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Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is a British
publishing company Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as book A ...
traditionally considered to be one of the 'Big Five' English language publishers. Founded in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
in 1843 by Scottish brothers
Daniel Daniel is a masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling ...
and Alexander MacMillan, since 1999 it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group Holtzbrinck Publishing Group () is a Privately held company, privately-held German company based in Stuttgart which Holding company, owns publishing companies worldwide. Through Macmillan Publishers, it is one of the Publishing#Book publishing, B ...
with offices in 41 countries worldwide and operations in more than thirty others.


History

Macmillan was founded in London in 1843 by
Daniel Daniel is a masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling ...
and Alexander MacMillan, two brothers from the
Isle of Arran The Isle of Arran (; sco, Isle o Arran; gd, Eilean Arainn) or simply Arran is an island off the west coast of Scotland. It is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde The Firth of Clyde is the mouth of the River Clyde. It is located on t ...

Isle of Arran
, Scotland. Daniel was the business brain, while Alexander laid the literary foundations, publishing such notable authors as
Charles Kingsley Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian, novelist and poet. He is particularly associated with Christian socialism, the working me ...
(1855),
Thomas Hughes Thomas Hughes (20 October 182222 March 1896) was an English lawyer, judge, politician and author. He is most famous for his novel '' Tom Brown's School Days'' (1857), a semi-autobiographical work set at Rugby School, which Hughes had attended. ...
(1859),
Francis Turner Palgrave Francis Turner Palgrave (; 28 September 1824 – 24 October 1897) was a British critic, anthologist In book publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public fo ...

Francis Turner Palgrave
(1861),
Christina Rossetti Christina Georgina Rossetti (5 December 1830 – 29 December 1894) was an English poet who wrote romantic, devotional, and children's poems. "Goblin Market" and "Remember" remain famous. She also wrote the words of two Christmas carols well know ...

Christina Rossetti
(1862),
Matthew Arnold Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic A cultural critic is a critic A critic is a professional who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as ...

Matthew Arnold
(1865) and
Lewis Carroll Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of children's fiction, notably ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' and its sequel ''Through the Looking-Glass'' ...

Lewis Carroll
(1865).
Alfred Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was a British poet. He was the Poet Laureate during much of Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the Unite ...

Alfred Tennyson
joined the list in 1884,
Thomas Hardy Thomas Hardy (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet. A Literary realism, Victorian realist in the tradition of George Eliot, he was influenced both in his novels and in his poetry by Romanticism, including the poetr ...

Thomas Hardy
in 1886 and
Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)''The Times ''The Times'' is a British daily Daily or The Daily may refer to: Journalism * Daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical pub ...

Rudyard Kipling
in 1890. Other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Yeats,
Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore (; born Rabindranath Thakur, 7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941; sobriquet Gurudev, Kobiguru, Biswakobi) was an Indian people, Indian polymath—poet, writer, playwright, composer, philosopher, social reformer and painte ...

Rabindranath Tagore
,
Nirad C. Chaudhuri Nirad Chandra Chaudhuri CBE (23 November 1897 – 1 August 1999) was an Indian writer. In 1990, Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at ...
,
Seán O'Casey Seán O'Casey ( ga, Seán Ó Cathasaigh ; born John Casey; 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist. A committed socialist, he was the first Irish playwright of note to write about the Dublin Dublin (; , ...
,
John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a ...

John Maynard Keynes
, Charles Morgan,
Hugh Walpole Sir Hugh Seymour Walpole, Commander of the Order of the British Empire, CBE (13 March 18841 June 1941) was an English novelist. He was the son of an Anglican clergyman, intended for a career in the church but drawn instead to writing. Among th ...
,
Margaret Mitchell Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was an American novelist and journalist. Mitchell wrote only one novel, published during her lifetime, the American Civil War-era novel ''Gone With the Wind (novel), Gone with t ...
, C. P. Snow,
Rumer Godden Margaret Rumer Godden (10 December 1907 – 8 November 1998) was an English author of more than 60 fiction Fiction generally is a narrative form, in any media (communication), medium, consisting of people, events, or places that are imagi ...
and
Ram Sharan Sharma Ram Sharan Sharma (26 November 1919 – 20 August 2011) was an eminent historian and academic who specialized in the history of Ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as ''
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...
'' (1869), the ''
Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ''The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians'' is an encyclopedic dictionary Title page from the 1894 four volume version of Robert Hunter's ''The Encyclopædic Dictionary''. An encyclopedic dictionary typically includes many short lis ...
'' (1877) and
Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave
Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave
's ''Dictionary of Political Economy'' (1894–99).
George Edward Brett George Edward Brett (1829–1890) opened the first American office of Macmillan Publishing called Macmillan & Co. of New York. Career Brett was assigned by Alexander Macmillan (publisher) to create the New York Office in August 1869. Brett was ai ...
opened the first Macmillan office in the United States in 1869 and Macmillan sold its U.S. operations to the Brett family, George Platt Brett, Sr. and George Platt Brett, Jr. in 1896, resulting in the creation of an American company,
Macmillan Publishing Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is a British publishing company traditionally considered to be one of the Big Five (publishers), 'Big Five' English language publishers. Founded in London in 1843 by Scottish ...
, also called the Macmillan Company. Even with the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and Harold Macmillan remained close personal friends. Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name
St. Martin's Press St. Martin's Press is a book publisher headquartered in Manhattan, New York City, in the Equitable Building. St. Martin's Press is considered one of the largest English-language publishers, bringing to the public some 700 titles a year under six ...
.
Macmillan of Canada Macmillan of Canada was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exis ...
was founded in 1905;
Maclean-HunterMaclean-Hunter (M-H) was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist ...
acquired the company in 1973. Following numerous mergers, Macmillan Canada dissolved in 2002 after John Wiley & Co. acquired it. After retiring from politics in 1964, former
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
,
Harold Macmillan Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nat ...

Harold Macmillan
, became chairman of the company, serving until his death in December 1986. He had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940 (when he became a junior minister), and from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament. The German
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group Holtzbrinck Publishing Group () is a Privately held company, privately-held German company based in Stuttgart which Holding company, owns publishing companies worldwide. Through Macmillan Publishers, it is one of the Publishing#Book publishing, B ...
purchased the company in 1999.


21st century

Pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the
Simon & Schuster Simon & Schuster () is an American publishing company and a subsidiary of ViacomCBS. It was founded in New York City on January 2, 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln Schuster. As of 2016, Simon & Schuster was the third largest publisher in ...

Simon & Schuster
educational and professional group (which included various Macmillan properties). Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001. McGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand. The US operations of Holtzbrinck Publishing changed its name to Macmillan in October 2017. Its audio publishing imprint changed its name from Audio Renaissance to Macmillan Audio, while its distribution arm was renamed from Von Holtzbrinck Publishers Services to Macmillan Publishers Services. Pan Macmillan purchased Kingfisher, a British children's publisher, from Houghton Mifflin in October 2007. Roaring Brook Press publisher Simon Boughton would oversee Kingfisher's US business. By some estimates, as of 2009,
e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, ...

e-book
s account for three to five per cent of total book sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market. According to ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', Macmillan and other major publishers "fear that massive discounting
f e-books F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), letter in the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''ef'' (pronounced ), plural ''efs''. History The origin ...
by retailers including
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...
,
Barnes & Noble Barnes & Noble, Inc., is an American Bookselling, bookseller. It is a Fortune 1000 company and the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States. As of March 7, 2019, the company operates 627 retail stores in a ...
and
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...
could ultimately devalue what consumers are willing to pay for books." In response, the publisher introduced a new
boilerplate contract A standard form contract (sometimes referred to as a ''contract of adhesion,'' a ''leonine contract'', a ''take-it-or-leave-it contract'', or a ''boilerplate text, boilerplate contract'') is a contract between two parties, where the terms and cond ...
for its authors that established a royalty of 20 per cent of net proceeds on e-book sales, a rate five per cent lower than most other major publishers. Following the announcement of the
Apple iPad iPad is a line of tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single, thin ...

Apple iPad
on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon.com two options: continue to sell e-books based on a price of the retailer's choice (the "
wholesale Wholesaling or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purch ...
model"), with the e-book edition released several months after the hardcover edition is released, or switch to the
agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavior (Am ...
model introduced to the industry by Apple, in which both are released simultaneously and the price is set by the publisher. In the latter case, Amazon.com would receive a 30 per cent
commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the creation of a piece of art most often on behalf of another ...
. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both electronic and physical, from their website (although affiliates selling the books were still listed). On 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed '' United States v. Apple Inc.'', naming
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
, Macmillan, and four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for
e-books An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in Digital data, digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic ...
, and weaken
Amazon.com Amazon.com, Inc. ( ) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
's position in the market, in violation of
antitrust law Competition law is a that promotes or seeks to maintain by regulating conduct by companies. Competition law is implemented through public and private enforcement. It is also known as ''anti- law'' in China and Russia. In previous years it has ...
. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which Macmillan and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing. In 2010, Macmillan Education submitted to an investigation on grounds of
fraudulent In law, fraud is intentional deception Deception or falsehood is an act or statement which misleads, hides the truth, or promotes a belief, concept, or idea that is not true. It is often done for personal gain or advantage. Deception can i ...
practices. The Macmillan division admitted to
bribery Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) ...

bribery
in an attempt to secure a contract for an education project in
southern Sudan South Sudan (), officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the la ...
. As a direct result of the investigation, sanctions were applied by the
World Bank Group The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was establ ...

World Bank Group
, namely a 6-year
debarment Debarment is the state of being excluded from enjoying certain possessions, rights, privileges, or practices and the act of prevention by legal means. For example, companies can be debarred from contracts due to allegations of fraud, mismanagement, ...
(reduced from 8 years due to an early acknowledgment of misconduct by the company) declaring the company ineligible to be awarded Bank-financed contracts. In December 2011, Bedford, Freeman, and Worth Publishing Group, Macmillan's higher education group, changed its name to Macmillan Higher Education while retaining the Bedford, Freeman, and Worth name for its k–12 educational unit. Also that month, Brian Napack resigned as Macmillan president while staying on for transitional purposes. In 2012, parent company Holtzbrinck reorganized; Macmillan's consumer publishing operations were now led by
John Turner Sargent John Turner Sargent Jr. (born c. 1957) is an American book publisher; he was the CEO of Macmillan Publishers USA, and is the Executive Vice President of the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, where he oversees the global trade operations in t ...
from
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. In May 2015, London-based Macmillan Science and Education merged with Berlin-based Springer Science+Business Media to form
Springer Nature Springer Nature or the Springer Nature Group is a German-British academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal a ...

Springer Nature
, jointly controlled by
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group Holtzbrinck Publishing Group () is a Privately held company, privately-held German company based in Stuttgart which Holding company, owns publishing companies worldwide. Through Macmillan Publishers, it is one of the Publishing#Book publishing, B ...
and
BC Partners BC Partners is a British international Investment company, investment firm with over $40 billion of assets under management across private equity, credit and real estate in Europe and North America. Its global headquarters are in London. The firm ...
. In January 2019, Toronto, Canada-based online writing community
Wattpad Wattpad is a website and app for writers to publish new user-generated stories. It aims to create social communities around stories for both amateur and established writers. The platform claims to have an audience of more than 90 million users, wh ...

Wattpad
announced an agreement with Macmillan ic, Springer Nature Americafor handling sales and distribution in the U.S. for its new publishing division Wattpad Books, alongside rival Penguin Random House that will handle the U.K. and India market, and Raincoast Books for the Canadian market. In November 2019, Macmillan announced that libraries would be able to buy only one copy of e-books for the first eight weeks after publication, in an effort to boost sales by creating long waits for borrowers at large library systems. This prompted complaints and some libraries boycotted the company; the policy was reversed in March 2020. In September 2020, Macmillan announced that CEO John Sargent will be leaving at the end of the year due to "a disagreement regarding the direction of Macmillan." According to Holtzbrinck spokesperson Erin Coffey, the decision was made by Stefan von Holtzbrinck, CEO of the Holtzbrinck group.


Divisions


US publishing divisions with imprints


Other US divisions

*Macmillan Publishers Services, formerly Von Holtzbrinck Publishers Services, distribution unit for independent publishers: **
Bloomsbury USA Bloomsbury Publishing plc is a British worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction. It is a constituent of the FTSE SmallCap Index. Bloomsbury's head office is located in Bloomsbury, an area of the London Borough of Camden. It has a US ...
**
Drawn & Quarterly Drawn & Quarterly is a publishing company based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, specializing in comics. It publishes primarily comic books, graphic novels and comic strip collections. The books it publishes are noted for their artistic content, as ...
**Entangled Publishing ** Graywolf Press **
Guinness World Records ''Guinness World Records'', known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as ''The Guinness Book of Records'' and in previous United States editions as ''The Guinness Book of World Records'', is a reference book A reference work is a work, ...
**Kingfisher **Page Street **Papercutz


See also

*
List of largest UK book publishers This is a list of largest UK trade book publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution o ...


References


Further reading

* *James, Elizabeth, ed. ''Macmillan: A Publishing Tradition'', Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. *Morgan, Charles, ''The House of Macmillan (1843–1943)'', Macmillan, 1944.


External links


The Macmillan Archive
at the
British Library The British Library is the national library A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public library, public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow book ...

British Library
* *
The Macmillan Story: Bringing authors and readers together since 1843
{{Authority control Book publishing companies of the United Kingdom Publishing companies based in London Holtzbrinck Publishing Group 1843 establishments in England Publishing companies established in 1843 1999 mergers and acquisitions British companies established in 1843