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Maine () is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
region of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, bordered by
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...

New Hampshire
to the west; the
Gulf of Maine , image = , alt = , caption = , image_bathymetry = GulfofMaine2.jpg , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = Major features of the Gulf of Maine , location = Northeast coast of the ...
to the southeast; and the
Canadian provinces The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Canada, Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of Britis ...
of
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
to the northeast and northwest, respectively. Maine is the 12th-smallest by area, the 9th-least populous, the 13th-least densely populated, and the most rural of the 50 U.S. states. It is also the northeasternmost among the
contiguous United States The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States, also known as the Lower 48, consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states and the Washington, D.C., District of Columbia on the continent of North America. The terms exclude ...
, the northernmost state east of the
Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land ...

Great Lakes
, the only state whose name consists of a single syllable, and the only state to border only one other US state. The most populous city in Maine is Portland, while its capital is
Augusta Augusta may refer to: Places Australia * Augusta, Western Australia Brasil * Rua Augusta (São Paulo) Canada * Augusta, Ontario * North Augusta, Ontario * Augusta Street (Hamilton, Ontario) France * Augusta Suessionum ("Augusta of the Suessii" ...

Augusta
. Maine has traditionally been known for its jagged, rocky
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and bayshore coastlines; smoothly contoured mountains; heavily forested interior; picturesque waterways; and its wild lowbush blueberries and
seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in this defini ...

seafood
cuisine, especially
lobster Lobsters are a family (biology), family (Nephropidae, sometimes also ''Homeridae'') of large marine crustaceans. Lobsters have long bodies with muscular tails, and live in crevices or burrows on the sea floor. Three of their five pairs of leg ...
and
clam Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve mollusc Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks (). Around 85,000  extant species In ...

clam
s. In more recent years, coastal and Down East Maine, especially in the vicinity of Portland, have emerged as an important center for the creative economy,
Accessed October 5, 2021.
which is also bringing
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases th ...

gentrification
.
Accessed October 6, 2021.
For thousands of years after the glaciers retreated during the last
Ice Age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents an ...

Ice Age
,
indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
were the only inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European arrival, several
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
-speaking peoples inhabited the area. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, founded by
Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons Pierre Dugua de Mons (or Du Gua de Monts; c. 1558 – 1628) was a French merchant, explorer and colonizer. A Calvinist, he was born in the Château de Mons, in Royan, Saintonge (southwestern France) and founded the first permanent French settl ...
. The first English settlement was the short-lived
Popham Colony The Popham Colony—also known as the Sagadahoc Colony—was a short-lived English colonial settlement in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemispher ...
, established by the
Plymouth Company Image:Wpdms king james grants.png, 242px, thumbnail, The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. The overlapping area (yellow) was granted to both companies on the stipulation that neither found a settlement within of each othe ...
in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local
indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...

indigenous people
caused many to fail. As Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived.
Loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdo ...
and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
. During the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
, the largely undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces with the goal of annexing it to
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...
via the Colony of New Ireland, but returned to the United States following failed British offensives on the northern border, mid-Atlantic and south which produced a
peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between countries * Consensus, a decision-making process * Contract, enforceab ...
that restored the pre-war boundaries. Maine was part of the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Maine to the east, Connecticut to the southwe ...
until 1820 when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the
Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise (March 6, 1820) was a United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and som ...

Missouri Compromise
, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.


Name

There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most likely is that early explorers named it after the former
province of Maine Image:Wpdms province of maine 1622.png, 300px, thumbnail, The 1622 grant of the Province of Maine is shown outlined in blue. The 1629 division into the Province of New Hampshire (south of the Piscataqua) and Province of Maine (north of the Piscataqu ...
in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from then on in official records. The state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names or claim it is a
nautical Seamanship is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intell ...

nautical
reference to the mainland. Captain John Smith, in his "Description of New England" (1614) laments the lack of exploration: "Thus you may see, of this 2000. miles more then halfe is yet vnknowne to any purpose: no not so much as the borders of the Sea are yet certainly discouered. As for the goodnes and true substances of the Land, wee are for most part yet altogether ignorant of them, vnlesse it bee those parts about the Bay of Chisapeack and Sagadahock: but onely here and there wee touched or haue seene a little the edges of those large dominions, which doe stretch themselues into the Maine, God doth know how many thousand miles;" Note that his description of the mainland of North America is "the Maine". The word "main" was a frequent shorthand for the word "mainland" (as in "The Spanish Main") Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine." He made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
,
Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (french: link=no, Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kin ...

Henrietta Maria
, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. Maine historians quoted this until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province; further, King Charles I married
Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (french: link=no, Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kin ...
in 1625, three years after the name Maine first appeared on the charter. A new theory put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002 postulated that
Sir Ferdinando Gorges Sir Ferdinando Gorges ( – 24 May 1647) was a naval and military commander and governor of the important port of Plymouth in England. He was involved in Essex's Rebellion against the Queen, but escaped punishment by testifying against the main c ...
chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
of 1086 in reference to the county of
Dorset Dorset (; archaically In language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system compose ...

Dorset
, which is today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view generally held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in
Dorset Dorset (; archaically In language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system compose ...
is Brythonic, corresponding to modern
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
"maen", plural "main" or "meini". Some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, which is primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large
sarsen stone Sarsens in a garden in Wiltshire Sarsen stones are sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of grain size, sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) silicate mineral, silicate grains. Sandstones make up about 20 to 25 percent of ...
s still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village. The first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622, land charter to
Sir Ferdinando Gorges Sir Ferdinando Gorges ( – 24 May 1647) was a naval and military commander and governor of the important port of Plymouth in England. He was involved in Essex's Rebellion against the Queen, but escaped punishment by testifying against the main c ...
and Captain John Mason, English
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the
Province of Maine Image:Wpdms province of maine 1622.png, 300px, thumbnail, The 1622 grant of the Province of Maine is shown outlined in blue. The 1629 division into the Province of New Hampshire (south of the Piscataqua) and Province of Maine (north of the Piscataqu ...
". Mason had served with the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
in the
Orkney Islands Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of the island of Great Britain. Orkney is 10 miles (16 km) north ...

Orkney Islands
, where the chief island is called
Mainland Mainland is defined as "relating to or forming the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it egardless of status under territorial jurisdiction by an entity" The term is often human geography, politically, econo ...
, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
naval captain
Christopher Levett Capt. Christopher Levett (15 April 1586 – 1630) was an English writer, explorer and naval captain, born at York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, O ...

Christopher Levett
, exploring the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Initially, several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as ''Main'' or ''Maine'' (
cf. The abbreviation ''cf.'' (short for the la, confer/conferatur, both meaning 'compare') is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed. Style guides recommend that ''cf.'' be used only ...
the
Spanish Main During the Spanish colonization of the Americas The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third ...
). A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, charter, from England's , gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, and not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
whose name has only one syllable.


History

The original inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the
Passamaquoddy The Passamaquoddy (''Peskotomuhkati'' or ''Pestomuhkati'' in the Passamaquoddy language) are an American Indian/First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian in ...
,
Maliseet The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian indigenous peoples, disti ...
,
Penobscot The Penobscot (''Panawahpskek'') are an Indigenous people in North America from the Northeastern Woodlands region. They are organized as a federally recognized tribe This is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States ...
, Androscoggin, and Kennebec. During the later
King Philip's War King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England coloni ...
, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the
Wabanaki Confederacy The Wabanaki Confederacy (''Wabenaki, Wobanaki'', translated to "People of the Dawn" or "Easterner") is a North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...
, aiding the
Wampanoag The Wampanoag , also rendered Wôpanâak, are a Native American people. They were a loose confederation of several tribes in the 17th century, but today Wampanoag people encompass five officially recognized tribes. The Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe ...
of
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
and the
Mahican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, w ...
of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
. Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of Maine's tribes continued, unchanged, until the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
. Before this point, however, most of these people were considered separate nations. Many had adapted to living in permanent,
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
-inspired settlements, while those along the coast tended to be semi-nomadic—traveling from settlement to settlement on a yearly cycle. They would usually winter inland and head to the coasts by summer. European contact with what is now called Maine may have started around 1200 CE when
Norwegians Norwegians ( no, nordmenn) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct ...
are believed to have interacted with the native
Penobscot The Penobscot (''Panawahpskek'') are an Indigenous people in North America from the Northeastern Woodlands region. They are organized as a federally recognized tribe This is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States ...

Penobscot
in present-day Hancock County, most likely through trade. If confirmed, this would make Maine the site of the earliest European landfall in the entire US. About 200 years earlier, from the settlements in
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
and
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
, Norwegians first identified America and areas such as
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...

Newfoundland
, but failed to establish a permanent settlement. Archeological evidence suggests that
Norwegians Norwegians ( no, nordmenn) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct ...

Norwegians
in Greenland returned to North America for several
centuries A century is a period of 100 year A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth, moving in Earth's orbit, its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the season ...

centuries
after the initial discovery to trade and collect timber, with the most relevant evidence being the
Maine Penny The Maine penny, also referred to as the Goddard coin, is a Norway, Norwegian silver coin dating to the reign of Olaf Kyrre King of Norway (1067–1093 AD). It was discovered in Maine in 1957, and it has been suggested as evidence of Pre-Col ...
, an 11th-century Norwegian coin found at a Native American dig site in 1954. The first European confirmed settlement in modern-day Maine was in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, led by French explorer
Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons Pierre Dugua de Mons (or Du Gua de Monts; c. 1558 – 1628) was a French merchant, explorer and colonizer. A Calvinist, he was born in the Château de Mons, in Royan, Saintonge (southwestern France) and founded the first permanent French settl ...
. His party included
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
, noted as an explorer. The French named the entire area
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
, including the portion that later became the state of Maine. The
Plymouth Company Image:Wpdms king james grants.png, 242px, thumbnail, The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. The overlapping area (yellow) was granted to both companies on the stipulation that neither found a settlement within of each othe ...
established the first English settlement in Maine at the
Popham Colony The Popham Colony—also known as the Sagadahoc Colony—was a short-lived English colonial settlement in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemispher ...
in 1607, the same year as the settlement at
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
. The Popham colonists returned to
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
after 14 months. The French established two
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
missions: one on
Penobscot Bay Penobscot Bay (french: Baie de Penobscot) is an inlet of the Gulf of Maine and Atlantic Ocean in south central Maine. The bay originates from the mouth of Maine's Penobscot River, downriver from Belfast, Maine, Belfast. Penobscot Bay has many w ...
in 1609, and the other on
Mount Desert Island Mount Desert Island (MDI; french: Île des Monts Déserts) in Hancock County, Maine, Hancock County, Maine, is the largest island off the coast of Maine. With an area of it is the List of islands of the United States by area, 52nd-largest islan ...
in 1613. The same year,
Claude de La TourClaude may refer to: *Claude (given name) *Claude (surname) *Claude (alligator), an albino alligator at the California Academy of Sciences *Claudius, Roman emperor from 41 to 54, who is called Claude in French *Claude (Grand Theft Auto), Claude (''G ...
established Castine. In 1625,
Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour (1593–1666) was a French colonist and fur trader who served as Governor of Acadia from 1631–1642 and again from 1653–1657. Early life Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour was born in France Franc ...
erected
Fort Pentagouet Fort Pentagouët (Fort Pentagoet, Fort Castine, Fort Penobscot, Fort Saint-Pierre) was a French fort established in present-day Castine, Maine, which was the capital of Acadia (1670–1674). It is the oldest permanent settlement in New England. It ...
to protect Castine. The coastal areas of eastern Maine first became the
Province of Maine Image:Wpdms province of maine 1622.png, 300px, thumbnail, The 1622 grant of the Province of Maine is shown outlined in blue. The 1629 division into the Province of New Hampshire (south of the Piscataqua) and Province of Maine (north of the Piscataqu ...
in a 1622 land patent. The part of western Maine north of the
Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map , accessed June 30, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Kennebec River
was more sparsely settled and was known in the 17th century as the Territory of Sagadahock. A second settlement was attempted in 1623 by English explorer and naval Captain
Christopher Levett Capt. Christopher Levett (15 April 1586 – 1630) was an English writer, explorer and naval captain, born at York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, O ...

Christopher Levett
at a place called
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...
, where he had been granted by
King Charles I of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King Charles I
of England. It also failed. The 1622 patent of the Province of Maine was split at the
Piscataqua River The Piscataqua River () is a tidal river forming the boundary of the U.S. states of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont ...
into the
Province of New Hampshire The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and later a British province in North America. The name was first given in 1629 to the territory between the Merrimack River, Merrimack and Piscataqua River, Piscataqua rivers on the eastern c ...
to the south and New Somersetshire to the north. A disputed 1630 patent split off the area around present-day Saco as Lygonia. Justifying its actions with a 1652 geographic survey that showed an overlapping patent, the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
had seized New Somersetshire and Lygonia by force by 1658. The Territory of Sagadahock between the
Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map , accessed June 30, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Kennebec River
and St. Croix River notionally became Cornwall County, Province of New York under a 1664 grant from
Charles II of England Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary m ...

Charles II of England
to his , at the time the
Duke of York Duke of York is a title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates ...

Duke of York
. Some of this land was claimed by
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
as part of
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
. All of the English settlements in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the Province of New York became part of the
Dominion of New England The Dominion of New England in America (1686–1689) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New ...
in 1686. All of present-day Maine was unified as
York County, Massachusetts York County, Massachusetts was a county in what is now the U.S. state of Maine. It was established in 1652 when the Massachusetts Bay Colony first asserted territorial claims over the settlements in the southern parts of the Province of Maine, ext ...
under a 1691 royal patent for the
Province of Massachusetts Bay The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a colony in British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, L ...
. Central Maine was formerly inhabited by the Androscoggin tribe of the Abenaki nation, also known as Arosaguntacook. They were driven out of the area in 1690 during
King William's War King William's War (1688–1697, also known as the Second Indian War, Father Baudoin's War, Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Castin's War, or the First Intercolonial War in French language, French) was the North American theater of the Nin ...
. They were relocated to St. Francis, Canada, which was destroyed by
Rogers' Rangers Rogers' Rangers was a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. ...
in 1759, and is now
Odanak Odanak is an Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descend ...
. The other Abenaki tribes suffered several severe defeats, particularly during
Dummer's War The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Waba ...
, with the capture of Norridgewock in 1724 and the defeat of the
Pequawket The Pequawket (also Pigwacket and many other spelling variants, from Eastern Abenaki ''apíkwahki'', "land of hollows") are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American subdivision of the Abenaki people who formerly lived near the hea ...
in 1725, which significantly reduced their numbers. They finally withdrew to
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, where they were settled at Bécancour and Sillery, and later at St. Francis, along with other refugee tribes from the south. Maine was much fought over by the French, English, and allied natives during the 17th and 18th centuries, who conducted raids against each other, taking captives for ransom or, in some cases, adoption by
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
tribes. A notable example was the early 1692
Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native America ...
raid on York, where about 100 English settlers were killed and another estimated 80 taken hostage. The
Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native America ...
took captives taken during raids of
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
in Queen Anne's War of the early 1700s to Kahnewake, a Catholic Mohawk nation, Mohawk village near Montreal, where some were adopted and others ransomed. After the British defeated the French in Acadia in the 1740s, the territory from the Penobscot River east fell under the nominal authority of the Nova Scotia, Province of Nova Scotia, and together with present-day New Brunswick formed the Nova Scotia county of Sunbury County, Nova Scotia, Sunbury, with its court of general sessions at Campobello. American and British forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812, with the British occupying eastern Maine in both conflicts via the Colony of New Ireland. The territory of Maine was confirmed as part of Massachusetts when the United States was formed following the Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Paris ending the revolution, although the final border with British North America was not established until the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Maine was physically separate from the rest of Massachusetts. Long-standing disagreements over land speculation and settlements led to Maine residents and their allies in Massachusetts proper forcing an 1807 vote in the Massachusetts Assembly on permitting Maine to secede; the vote failed. Secessionist sentiment in Maine was stoked during the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
when Massachusetts pro-British merchants opposed the war and refused to defend Maine from British invaders. In 1819, Massachusetts agreed to permit secession, sanctioned by voters of the rapidly growing region the following year.


Statehood and Missouri Compromise

Formal secession from Massachusetts and admission of Maine as the 23rd state occurred on March 15, 1820, as part of the
Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise (March 6, 1820) was a United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and som ...

Missouri Compromise
, which geographically limited the spread of slavery and enabled the admission to statehood of Missouri the following year, keeping a balance between slave state, slave and free states. Maine's original state capital was Portland, Maine's largest city, until it was moved to the more central Augusta in 1832. The principal office of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court remains in Portland. The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, prevented the Union Army from being flanked at Little Round Top by the Confederate Army during the Battle of Gettysburg. Four United States Navy, U.S. Navy ships have been named USS Maine, USS ''Maine'', most famously the armored cruiser , whose sinking by an explosion on February 15, 1898 precipitated the Spanish–American War.


Geography

To the south and east is the Gulf of Maine, and to the west is the state of
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...

New Hampshire
. The Canadian province of
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
is to the north and northeast, and the province of Québec is to the northwest. Maine is the northernmost state in New England and the largest, accounting for almost half of the region's entire land area. Maine is the only state to border exactly one other American state (New Hampshire). Maine is the easternmost state in the United States both in its extreme points and in its geographic center. The town of Lubec, Maine, Lubec is the easternmost organized settlement in the United States. Its Quoddy Head Lighthouse is also the closest place in the United States to Africa and Europe. Estcourt Station, Maine, Estcourt Station is Maine's northernmost point, as well as the northernmost point in New England. (For more information see extreme points of the United States.) Maine's Moosehead Lake is the largest lake wholly in New England, since Lake Champlain is located between Vermont, New York and Québec. A number of other Maine lakes, such as South Twin Lake (Maine), South Twin Lake, are described by Thoreau in ''The Maine Woods'' (1864). Mount Katahdin is the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, which extends southerly to Springer Mountain, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, and the southern terminus of the new International Appalachian Trail which, when complete, will run to Belle Isle (Newfoundland and Labrador), Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador. Machias Seal Island and North Rock, off the state's Downeast coast, are claimed by both Canada and the American town of Cutler, Maine, Cutler, and are within one of List of areas disputed by Canada and the United States, four areas between the two countries whose sovereignty is still in dispute, but it is the only one of the disputed areas containing land. Also in this easternmost area in the Bay of Fundy is the Old Sow, the largest Tide, tidal whirlpool in the Western Hemisphere. Maine is the least densely populated
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
east of the Mississippi River. It is called the List of U.S. state and territory nicknames, Pine Tree State; over 80% of its total land is forested or unclaimed, Forest cover by state and territory in the United States, the most forest cover of any U.S. state. In the wooded areas of the interior lies much uninhabited land, some of which does not have formal political organization into local units (a rarity in New England). The Northwest Aroostook, Maine, Northwest Aroostook unincorporated area#U.S. Census Bureau, unorganized territory in the northern part of the state, for example, has an area of and a population of 10, or one person for every . Maine is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. The land near the southern and central Atlantic coast is covered by the mixed Quercus, oaks of the Northeastern coastal forests. The remainder of the state, including the North Maine Woods, North Woods, is covered by the New England–Acadian forests. Maine has almost of ocean coastline (and of tidal coastline). West Quoddy Head in Lubec is the easternmost point of land in the 48 contiguous states. Along the famous rock-bound coast of Maine are lighthouses, beaches, fishing villages, and thousands of offshore islands, including the Isles of Shoals which straddle the New Hampshire border. There are jagged rocks and cliffs and many bays and inlets. Inland are lakes, rivers, forests, and mountains. This visual contrast of forested slopes sweeping down to the sea has been summed up by American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay of Rockland, Maine, Rockland and Camden, Maine, Camden, in "Renascence": Geologists describe this type of landscape as a "drowned coast", where a rising sea level has invaded former land features, creating bays out of valleys and islands out of mountain tops. A rise in land elevation due to the melting of heavy glacier ice caused a slight rebounding effect of underlying rock; this land rise, however, was not enough to eliminate all the effect of the rising sea level and its invasion of former land features. Much of Maine's geomorphology was created by extended glacial activity at the end of the Quaternary glaciation, last ice age. Prominent glacial features include Somes Sound and Bubble Rock, both part of Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island. Carved by glaciers, Somes Sound is considered to be the only fjord on the eastern seaboard and reaches depths of . The extreme depth and steep drop-off allow large ships to navigate almost the entire length of the sound. These features also have made it attractive for boat builders, such as the prestigious Hinckley Yachts. Bubble Rock, a glacial erratic, is a large boulder perched on the edge of Bubble Mountain in Acadia National Park. By analyzing the type of granite, geologists discovered that glaciers carried Bubble Rock to its present location from near Lucerne, Maine, Lucerne, away. The Iapetus Suture runs through the north and west of the state, being underlain by the ancient Laurentia, Laurentian terrane, and the south and east underlain by the Avalonia, Avalonian terrane. Acadia National Park is the only national park in New England. Areas under the protection and management of the National Park Service include: * Acadia National Park near Bar Harbor, Maine, Bar Harbor * Appalachian Trail, Appalachian National Scenic Trail * Maine Acadian Culture in Saint John River (Bay of Fundy), St. John Valley * Roosevelt Campobello International Park on Campobello Island in
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
, Canada, operated by both the U.S. and Canada, just across the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge from Lubec * Saint Croix Island International Historic Site at Calais, Maine, Calais * Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument Lands under the control of the state of Maine include: * List of Maine state parks, Maine State Parks * Maine Wildlife Management Areas (WMA)


Climate

Maine has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb''), with warm and sometimes humid summers, and long, cold and very snowy winters. Winters are especially severe in the Northern and Western parts of Maine, while coastal areas are moderated slightly by the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in marginally milder winters and cooler summers than inland regions. Daytime highs are generally in the range throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the high 50s°F (around 15°C). January temperatures range from highs near on the southern coast to overnight lows averaging below in the far north. The state's record high temperature is , set in July 1911, at North Bridgton. Precipitation in Maine is evenly distributed year-round, but with a slight summer maximum in northern/northwestern Maine and a slight late-fall or early-winter maximum along the coast due to "nor'easters" or intense cold-season rain and snowstorms. In coastal Maine, the late spring and summer months are usually driest—a rarity across the Eastern United States. Maine has fewer days of thunderstorms than any other state east of the Rocky Mountains, Rockies, with most of the state averaging fewer than twenty days of thunderstorms a year. Tornadoes are rare in Maine, with the state averaging fewer than four per year, although this number is increasing. Most severe thunderstorms and tornadoes occur in the Sebago Lakes & Foothills region of the state.
NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006.
Maine rarely sees the effect of tropical cyclones, as they tend to pass well east and south or are greatly weakened by the time they reach Maine. In January 2009, a new record low temperature for the state was set at Big Black River (Saint John River), Big Black River of , tying the New England record. Annual precipitation varies from in Presque Isle, Maine, Presque Isle to in Acadia National Park.


Demographics


Population

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Maine was 1,344,212 on July 1, 2019, a 1.19% increase since the 2010 United States Census, 2010 United States census. At the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, 1,362,359 people lived in the state. The state's population density is 41.3 people per square mile, making it the List of U.S. states by population density, least densely populated state east of the Mississippi River. As of 2010, Maine was also the most rural state in the Union, with only 38.7% of the state's population living within urban areas. As explained in detail under "Geography", there are large tracts of uninhabited land in some remote parts of the interior of the state, particularly in the North Maine Woods. The mean population center of Maine is located in Kennebec County, Maine, Kennebec County, just east of Augusta. The Portland metropolitan area, Maine, Greater Portland metropolitan area is the most densely populated with nearly 40% of Maine's population. This area spans three counties and includes many farms and wooded areas; the 2016 population of Portland proper was 66,937. Maine has experienced a very slow rate of population growth since the 1990 census; its rate of growth (0.57%) since the 2010 census ranks 45th of the 50 states. The modest population growth in the state has been concentrated in the southern coastal counties; with more diverse populations slowly moving into these areas of the state. However, the northern, more rural areas of the state have experienced a slight decline in population in recent years. According to the 2010 United States Census, 2010 Census, Maine has the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White American, whites of any state, at 94.4% of the total population. In 2011, 89.0% of all births in the state were to non-Hispanic white parents. Maine also has the second-highest residential senior population. The table below shows the racial composition of Maine's population as of 2016. According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 1.5% of Maine's population were of Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican American, Mexican (0.4%), Puerto Ricans, Puerto Rican (0.4%), Cuban American, Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (0.6%). The five largest ancestry groups were: English American, English (20.7%), Irish American, Irish (17.3%), French American, French (15.7%), German American, German (8.1%), and American ancestry, American (7.8%). People citing that they are American ethnicity, American are of overwhelmingly English descent, but have ancestry that has been in the region for so long (often since the 17th century) that they choose to identify simply as Americans. Maine has the highest percentage of French Americans of any state. Most of them are of French Canadian American, Canadian origin, but in some cases have been living there since prior to the American Revolutionary War. There are particularly high concentrations in the northern part of Maine in Aroostook County, Maine, Aroostook County, which is part of a cultural region known as
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
that goes over the border into
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
. Along with the Acadians, Acadian population in the north, many French came from
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
as immigrants between 1840 and 1930. The upper Saint John River (Bay of Fundy), Saint John River valley area was once part of the so-called Republic of Madawaska, before the frontier was decided in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Over a quarter of the population of Lewiston, Waterville, Maine, Waterville, and Biddeford are Franco-American. Most of the residents of the Mid Coast and Down East sections are chiefly of British heritage. Smaller numbers of various other groups, including Irish American, Irish, Italian American, Italian and Polish American, Polish, have settled throughout the state since the late 19th and early 20th century immigration waves.


Birth data

''Note: Births in table do not sum to 100% because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race.'' * Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Language

Maine does not have an official language, but the most widely spoken language in the state is English. The 2000 Census reported 92.25% of Maine residents aged five and older spoke only English at home. French-speakers are the state's chief linguistic minority; census figures show that Maine has the highest percentage of people speaking French at home of any state: 5.28% of Maine households are French-speaking, compared with 4.68% in Louisiana, which is the second highest state. Although rarely spoken, Spanish is the third-most-common language in Maine, after English and French.


Religion

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), the religious affiliations of Maine in 2010 were: * Protestant 37% ** Evangelical Protestant 4% * Unclaimed 31% * Catholic Church in the United States, Catholic Church 28% * Other religions 1.7% * Non-Christian religions include Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism and Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí. The Catholic Church was the largest religious institution with 202,106 members, the United Methodist Church had 28,329 members, the United Church of Christ had 22,747 members In 2010, a study named Maine as the least religious state in the United States.


Economy

Total employment 2016 * 511,936 Total employer establishments 2016 * 41,178 The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maine's total gross state product for 2010 was $52 billion. Its Per capita personal income in the United States, per capita personal income for 2007 was $33,991, 34th in the nation. , Maine's unemployment rate is 3.0% Maine's agriculture, agricultural outputs include poultry, eggs, dairy products, cattle, wild blueberries, apples, maple syrup, and maple sugar. Aroostook County is known for its potato crops. Commercial fishing, once a mainstay of the state's economy, maintains a presence, particularly lobster fishing, lobstering and groundfishing. While lobster is the main seafood focus for Maine, the harvest of both oysters and seaweed are on the rise. In 2015, 14% of the Northeast's total oyster supply came from Maine. In 2017, the production of Maine's seaweed industry was estimated at $20 million per year. The shrimp industry of Maine is on a government-mandated hold. With an ever-decreasing Northern shrimp population, Maine fishermen are no longer allowed to catch and sell shrimp. The hold began in 2014 and is expected to continue until 2021. Western Maine aquifers and springs are a major source of bottled water. Maine's industrial outputs consist chiefly of paper, lumber and wood products, electronic equipment, leather products, food products, textiles, and bio-technology. Naval shipbuilding and construction remain key as well, with Bath Iron Works in Bath and Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery. Brunswick Landing, formerly Naval Air Station Brunswick, is also in Maine. Formerly a large support base for the U.S. Navy, the Base Realignment and Closure, BRAC campaign initiated the Naval Air Station's closing, despite a government-funded effort to upgrade its facilities. The former base has since been changed into a civilian business park, as well as a new satellite campus for Southern Maine Community College. Maine is the number one U.S. producer of low-bush blueberry, blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium). Preliminary data from the USDA for 2012 also indicate Maine was the largest blueberry producer of the major blueberry producing states, with 91,100,000 lbs. This data includes both low (wild), and high-bush (cultivated) blueberries: Vaccinium corymbosum. The largest toothpick manufacturing plant in the United States used to be located in Strong, Maine. The Strong Wood Products plant produced 20 million toothpicks a day. It closed in May 2003. Tourism and outdoor recreation play a major and increasingly important role in Maine's economy. The state is a popular destination for sport hunting (particularly deer, moose and bear), sport fishing, snowmobile, snowmobiling, skiing, boating, camping and hiking, among other activities. Concomitantly with the tourist and recreation-oriented economy, Maine has developed a burgeoning creative economy, most notably centered in the Portland metropolitan area, Maine, Greater Portland vicinity. Historically, Maine ports played a key role in national transportation. Beginning around 1880, Portland's rail link and ice-free port made it Canada's principal winter port, until the aggressive development of Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia, in the mid-20th century. In 2013, 12,039,600 short tons passed into and out of Portland by sea, which places it 45th of U.S. water ports. Portland International Jetport has been expanded, providing the state with increased air traffic from carriers such as JetBlue and Southwest Airlines. Maine has very few large companies that maintain headquarters in the state, and that number has fallen due to consolidations and mergers, particularly in the pulp and paper industry. Some of the larger companies that do maintain headquarters in Maine include Covetrus in Portland, Fairchild Semiconductor in South Portland, IDEXX Laboratories in Westbrook, Hannaford Bros. Co. in Scarborough; TD Banknorth, TD Bank in Portland and L.L.Bean in Freeport. Maine is also the home of the Jackson Laboratory, the world's largest non-profit mammalian genetic research facility and the world's largest supplier of genetically purebred mice.


Taxation

Maine has an income tax structure containing two brackets, 6.5 and 7.95 percent of personal income. Before July 2013 Maine had four brackets: 2, 4.5, 7, and 8.5 percent. Maine's general sales tax rate is 5.5 percent. The state also levies charges of nine percent on lodging and prepared food and ten percent on short-term auto rentals. Commercial sellers of blueberries, a Maine staple, must keep records of their transactions and pay the state 1.5 cents per pound ($1.50 per 100 pounds) of the fruit sold each season. All Real property, real and tangible personal property located in the state of Maine is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. The administration of property taxes is handled by the local assessor in incorporated cities and towns, while property taxes in the unorganized territories are handled by the State Tax Assessor.


Shipbuilding

Maine has a long-standing tradition of being home to many shipbuilding companies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Maine was home to many shipyards that produced wooden sailing ships. The main function of these ships was to transport either cargos or passengers overseas. One of these yards was located in Pennellville Historic District in what is now Brunswick, Maine. This yard, owned by the Pennell family, was typical of the many family-owned shipbuilding companies of the time period. Other such examples of shipbuilding families were the Skolfields and the Morses. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wooden shipbuilding of this sort made up a sizable portion of the economy.


Transportation


Airports

Maine receives Jet airliner, passenger jet service at its two largest airports, the Portland International Jetport in Portland, and the Bangor International Airport in Bangor. Both are served daily by many major airlines to destinations such as New York, Atlanta, and Orlando, Florida, Orlando. Essential Air Service also subsidizes service to a number of smaller airports in Maine, bringing small turboprop aircraft to regional airports such as the Augusta State Airport, Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Knox County Regional Airport, and the Northern Maine Regional Airport at Presque Isle. These airports are served by regional providers such as Cape Air with Cessna 402s, and CommutAir with Embraer ERJ 145 aircraft. Many smaller airports are scattered throughout Maine, serving only general aviation traffic. The Eastport Municipal Airport, for example, is a city-owned public-use airport with 1,200 general aviation aircraft operations each year from single-engine and ultralight aircraft.


Highways

Interstate 95 in Maine, Interstate95 (I-95) travels through Maine, as well as its easterly branch Interstate 295 (Maine), I-295 and spurs Interstate 195 (Maine), I-195, Interstate 395 (Maine), I-395 and the unsigned Interstate 495 (Maine), I-495 (the Falmouth Spur). In addition, U.S. Route 1 in Maine, U.S. Route1 (US1) starts in Fort Kent, Maine, Fort Kent and travels to Florida. The eastern terminus of the eastern section of U.S. Route 2 in Maine, US2 starts in Houlton, near the New Brunswick, Canada border to Rouses Point, New York, Rouses Point, New York, at U.S. Route 11 in New York, US11. U.S. Route 2A (Maine), US2A connects Old Town and Orono, primarily serving the University of Maine campus. U.S. Route 201, US201 and U.S. Route 202 in Maine, US202 flow through the state. US2, Maine State Route 6 (SR6), and Maine State Route 9, SR9 are often used by truckers and other motorists of the Maritime Provinces ''en route'' to other destinations in the United States or as a short cut to Central Canada.


Rail


Passenger

The ''Downeaster (train), Downeaster'' passenger train, operated by Amtrak, provides passenger service between Brunswick and Boston's North Station, with stops in Freeport, Portland, Old Orchard Beach, Saco, and Wells. The ''Downeaster'' makes five daily trips.


Freight

Freight service throughout the state is provided by a handful of regional and shortline carriers: Pan Am Railways (formerly known as Guilford Rail System), which operates the former Boston and Maine Railroad, Boston & Maine and Maine Central Railroad, Maine Central railroads; St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad; Maine Eastern Railroad; Central Maine and Quebec Railway; and New Brunswick Southern Railway.


Law and government

The Maine Constitution structures Maine's state government, composed of three co-equal branches—the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The state of Maine also has three Constitutional Officers (the Secretary of State, the State Treasurer, and the State Attorney General) and one Statutory Officer (the State Auditor). The legislative branch is the Maine Legislature, a bicameral body composed of the Maine House of Representatives, with 151 members, and the Maine Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature is charged with introducing and passing laws. The executive branch is responsible for the execution of the laws created by the Legislature and is headed by the Governor of Maine (currently Janet Mills). The Governor is elected every four years; no individual may serve more than two consecutive terms in this office. The current attorney general of Maine is Aaron Frey. As with other State legislature (United States), state legislatures, the Maine Legislature can by a two-thirds majority vote from both the House and Senate override a gubernatorial veto. Maine is one of seven states that do not have a lieutenant governor. The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting state laws. The highest court of the state is the Maine Supreme Judicial Court. The lower courts are the District Court, Maine Superior Court, Superior Court and Probate Court. All judges except for probate judges serve full-time, are nominated by the Governor and confirmed by the Legislature for terms of seven years. Probate judges serve part-time and are elected by the voters of each county for four-year terms.


Counties

Maine is divided into political jurisdictions designated as County (United States), counties. Since 1860 there have been 16 counties in the state, ranging in size from .


Politics


State and local politics

In state general elections, Maine voters tend to accept Independent (politician), independent and third-party candidates more frequently than most states. Maine has had two independent governors recently (James B. Longley, 1975–1979 and current U.S. Senator Angus King, 1995–2003). Maine state politicians, Democrats and Republicans alike, are noted for having more moderate views than many in the national wings of their respective parties. Maine is an alcoholic beverage control state. On May 6, 2009, Maine became the fifth state to legalize Same-sex marriage in Maine, same-sex marriage; however, the law was repealed by voters on November 3, 2009. On November 6, 2012, Maine, along with Maryland and Washington, became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage at the ballot box.


Federal politics

In the 1930s, Maine was one of very few states which retained Republican Party (United States), Republican sentiments. In the 1936 United States presidential election, 1936 presidential election, Franklin D. Roosevelt received the Electoral College (United States), electoral votes of every state other than Maine and Vermont; these were the only two states in the nation that never voted for Roosevelt in any of his presidential campaigns, though Maine was closely fought in 1940 United States presidential election, 1940 and 1944 United States presidential election, 1944. In the 1960s, Maine began to lean toward the Democratic Party (United States), Democrats, especially in President of the United States, presidential elections. In 1968 United States presidential election, 1968, Hubert Humphrey became just the second Democrat in half a century to carry Maine, perhaps because of the presence of his running mate, Maine Senator Edmund Muskie, although the state voted Republican in every presidential election in the 1970s and 1980s. Since 1969, two of Maine's four electoral votes have been awarded based on the winner of the statewide election; the other two go to the highest vote-getter in each of the state's two congressional districts. Every other state except Nebraska gives all its electoral votes to the candidate who wins the popular vote in the state at large, without regard to performance within districts. Maine split its electoral vote for the first time in 2016, with Donald Trump's strong showing in the more rural central and northern Maine allowing him to capture one of the state's four votes in the Electoral College. Ross Perot achieved a great deal of success in Maine in the presidential elections of 1992 United States presidential election, 1992 and 1996 United States presidential election, 1996. In 1992, as an Independent (politician), independent candidate, Perot came in second to Democrat Bill Clinton, despite the long-time presence of the Bush family summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine, Kennebunkport. In 1996, as the nominee of the Reform Party (United States), Reform Party, Perot did better in Maine than in any other state. Maine has voted for Democratic Bill Clinton twice, Al Gore in 2000 United States presidential election, 2000, John Kerry in 2004 United States presidential election, 2004, and Barack Obama in 2008 United States presidential election, 2008 and 2012 United States presidential election, 2012. In 2016 United States presidential election, 2016, Republican Donald Trump won one of Maine's electoral votes with Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton winning the other three. Although Democrats have mostly carried the state in presidential elections in recent years, Republicans have largely maintained their control of the state's United States Senate, U.S. Senate seats, with Edmund Muskie, William Hathaway and George J. Mitchell being the only Maine Democrats serving in the U.S. Senate in the past fifty years. In the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans made major gains in Maine. They captured the governor's office as well as majorities in both chambers of the state legislature for the first time since the early 1970s. However, in the 2012 elections Democrats managed to recapture both houses of Maine Legislature. Maine's U.S. senators are Republican Susan Collins and Independent (politics), Independent Angus King. The governor is Democrat Janet Mills. The state's two members of the United States House of Representatives are Democrats Chellie Pingree and Jared Golden. Maine is the first state to have introduced Instant-runoff voting, ranked-choice voting in federal elections.


Municipalities


Organized municipalities

An organized municipality has a form of elected local government which administers and provides local services, keeps records, collects licensing fees, and can pass locally binding municipal ordinance, ordinances, among other responsibilities of self-government. The governmental format of most organized towns and Plantation (Maine), plantations is the town meeting, while the format of most cities is the council-manager form. the organized municipalities of Maine consist of 23 List of cities in Maine, cities, 431 List of towns in Maine, towns, and 34 List of plantations in Maine, plantations. Collectively these 488 organized municipalities cover less than half of the state's territory. Maine also has three Reservations: Penobscot Indian Island Reservation, Indian Island, Indian Township Reservation, and Pleasant Point Indian Reservation. * The largest municipality in Maine, by population, is the city of Portland (pop. 66,318). * The smallest city by population is Eastport (pop. 1,331). * The largest town by population is Brunswick (pop. 20,278). * The smallest town by population is Frye Island, Maine, Frye Island, a resort town which reported zero year-round population in the 2000 Census; one plantation, Glenwood Plantation, Maine, Glenwood Plantation, also reported a permanent population of zero. * In the 2000 census, the smallest town aside from Frye Island was Centerville, Maine, Centerville with a population of 26, but since that census, Centerville voted to disincorporate and therefore is no longer a town. The next smallest town with a population listed in that census is Beddington, Maine, Beddington (pop. 50 at the 2010 census). * The largest municipality by land area is the town of Allagash, Maine, Allagash, at . * The smallest municipality by land area is Monhegan, Maine, Monhegan Island, at . The smallest municipality by area that is not an island is Randolph, Maine, Randolph, at .


Unorganized territory

Unincorporated area#U.S. Census Bureau, Unorganized territory (UT) has no local government. Administration, services, licensing, and ordinances are handled by the state government as well as by respective county governments who have townships within each county's bounds. The unorganized territory of Maine consists of more than 400 townships (towns are incorporated, townships are unincorporated), plus many coastal islands that do not lie within any municipal bounds. The UT land area is slightly over half the entire area of the State of Maine. Year-round residents in the UT number approximately 9,000 (about 1.3% of the state's total population), with many more people staying there only seasonally. Only four of List of counties in Maine, Maine's sixteen counties (Androscoggin, Cumberland, Waldo and York) are entirely incorporated, although a few others are nearly so, and most of the unincorporated area is in the vast and sparsely populated Maine North Woods, Great North Woods of Maine.


Most populous cities and towns

The most populous cities and towns as of the Census Bureau's 2017 estimates were (population in parentheses): # Portland (66,882) # Lewiston, Maine, Lewiston (36,221) # Bangor, Maine, Bangor (31,903) # South Portland, Maine, South Portland (25,483) # Auburn, Maine, Auburn (23,033) # Biddeford, Maine, Biddeford (21,488) # Sanford, Maine, Sanford (21,028) # Brunswick, Maine, Brunswick (20,278) # Saco, Maine, Saco (19,485) # Scarborough, Maine, Scarborough (18,919) # Westbrook, Maine, Westbrook (18,730) #
Augusta Augusta may refer to: Places Australia * Augusta, Western Australia Brasil * Rua Augusta (São Paulo) Canada * Augusta, Ontario * North Augusta, Ontario * Augusta Street (Hamilton, Ontario) France * Augusta Suessionum ("Augusta of the Suessii" ...

Augusta
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Augusta Augusta may refer to: Places Australia * Augusta, Western Australia Brasil * Rua Augusta (São Paulo) Canada * Augusta, Ontario * North Augusta, Ontario * Augusta Street (Hamilton, Ontario) France * Augusta Suessionum ("Augusta of the Suessii" ...

Augusta
Throughout Maine, many municipalities, although each separate governmental entities, nevertheless form portions of a much larger population base. There are many such population clusters throughout Maine, but some examples from the municipalities appearing in the above listing are: * Portland, South Portland, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Cape Elizabeth, Westbrook, Scarborough, and Falmouth, Maine, Falmouth * Lewiston and Auburn * Bangor, Orono, Maine, Orono, Brewer, Maine, Brewer, Old Town, Maine, Old Town, and Hampden, Maine, Hampden * Biddeford, Saco and Old Orchard Beach, Maine, Old Orchard Beach * Brunswick and Topsham, Maine, Topsham * Waterville, Maine, Waterville, Winslow, Maine, Winslow, Fairfield, Maine, Fairfield, and Oakland, Maine, Oakland * Presque Isle, Maine, Presque Isle and Caribou, Maine, Caribou


Education

There are thirty institutions of Higher education, higher learning in Maine. These institutions include the University of Maine, which is the oldest, largest and only University, research university in the state. UMaine was founded in 1865 and is the state's only land grant and sea grant college. The University of Maine is located in the town of Orono, Maine, Orono and is the flagship of Maine. There are also branch campuses in University of Maine at Augusta, Augusta, University of Maine at Farmington, Farmington, University of Maine at Fort Kent, Fort Kent, University of Maine at Machias, Machias, and University of Maine at Presque Isle, Presque Isle. Bowdoin College is a liberal arts college founded in 1794 in Brunswick, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state. Colby College in Waterville was founded in 1813 making it the second oldest college in Maine. Bates College in Lewiston was founded in 1855 making it the third oldest institution in the state and the oldest Mixed-sex education, coeducational college in New England. The three colleges collectively form the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium and are ranked among the best colleges in the United States; often placing in the top 10% of all liberal arts colleges. Maine's per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools was 21st in the nation in 2012, at $12,344. The collegiate system of Maine also includes numerous Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, baccalaureate colleges such as: the Maine Maritime Academy (MMA), Unity College (Maine), Unity College, and Thomas College. There is only one medical school in the state, (University of New England (United States), University of New England's University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine, College of Osteopathic Medicine) and only one law school (The University of Maine School of Law). Private schools in Maine are funded independently of the state and its furthered domains. Private schools are less common than public schools. A large number of private elementary schools with under 20 students exist, but most private high schools in Maine can be described as "semi-private".


Culture


Agriculture

Maine was a center of agriculture before it achieved statehood. Prior to colonization, Wabanaki Confederacy, Wabanaki nations farmed large crops of corn and other produce in southern Maine. The state is a major producer of potatoes, wild blueberries, apples, maple syrup and sweet corn. Dairy products and chicken's eggs are other major industries. Maine has many vegetable farms and other small, diversified farms. In the 1960s and 1970s, the book "Living the Good Life" by Helen Nearing and Scott Nearing caused many young people to move to Maine and engage in small-scale farming and homesteading. These Back-to-the-land movement, back-to-the-land migrants increased the population of some counties. Maine has a smaller number of commodity farms and confined animal feeding operations. Maine is home to the Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association and had 535 certified organic farms in 2019.


Food

Since the 1980s, the state has gotten a reputation for its local food and restaurant meals. Portland was named ''Bon Appétit, Bon Appetit'' magazine's Restaurant City of the Year in 2018. In 2018, HealthIQ.com named Maine the 3rd most vegan state.


Sports teams


Professional

* Maine Celtics, basketball, NBA G League * Portland Sea Dogs, minor league baseball, Double-A Northeast * Maine Mariners (ECHL), Maine Mariners, ice hockey, ECHL


Non-professional

* Portland Phoenix FC, soccer, Premier Developmental League * Maine Roller Derby, roller derby, Women's Flat Track Derby Association


NCAA

* Maine Black Bears


State symbols

Adapted from the Maine facts site. * List of U.S. state fruit, State berry: Wild blueberry * List of U.S. state birds, State bird: Black-capped chickadee * List of U.S. state cats, State cat: Maine Coon * List of U.S. state foods, State dessert: Blueberry pie made with wild Maine blueberries * List of U.S. state fish, State fish: Land-locked salmon * List of U.S. state flowers, State flower: Eastern White Pine, White Pinecone and Tassel * State fossil: ''Pertica quadrifaria'' * State gemstone: Tourmaline * State herb: Pyrolaceae, Wintergreen * List of U.S. state insects, State insect: Western honey bee, European honey bee * List of U.S. state mammals, State mammal: Moose * List of U.S. state crustaceans, State Crustacean: American Lobster, Lobster * State soft drink: Moxie * List of U.S. state soils, State soil: Chesuncook soil series * State song: "State of Maine Song" * State treat: Whoopie pie * List of U.S. state trees, State tree: Eastern white pine, Eastern White Pine * State vessel: Arctic exploration schooner Bowdoin (Arctic schooner), ''Bowdoin'' * State motto: Dirigo ("I lead")


People from Maine

A citizen of Maine is known as a "Mainer", though the term is often reserved for those whose roots in Maine go back at least three generations. The term "Downeaster" may be applied to residents of the northeast coast of the state. The term "Mainiac" is considered by some to be derogatory, but is embraced with pride by others, and is used for a variety of organizations and for events such as the YMCA Mainiac Sprint Triathlon & Duathlon.


See also

* Index of Maine-related articles * Outline of Maine * '''' * '''' * ''''


References


Notes


Citations


External links


State government


Maine government

Maine Office of Tourism
Search for tourism-related businesses
Visit Maine (agriculture)
Maine fairs, festivals, etc.—Agricultural Dept.


U.S. government




U.S. EIA
Energy Profile for Maine—economic, environmental and energy data
U.S. Geological Survey
Real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Maine
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Maine State Facts—agricultural

Quick facts on Maine
Portland Magazine
Editorial on Maine news, events, and people


Information

*
Maine Historical Society



1860 Map of Maine
by Mitchell.
1876 Panoramic Birdseye View of Portland
by Warner at LOC., * {{coord, 45, -69, dim:300000_region:US-ME_type:adm1st, display=title Maine, States of the United States New England states Northeastern United States States and territories established in 1820 States of the East Coast of the United States 1820 establishments in the United States Contiguous United States