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The Majeerteen Sultanate ( so, Suldanadda Majeerteen, lit=Boqortooyada Majerteen, ar, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...

Somali
kingdom centered in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula of East Africa.Robert Stock, ''Africa South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation'', (The Guilford Press; 2004), p. 26 Located on the ea ...

Horn of Africa
. Ruled by Boqor
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
and Beeldaaje during its golden age, the sultanate controlled the areas which are now called
Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Federalkaa ee Puntland , ar, ولاية أرض البنط الصومالية), is a States and ...

Puntland
. The earliest mention of the kingdom is the 16th century. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It also entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front.


History


Establishment

The Majeerteen Sultanate was established possible around 1600s by
Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the ...

Somalis
from the
Majeerteen The Majeerteen ( so, Majeerteen, ar, ماجرتين; also spelled Majerteen, Macherten, Majertain, or Mijurtin) is a sub-clan. It is one of the major Somali groups, with a vast traditional territory spanning 3 major regions of Somalia: Bari ...
Darod The Darod ( so, Daarood, ar, دارود) is a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the H ...
clan. It reached prominence during the 19th century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor (King)
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
.Helen Chapin Metz, ''Somalia: a country study'', (The Division: 1993), p.10.


Majeerteen-British agreement

Due to consistent ship crashes along the northeastern
Cape Guardafui Cape Guardafui ( so, Gees Gardafuul, or Raas Caseyr, or Ras Asir, it, Capo Guardafui) is a headland in the autonomous Puntland region in Somalia. Coextensive with Puntland's Gardafuul administrative province, it forms the geographical apex of the ...
headland, Boqor Osman's kingdom entered into an informal agreement with
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
, wherein the British agreed to pay the King annual subsidies to protect shipwrecked British crews and guard wrecks against plunder. The agreement, however, remained unratified, as the British feared that doing so would "give other powers a precedent for making agreements with the Somalis, who seemed ready to enter into relations with all comers."David D. Laitin, ''Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience'', (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), p.71


Sultanate of Hobyo

Osman Mahamuud's Kingdom was under attack in the mid-19th century due to a power struggle between himself and his ambitious cousin,
Yusuf Ali Kenadid Yusuf Ali Kenadid ( so, Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid; 1837 - 28 september 1911) was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud o ...
. After almost five years of battle, the young upstart was terribly defeated and finally forced into exile in
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
. A decade later, in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
with a band of Hadhrami
musketeer A musketeer (french: mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket. Musketeers were an important part of early modern warfare particularly in Europe as they normally comprised the majority of their infantry. The musketeer was a prec ...

musketeer
s and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance along with aid and weaponry from Boqor Osman, he managed to overpower the local
Hawiye The Hawiye ( so, Hawiye, ar, بنو هوية, it, Haouia, en, Hawiye) is a one of the largest Somali clan family. Members of this clan traditionally inhabit central and southern Somalia, the Somali Region and the North Eastern Province (Keny ...
clans and establish the separate
Sultanate of Hobyo This article includes a list of successive Muslim state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al ...
(Obbia) in 1878.Lee V. Cassanelli, ''The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900'', (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.75.


Majeerteen-Italian treaties

In the late 19th century, all extant Somali monarchs entered into treaties with one of the colonial powers, Abyssinia, Britain or Italy, except for Dhulbahante & Darawiish sultan Diiriye Guure. With the intermediation of Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid & after a conference of all notablels of the sultanate in
Bargal Bargal ( so, Baargaal, ar, بارجال) is a town in the northeastern Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City ...
, In 7. April 1889 in Alula, Somalia, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with Italy, making his kingdom a protectorate known as
Italian Somaliland Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, الصومال الإيطالي, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state which ...

Italian Somaliland
. In the years following the treaty the protectorate was however rather nominal due to Italian warships tasked with maintaining contact with the sultan visiting so rarely & irregularly. Piracy, looting of crashed steamships, weapons trade & slave trade could be carried out with almost no consequences. His second cousin and rival Sultan
Yusuf Ali Kenadid Yusuf Ali Kenadid ( so, Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid; 1837 - 28 september 1911) was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud o ...
had signed a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Sultanate of Hobyo the year before. Both Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals, with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate, as well as in a separate conflict with the
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously in ...

Oman
i over an area to the north of
Warsheikh Warsheikh ( so, Warsheekh, ar, ورشيخ) is a town in the southeastern Middle Shabelle region of Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It i ...
. In signing the agreements, the rulers also hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more effectively assure the continued independence of their territories.Issa-Salwe (1996), 34–35. The terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to steer clear of any interference in the sultanates' respective administrations. In return for Italian arms and an annual subsidy, the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight and economic concessions.Hess (1964), 416–17. The Italians also agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to promote both the sultanates' and their own interests. The new protectorates were thereafter managed by
Vincenzo Filonardi Vincenzo Filonardi (23 June 1853 – 17 May 1916) was an Italian politician and soldier of the Regio Esercito, who was the first governor of Italian Somalia. In 1890, he was also consul of the Kingdom of Italy to Zanzibar. Life In 1870 Vincenz ...
through a
chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholders that is Incorporation (business), incorporated and granted rights (often Monopoly, exclusive rights) by royal charter (or similar instrument of government) for the purpose of ...
. An Anglo-Italian border protocol was later signed on 5 May 1894, followed by an agreement in 1906 between Cavalier Pestalozza and General Swaine acknowledging that Baran fell under the Majeerteen Sultanate's administration. With the gradual extension into northern Somalia of Italian colonial rule, both Kingdoms were eventually annexed in the early 20th century.The Majeerteen Sultanates However, unlike the southern territories, the northern sultanates were not subject to direct rule due to the earlier treaties they had signed with the Italians.


Administration


Bureaucracy

The Sultanate of Hobyo, the Majeerteen Sultanate exerted a strong centralized authority during its existence, and possessed all of the organs and trappings of an integrated modern state: a functioning bureaucracy, a hereditary nobility, titled aristocrats, a state flag, as well as a professional army.''Horn of Africa'', Volume 15, Issues 1-4, (Horn of Africa Journal: 1997), p.130.Michigan State University. African Studies Center, Northeast African studies, Volumes 11-12, (Michigan State University Press: 1989), p.32. Both sultanates also maintained written records of their activities, which still exist. The Majeerteen Sultanate's main capital was at
Alula The alula , or bastard wing, (plural ''alulae'') is a small projection on the anterior edge of the wing of modern birds and a few non-avian dinosaurs. The word is Latin and means "winglet"; it is the diminutive of ''ala'', meaning "wing". The alu ...
, with its seasonal headquarters at
Bargal Bargal ( so, Baargaal, ar, بارجال) is a town in the northeastern Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City ...
. It likewise had a number of
castle A castle is a type of fortification, fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or royalty and by Military order (monastic society), military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word ''castle'', but u ...

castle
s and
forts A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, ...

forts
in various areas within its realm, including a fortress at .S. B. Miles, ''On the Neighbourhood of Bunder Marayah'', Vol. 42, (Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the institute of British Geographers): 1872), p.61-63. The Majeerteen Sultanate's ruler, however, commanded more power than was typical of other Somali leaders during the period. As the ''
primus inter pares ''Primus inter pares'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...
'', Boqor Osman taxed the harvest of aromatic trees and pearl fishing along the seaboard. He retained prior rights on goods obtained from ship wrecks on the coast. The Sultanate also exerted authority over the control of woodland and pastureland, and imposed both land and stock taxes.I. M. Lewis, ''A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa'', (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.208.


Commerce

According to official reports from 1924 commissioned by the Regio Governo della Somalia Italiana, the Majeerteen Sultanate maintained robust commercial activities before the Italian occupation of the following year. The Sultanate reportedly exported 1,056,400 Indian
Rupee Rupee is the common name for the currencies A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gill ...

Rupee
s (IR) worth of commodities, 60% of which came from the sale of
frankincense Frankincense (also known as olibanum) is an aromatic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or ...
and other gums. Fish and other sea products sold for a total value of 250,000 IR, roughly equivalent to 20% of the Sultanate's aggregate exports. The remaining export proceeds came from livestock, with the export list of 1924 consisting of 16 items.''Transformation towards a regulated economy'', (WSP Transition Programme, Somali Programme: 2000) p.62.


Military

In addition to a strong civil administration, the Majeerteen Sultanate maintained a regular army. Besides protecting the polity from both external and internal threats, military officials were tasked with carrying out the King's instructions. The latter included tax collection, which typically came in the form of the obligatory
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
alms (''seko'' or ''sako'') ordinarily tithed by Somalis to the poor and religious clerics (''wadaads'').


Puntland

Established in 1998, the autonomous
Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Federalkaa ee Puntland , ar, ولاية أرض البنط الصومالية), is a States and ...

Puntland
region in northeastern Somalia now administers much of the former territories of the Majeerteen Sultanate (Migiurtinia).Istituto italo-africano, ''Africa: rivista trimestrale di studi e documentazione'', Volume 56, (Edizioni africane: 2001), p.591.


Sultans

Rulers of the Majeerteen Sultanate:


See also

*
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
*
Yusuf Ali Kenadid Yusuf Ali Kenadid ( so, Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid; 1837 - 28 september 1911) was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud o ...
*
Ali Yusuf Kenadid Ali Yusuf Kenadid ( so, Cali Yuusuf Keenadiid, ar, علي يوسف كينايديض) was a Somalis, Somali ruler. He was the second Suldaan, Sultan of the Sultanate of Hobyo. History Ali Yusuf was born into a Majeerteen Darod family. His father, ...
*
Sultanate of Hobyo This article includes a list of successive Muslim state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al ...
*
Isaaq Sultanate The Isaaq Sultanate ( so, Saldanadda Isaaq, ar, سلطنة الإسحاق) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afr ...
*
Adal Sultanate The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal or Awdal or Bar Sa'ad ad-din (alt. spelling ''Adel Sultanate'' , ''Awdal Sultanate''), was a Muslim Somalis, Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II af ...

Adal Sultanate
*
Ajuran Sultanate The Ajuran Empire ( so, Saldanadda Ajuuraan, ar, سلطنة الأجورانية), also spelled Ajuuraan Empire, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ...
*
List of Sunni Muslim dynasties The following is a list of Sunni Islam, Sunni List of Muslim dynasties, Muslim Dynasty, dynasties. Asia Middle East Arabian Peninsula *Wajihids, Banu Wajih (926–965) *Sharif of Mecca (967–1925) *Uyunid dynasty, Al Uyuniyun (1076-1253) *Sul ...
* List of Muslim empires and dynasties


Notes


References

* * *
The Majeerteen Sultanates


External links


lntroduction and change to the somalo in Migiurtinia and other comissariatsFirst whispers of democracy and anti democracy protests took place in Migiurtinia and Mudugh
https://books.google.com/books?id=3AnZDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA350&dq=Migiurtinia&hl=en&newbks=1&newbks_redir=0&source=gb_mobile_search&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjVo47NnKXxAhUXa80KHdVxDywQ6AEwBXoECAYQAw Sultanate of Migiurtinia signed a treaty with the Italy Government on April 7, 1889.]
Square kilometers of Migiurtinia according to Encyclopadeia Britannica (1983)In 1938, Mussolini briefly considered settling Jews into Migiurtinia and turning it into a Jewish stateWorld famous incense was from Migiurtinia
{{DEFAULTSORT:Majeerteen Sultanate Majeerteen Sultanate, 1600s establishments in the Majeerteen Sultanate 1924 disestablishments in the Majeerteen Sultanate States and territories established in the 1600s States and territories disestablished in 1924 20th-century disestablishments in Somalia