of management and manage the work of nonmanagerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization's products. First-line managers are often called supervisors, but may also be called line managers, office managers, or even foremen. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization. These managers manage the work of first-line managers and may have titles such as department head, project leader, plant manager, or division manager. Top managers are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, chief executive officer, or chairman of the board.
These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.
The top or senior layer of management consists of the board of directors
(including non-executive director
s, executive director
s and independent director
s), president, vice-president, CEO
s and other members of the C-level
executives. Different organizations have various members in their C-suite, which may include a chief financial officer
, chief technology officer
, and so on. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the operations of the entire organization. They set a "tone at the top
" and develop strategic plans
, company policies, and make decisions on the overall direction of the organization. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources. Senior managers are accountable to the shareholders, the general public and to public bodies that oversee corporations and similar organizations. Some members of the senior management may serve as the public face of the organization, and they may make speeches to introduce new strategies or appear in marketing.
The board of directors is typically primarily composed of non-executives who owe a fiduciary
duty to shareholders and are not closely involved in the day-to-day activities of the organization, although this varies depending on the type (e.g., public versus private), size and culture of the organization. These directors are theoretically liable for breaches of that duty and typically insured under directors and officers liability insurance
. Fortune 500
directors are estimated to spend 4.4 hours per week on board duties, and median compensation was $212,512 in 2010. The board sets corporate strategy, makes major decisions such as major acquisitions, and hires, evaluates, and fires the top-level manager (chief executive officer
or CEO). The CEO typically hires other positions. However, board involvement in the hiring of other positions such as the chief financial officer
(CFO) has increased. In 2013, a survey of over 160 CEOs and directors of public and private companies found that the top weaknesses of CEOs were "mentoring
skills" and "board engagement", and 10% of companies never evaluated the CEO. The board may also have certain employees (e.g., internal auditor
s) report to them or directly hire independent contractors; for example, the board (through the audit committee
) typically selects the auditor
Helpful skills of top management vary by the type of organization but typically include a broad understanding of competition, world economies, and politics. In addition, the CEO is responsible for implementing and determining (within the board's framework) the broad policies of the organization. Executive management accomplishes the day-to-day details, including: instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules; appointment of middle level executives such as department managers; coordination of departments; media and governmental relations; and shareholder communication.
Consist of general manager
s, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower-level managers towards better performance.
Middle management is the midway management of a categorized organization, being secondary to the senior management but above the deepest levels of operational members. An operational manager may be well-thought-out by middle management or may be categorized as non-management operate, liable to the policy of the specific organization. The efficiency of the middle level is vital in any organization since they bridge the gap between top level and bottom level staffs.
Their functions include:
* Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems.
* Define and monitor group-level performance indicators.
* Diagnose and resolve problems within and among workgroups.
* Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top managers.
Lower managers include supervisor
s, section leaders, forepersons and team leaders. They focus on controlling and directing regular employees. They are usually responsible for assigning employees' tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring the quality and quantity of production and/or service, making recommendations and suggestions to employees on their work, and channeling employee concerns that they cannot resolve to mid-level managers or other administrators. First-level or "front line" managers also act as role models for their employees. In some types of work, front line managers may also do some of the same tasks that employees do, at least some of the time. For example, in some restaurants, the front line managers will also serve customers during a very busy period of the day.
Front-line managers typically provide:
* Training for new employees
* Basic supervision
* Performance feedback and guidance
Some front-line managers may also provide career planning for employees who aim to rise within the organization.
Colleges and universities around the world offer bachelor's degrees, graduate degrees, diplomas and certificates in management, generally within their colleges of business, business schools or faculty of management but also in other related departments. In the 2010s, there has been an increase in online management education and training in the form of electronic educational technology
( also called e-learning). Online education has increased the accessibility of management training to people who do not live near a college or university, or who cannot afford to travel to a city where such training is available.
While some professions require academic credentials in order to work in the profession (e.g., law, medicine, engineering, which require, respectively the Bachelor of Law
, Doctor of Medicine
and Bachelor of Engineering
degrees), management and administration positions do not necessarily require the completion of academic degrees. Some well-known senior executives in the US who did not complete a degree include Steve Jobs
, Bill Gates
and Mark Zuckerberg
. However, many managers and executives have completed some type of business or management training, such as a Bachelor of Commerce
or a Master of Business Administration
degree. Some major organizations, including companies, not-for-profit organizations and governments, require applicants to managerial or executive positions to hold at minimum bachelor's degree
in a field related to administration or management, or in the case of business jobs, a Bachelor of Commerce or a similar degree.
At the undergraduate level, the most common business programs are the Bachelor of Business Administration
(BBA) and Bachelor of Commerce
These typically comprise a four-year program designed to give students an overview of the role of managers in planning and directing within an organization.
Course topics include accounting, financial management, statistics, marketing, strategy, and other related areas.
There are many other undergraduate degrees that include the study of management, such as Bachelor of Arts
degrees with a major in business administration
or management and Bachelor of Public Administration (B.P.A), a degree designed for individuals aiming to work as bureaucrat
s in the government jobs
Many colleges and universities also offer certificates and diplomas in business administration or management, which typically require one to two years of full-time study.
Note that to manage technological areas, one often needs an undergraduate degree in a STEM-area
At the graduate level students aiming at careers as managers or executives may choose to specialize in major subareas of management or business administration such as entrepreneurship
, human resources
, international business
, organizational behavior
, organizational theory
, strategic management
, corporate finance
, entertainment, global management, healthcare management
, investment management
, sustainability and real estate
A Master of Business Administration
(MBA) is the most popular professional degree at the master's level and can be obtained from many universities in the United States. MBA programs provide further education in management and leadership for graduate students. Other master's degrees in business and management include Master of Management
(MM) and the Master of Science
(M.Sc.) in business administration or management, which is typically taken by students aiming to become researchers or professors.
There are also specialized master's degrees in administration for individuals aiming at careers outside of business, such as the Master of Public Administration
(MPA) degree (also offered as a Master of Arts
in Public Administration
in some universities), for students aiming to become managers or executives in the public service and the Master of Health Administration
, for students aiming to become managers or executives in the health care and hospital sector.
Management doctorates are the most advanced terminal degree
s in the field of business and management. Most individuals obtaining management doctorates take the programs to obtain the training in research methods, statistical analysis and writing academic papers that they will need to seek careers as researchers, senior consultants and/or professors in business administration or management. There are three main types of management doctorates: the Doctor of Management
(D.M.), the Doctor of Business Administration
(D.B.A.), and the Ph.D.
in Business Administration or Management. In the 2010s, doctorates in business administration and management are available with many specializations.
While management trends can change so fast, the long-term trend in management has been defined by a market embracing diversity and a rising service industry. Managers are currently being trained to encourage greater equality for minorities and women in the workplace, by offering increased flexibility in working hours, better retraining, and innovative (and usually industry-specific) performance markers. Managers destined for the service sector are being trained to use unique measurement techniques, better worker support and more charismatic leadership styles. Human resources finds itself increasingly working with management in a training capacity to help collect management data on the success (or failure) of management actions with employees.
is an emerging movement to use the current, best evidence in management and decision-making
. It is part of the larger movement towards evidence-based practices
. Evidence-based management entails managerial decisions and organizational practices informed by the best available evidence.
As with other evidence-based practice, this is based on the three principles of: 1) published peer-reviewed (often in management or social science journals) research evidence that bears on whether and why a particular management practice works; 2) judgement and experience from contextual management practice, to understand the organization and interpersonal dynamics in a situation and determine the risks and benefits of available actions; and 3) the preferences and values of those affected.
Some see management as a late-modern (in the sense of late modernity
) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history – only harbingers (such as stewards
). Others, however, detect management-like thought among ancient Sumer
ian traders and the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt
. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises
, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However, innovation
s such as the spread of Arabic numerals
(5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping
(1494) provided tools
for management assessment, planning and control.
* An organisation is more stable if members have the right to express their differences and solve their conflicts within it.
* While one person can begin an organisation, "it is lasting when it is left in the care of many and when many desire to maintain it".
* A weak manager can follow a strong one, but not another weak one, and maintain authority.
* A manager seeking to change an established organization "should retain at least a shadow of the ancient customs".
With the changing workplaces of industrial revolution
s in the 18th and 19th centuries, military
theory and practice contributed approaches to managing the newly popular factories
Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners
of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, a distinction between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholder
s) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common.
Management (according to some definitions) has existed for millennia, and several writers have produced background works that have contributed to modern management theories.
Some theorists have cited ancient military texts
as providing lessons for civilian managers. For example, Chinese general Sun Tzu
in his 6th-century BC work ''The Art of War
'' recommends (when re-phrased in modern terminology) being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager's organization and a foe's.
The writings of influential Chinese Legalist
philosopher Shen Buhai
may be considered to embody a rare premodern example of abstract theory of administration.
Various ancient and medieval civilizations produced "mirrors for princes
" books, which aimed to advise new monarchs on how to govern. Plato
described job specialization in 350 BC, and Alfarabi
listed several leadership traits in AD 900. Other examples include the Indian ''Arthashastra
'' by Chanakya
(written around 300 BC), and ''The Prince
'' by Italian author
Written in 1776 by Adam Smith
, a Scottish moral philosopher
, ''The Wealth of Nations
'' discussed efficient organization of work through division of labour
Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins
. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.
Classical economists such as Adam Smith
(1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill
(1806–1873) provided a theoretical background to resource allocation
, production (economics)
, and pricing
issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney
(1765–1825), James Watt
(1736–1819), and Matthew Boulton
(1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization
, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning
. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production
before wage slavery
eclipsed chattel slavery.
Salaried managers as an identifiable group first became prominent in the late 19th century. As large corporations began to overshadow small family businesses the need for personnel management positions became more necessary. Businesses grew into large corporations and the need for clerks, bookkeepers, secretaries and managers expanded. The demand for trained managers led college and university administrators to consider and move forward with plans to create the first schools of business on their campuses.
At the turn of the twentieth century the need for skilled and trained managers had become increasingly apparent. The demand occurred as personnel departments began to expand rapidly. In 1915, less than one in twenty manufacturing firms had a dedicated personnel department. By 1929 that number had grown to over one-third. Formal management education became standardized at colleges and universities. Colleges and universities capitalized on the needs of corporations by forming business schools and corporate placement departments. This shift toward formal business education marked the creation of a corporate elite in the US.
By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism
for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne
's ''Science of management'' in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor
's ''The Principles of Scientific Management
'' (1911), Lillian Gilbreth
's ''Psychology of Management'' (1914), Frank
and Lillian Gilbreth
's ''Applied motion study'' (1917), and Henry L. Gantt
's charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college
in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno
and became the first management consultant
of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance
The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School
offered the first Master of Business Administration
degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henri Fayol
(1841–1925) and Alexander Church
(1866–1936) described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early-20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973), Walter Scott
(1869–1955) and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology
to management. Other writers, such as Elton Mayo
(1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett
(1868–1933), Chester Barnard
(1886–1961), Max Weber
(1864–1920), who saw what he called the "administrator" as bureaucrat
, Rensis Likert
(1903–1981), and Chris Argyris
(born 1923) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological
The 1930s and 1940s saw the development of a militarization
trend in management in parts of Eurasia - both the NKVD
(in the Soviet Union) and the SS
(in the Greater Germanic Reich
), for example, managed labor camp
s as industrial enterprises using slave labor supervised by uniformed cadres.
Military habits persisted in some management circles.
(1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: ''Concept of the Corporation
'' (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan
(chairman of General Motors
until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation
. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein.
H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher
(1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett
worked in the development of the applied-mathematics science
of operations research
, initially for military operations. Operations research, sometimes known as "management science
" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management
), attempts to take a scientific
approach to solving decision-problems, and can apply directly to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics
Some of the later 20th-century developments include the theory of constraints
(introduced in 1984), management by objectives
(systematised in 1954), re-engineering
(early 1990s), Six Sigma
(1986), management by walking around
(1970s), the Viable system model
(1972), and various information-technology
-driven theories such as agile software development
(so-named from 2001), as well as group-management theories such as Cog's Ladder
(1972) and the notion of "thriving on chaos"
As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas
to peddle their wares. In this context many management fad
s may have had more to do with pop psychology
than with scientific theories of management.
Business management includes the following branches:
# financial management
# human resource management
# Management cybernetics
# information technology management
(responsible for management information systems
# marketing management
# operations management
# strategic management
In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management.
Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits
and to government: such as public administration
, public management
, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society
organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit
management and social entrepreneurship
Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business-ethics
viewpoints, critical management studies
, and anti-corporate activism
As one consequence, workplace democracy
(sometimes referred to as Workers' self-management
) has become both more common and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy
. All management embraces to some degree a democratic principle—in that in the long term, the majority of workers must support management. Otherwise, they leave to find other work or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace as ''de facto'' organization structures. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control is evident in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off lower-level workers.
According to leadership-academic Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries
, a contemporary senior-management team will almost inevitably have some personality disorders
Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries: "The Dark Side of Leadership" – ''Business Strategy Review'' 14(3), Autumn p. 26 (2003).
Nature of work
In profitable organizations, management's primary function is the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders
. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing great employment opportunities for employees. In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management and governance
, shareholders vote for the board of directors
, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers, but this is rare.
According to Fayol
, management operates through five basic functions: planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling.
* Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action (deciding in advance).
* Organizing (or staffing): Making sure the human and nonhuman resources are put into place.
* Commanding (or leading): Determining what must be done in a situation and getting people to do it.
* Coordinating: Creating a structure through which an organization's goals can be accomplished.
* Controlling: Checking progress against plans.
* Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees
* Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information
Nerve centre, disseminator
* Decision: roles that require decision-making
Entrepreneur, negotiator, allocator
Management skills include:
* political: used to build a power base and to establish connections
* conceptual: used to analyze complex situations
: used to communicate, motivate
, mentor and delegate
* diagnostic: ability to visualize
appropriate responses to a situation
: ability to lead and to provide guidance to a specific group
** cross-cultural leadership
: ability to understand the effects of culture on leadership style
* technical: expertise
in one's particular functional area.
* behavioral: perception towards others.
Implementation of policies and strategies
* All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff.
* Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies.
* A plan of action must be devised for each department.
* Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly.
* Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes.
* Top-level managers should carry out regular progress assessments.
* The business requires team spirit and a good environment.
* The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analyzed to determine their roles in achieving the business's mission.
* The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business' future environment.
* A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.
Policies and strategies in the planning process
* They give mid and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization.
* A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made.
* Mid and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business's strategies.
* Educational management
* Engineering management
* Outline of business management