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The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of
working group A working group, or working party, is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals. The groups are domain-specific and focus on discussion or activity around a specific subject area. The term can sometimes refer to an interdis ...

working group
s established jointly by
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
and
IECIEC may refer to: Businesses and organisations * International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organizati ...
that sets standards for media coding, including compression coding of
audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion ( ...
,
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...
, graphics and
genomic Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of s. A genome is an organism's complete set of , including all of its genes as well as its hierarchical, three-dimensional structur ...
data, and transmission and
file formats A file format is a Computer standard, standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage medium. File formats may be either proprietary format, pr ...
for various applications.John Watkinson, ''The MPEG Handbook'', p. 1 Together with
JPEG JPEG ( ) is a commonly used method of lossy compression In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represe ...
, MPEG is organized under
ISO/IEC JTC 1 ISO/IEC JTC 1 is a joint technical committee (JTC) of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Its purpose is to develop, maintain and promote standards in the fields of info ...
/ SC 29 – ''Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information'' (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29). MPEG formats are used in various multimedia systems. The most well known older MPEG media formats typically use
MPEG-1 MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compression, data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content ...
,
MPEG-2 MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as was defined by the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communicati ...
, and
MPEG-4 AVC Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC), is a video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated integer-DCT coding. It is by far the most commonly used ...
media coding and MPEG-2 systems transport streams and program streams. Newer systems typically use the MPEG base media file format and dynamic streaming (a.k.a.
MPEG-DASH Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), also known as MPEG-DASH, is an adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers. Similar to Apple ...
).


History

MPEG was established in 1988 by the initiative of Dr.
Hiroshi Yasuda Hiroshi Yasuda (born 1944) is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Tokyo and works as a Consultant for Nippon Telegraph and Telephone. In the sphere of international standardization, together with Leonardo Chiariglione he founded the Moving ...
( NTT) and Dr.
Leonardo Chiariglione Leonardo Chiariglione () (born 30 January 1943 (age ) in Almese, Province of Turin, Turin province, Piedmont, Italy) is an Italian engineer. He has been at the forefront of a number of initiatives that have helped shape media technology and busines ...

Leonardo Chiariglione
(
CSELT Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni (CSELT) was an Italian research center for telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylind ...
). Chiariglione was the group's chair (called Convenor in ISO/IEC terminology) from its inception until June 6, 2020. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in
Ottawa, Canada Ottawa (, ; Canadian French, Canadian ) is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the Eastern Ontario, eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec, and forms the core of the Ottaw ...

Ottawa, Canada
. Starting around the time of the MPEG-4 project in the late 1990s and continuing to the present, MPEG had grown to include approximately 300–500 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions. On June 6, 2020, the MPEG section of Chiariglione's personal website was updated to inform readers that he had retired as Convenor, and he said that the MPEG group (then SC 29/WG 11) "was closed". Chiariglione described his reasons for stepping down in his personal blog. His decision followed a restructuring process within SC 29, in which "some of the subgroups of WG 11 (MPEG) ecamedistinct MPEG working groups (WGs) and advisory groups (AGs)" in July 2020. Prof. Jörn Ostermann of
University of Hannover The Leibniz University Hannover, long form in German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institut ...
was appointed as Acting Convenor of SC 29/WG 11 during the restructuring period and was then appointed Convenor of SC 29's Advisory Group 2, which coordinates MPEG overall technical activities. The MPEG structure that replaced the former Working Group 11 includes three Advisory Groups (AGs) and seven Working Groups (WGs) * SC 29/AG 2: MPEG Technical Coordination (Convenor: Prof. Joern Ostermann of
University of Hannover The Leibniz University Hannover, long form in German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institut ...
, Germany) * SC 29/AG 3: MPEG Liaison and Communication (Convenor: Prof. Kyuheon Kim of
Kyung Hee University Kyung Hee University (abbreviated to KHU) (Hangul The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (Hangeul), .Hangul may also be written as following South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean, standard Romanization. in South Korea and Chosŏn'g ...

Kyung Hee University
, Korea) * SC 29/AG 5: MPEG Visual Quality Assessment (Convenor: Dr. Mathias Wien of
RWTH Aachen University RWTH Aachen University () or ''Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen'RWTH'' is the abbreviation of ''Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule'', which translates into "Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University". The inst ...
, Germany) * SC 29/WG 2: MPEG Technical Requirements (Convenor: Dr. Igor Curcio of
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational for ...

Nokia
, Finland) * SC 29/WG 3: MPEG Systems (Convenor: Dr. Youngkwon Lim of
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
, Korea) * SC 29/WG 4: MPEG Video Coding (Convenor: Prof. Lu Yu of
Zhejiang University Zhejiang University (ZJU; ), informally known as Zheda (), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or o ...
, China) * SC 29/WG 5: MPEG Joint Video Coding Team with ITU-T SG16 (Convenor: Prof. Jens-Rainer Ohm of
RWTH Aachen University RWTH Aachen University () or ''Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen'RWTH'' is the abbreviation of ''Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule'', which translates into "Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University". The inst ...
, Germany; formerly co-chairing with Dr.  Gary Sullivan of
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
, United States) * SC 29/WG 6: MPEG Audio coding (Convenor: Dr. Schuyler Quackenbush of Audio Research Labs, United States) * SC 29/WG 7: MPEG 3D Graphics coding (Convenor: Prof. Marius Preda of Institut Mines-Télécom SudParis) * SC 29/WG 8: MPEG Genomic coding (Convenor: Dr. Marco Mattavelli of EPFL, Switzerland) The first meeting under the current structure was held in October 2020. It (and all other MPEG meetings starting in April 2020) was held virtually by teleconference due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
.


Cooperation with other groups


MPEG-2

MPEG-2 MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as was defined by the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communicati ...
development included a joint project between MPEG and
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
Study Group 15 (which later became ITU-T SG16), resulting in publication of the MPEG-2 Systems standard (ISO/IEC 13818-1, including its transport streams and program streams) as ITU-T H.222.0 and the
MPEG-2 Video H.262 or MPEG-2 Part 2 (formally known as ITU-T Recommendation H.262 and ISO/IEC 13818-2, also known as MPEG-2 Video) is a video coding format A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for ...
standard (ISO/IEC 13818-2) as ITU-T H.262. Sakae Okubo (NTT), was the ITU-T coordinator and chaired the agreements on its requirements.


Joint Video Team

Joint Video Team (JVT) was joint project between ITU-T SG16/Q.6 (Study Group 16 / Question 6) –
VCEG The Video Coding Experts Group or Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG, also known as Question 6) is a working group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards ...
(Video Coding Experts Group) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – MPEG for the development of a video coding ITU-T Recommendation and ISO/IEC International Standard. It was formed in 2001 and its main result was H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (MPEG-4 Part 10), which reduces the data rate for video coding by about 50%, as compared to the then-current ITU-T H.262 / MPEG-2 standard. The JVT was chaired by Dr. Gary Sullivan, with vice-chairs Dr.
Thomas Wiegand Thomas Wiegand (born 6 May 1970 in Wismar Wismar () is a port and Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city in Northern Germany, located on the Baltic Sea in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern about east of Lübeck and north of Schwerin. Its natural h ...
of the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Germany and Dr. Ajay Luthra of
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational sta ...

Motorola
in the United States.


Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding

Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) was a group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG). It was created in 2010 to develop
High Efficiency Video Coding High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digita ...
(HEVC, MPEG-H Part 2, ITU-T H.265), a video coding standard that further reduces by about 50% the data rate required for video coding, as compared to the then-current ITU-T H.264 / ISO/IEC 14496-10 standard. JCT-VC was co-chaired by Prof. Jens-Rainer Ohm and Gary Sullivan.


Joint Video Experts Team

Joint Video Experts Team (JVET) is a joint group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG) created in 2017 after an exploration phase that began in 2015. JVET developed
Versatile Video Coding Versatile Video Coding (VVC), also known as H.266, ISO/IEC 23090-3, MPEG-I Part 3 and Future Video Coding (FVC), is a video compression standard finalized on 6 July 2020, by the Joint Video Experts Team (JVET), a joint video expert team of the ...
(VVC, MPEG-I Part 3, ITU-T H.266), completed in July 2020, which further reduces the data rate for video coding by about 50%, as compared to the then-current ITU-T H.265 / HEVC standard, and the JCT-VC was merged into JVET in July 2020. Like JCT-VC, JVET was co-chaired by Jens-Rainer Ohm and Gary Sullivan, until July 2021 when Ohm became the sole chair (after Sullivan became the chair of SC 29).


Standards

The MPEG standards consist of different ''Parts''. Each ''Part'' covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. The standards also specify '' profiles'' and ''levels''. ''Profiles'' are intended to define a set of tools that are available, and ''Levels'' define the range of appropriate values for the properties associated with them. Some of the approved MPEG standards were revised by later amendments and/or new editions. The primary early MPEG compression formats and related standards include: *
MPEG-1 MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compression, data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content ...
(1993): ''Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s'' (ISO/IEC 11172). This initial version is known as a lossy fileformat and is the first MPEG compression standard for
audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion ( ...
and
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...
. It is commonly limited to about 1.5 Mbit/s although the specification is capable of much higher bit rates. It was basically designed to allow moving pictures and sound to be encoded into the
bitrate In telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that ...
of a
Compact Disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics compri ...

Compact Disc
. It is used on
Video CD Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc Digital Video) is a home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a standard Sta ...
and can be used for low-quality video on DVD Video. It was used in digital satellite/cable TV services before MPEG-2 became widespread. To meet the low bit requirement, MPEG-1 downsamples the images, as well as uses picture rates of only 24–30 Hz, resulting in a moderate quality. It includes the popular MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (
MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital a ...

MP3
) audio compression format. *
MPEG-2 MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as was defined by the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communicati ...
(1996): ''Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information'' (ISO/IEC 13818). Transport, video and audio standards for broadcast-quality television. MPEG-2 standard was considerably broader in scope and of wider appeal – supporting interlacing and high definition. MPEG-2 is considered important because it was chosen as the compression scheme for over-the-air
digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media 200px, Graphical representations of electrical audio data. Electronic media uses either analog (red) or digital (blue) signal pr ...
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable and satellite networks. It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC standard and, like that ...
, DVB and
ISDB Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB; Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white ...
, digital satellite TV services like
Dish Network DISH Network Corporation (DISH, an acronym for DIgital Sky Highway) is an American Multichannel television, television provider and the owner of the Satellite television, direct-broadcast satellite provider Dish, commonly known as Dish Network, a ...

Dish Network
, digital
cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, ...
signals,
SVCD Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format for storing on standard s. SVCD was intended as a successor to and an alternative to , and falls somewhere between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality. Techn ...
and
DVD Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits ...
.''The MPEG Handbook'', p. 4 It is also used on
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray Disc
s, but these normally use MPEG-4 Part 10 or SMPTE
VC-1 SMPTE 421, informally known as VC-1, is a video coding format. Most of it was initially developed as Microsoft's proprietary video format Windows Media Video, Windows Media Video 9 in 2003. With some enhancements including the development of a n ...
for high-definition content. *
MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression Compression may refer to: Physical science *Compression (physics), size reduction due to forces *Compression member, a structural element such as a column *Compressibility, susceptibility to compression ...
(1998): ''Coding of audio-visual objects''. (ISO/IEC 14496) MPEG-4 provides a framework for more advanced compression algorithms potentially resulting in higher compression ratios compared to MPEG-2 at the cost of higher computational requirements. MPEG-4 also supports Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP), which provides the facility to use proprietary technologies to manage and protect content like
digital rights management Digital rights management (DRM) tools or technological protection measures (TPM) are a set of access control In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place ...
. It also supports MPEG-J, a fully programmatic solution for creation of custom interactive multimedia applications ( Java application environment with a
Java API There are two types of Java programming language application programming interfaces (APIs): * The official core Java API, contained in the Android (Google), SE (OpenJDK and Oracle), MicroEJ. These packages (java.* packages) are the core Java la ...
) and many other features. Two new higher-efficiency video coding standards (newer than MPEG-2 Video) are included: **
MPEG-4 Part 2 MPEG-4 Part 2, MPEG-4 Visual (formally ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or re ...
(including its Simple and Advanced Simple profiles) and **
MPEG-4 AVC Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC), is a video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated integer-DCT coding. It is by far the most commonly used ...
(MPEG-4 Part 10 or ITU-T H.264, 2003). MPEG-4 AVC may be used on
HD DVD HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is a discontinued high-density optical disc drive. (CD-R), showing characteristic iridescence. In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, ...
and
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray Disc
s, along with
VC-1 SMPTE 421, informally known as VC-1, is a video coding format. Most of it was initially developed as Microsoft's proprietary video format Windows Media Video, Windows Media Video 9 in 2003. With some enhancements including the development of a n ...
and MPEG-2. MPEG-4 AVC was chosen as the video compression scheme for over-the-air television broadcasting in Brazil (ISDB-TB), based on the digital television system of Japan (ISDB-T). An
MPEG-3 MPEG-3 is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by the Moving Picture Experts Group The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working groupWorking Group may refer to: * Working group, an ...
project was cancelled. MPEG-3 was planned to deal with standardizing scalable and multi-resolution compression and was intended for HDTV compression, but was found to be unnecessary and was merged with MPEG-2; as a result there is no MPEG-3 standard. The cancelled MPEG-3 project is not to be confused with
MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital a ...

MP3
, which is MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III. In addition, the following standards, while not sequential advances to the video encoding standard as with MPEG-1 through MPEG-4, are referred to by similar notation: *
MPEG-7 MPEG-7 is a multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured litt ...
(2002): ''Multimedia content description interface''. (ISO/IEC 15938) *
MPEG-21 The MPEG-21 standard, from the Moving Picture Experts Group The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working groupWorking Group may refer to: * Working group, an interdisciplinary group of researchers; or * Working Group (dog ...
(2001): ''Multimedia framework (MPEG-21)''. (ISO/IEC 21000) MPEG describes this standard as a ''
multimedia framework A multimedia framework is a software framework that handles Electronic media, media on a computer and through a network. A good multimedia framework offers an intuitive Application programming interface, API and a modular architecture to easily ad ...
'' and provides for intellectual property management and protection. Moreover, more recently than other standards above, MPEG has produced the following international standards; each of the standards holds multiple MPEG technologies for a variety of applications. (For example, MPEG-A includes a number of technologies on multimedia application format.) *
MPEG-AMPEG-A is a group of standards for composing MPEG systems formally known as ''International Organization for Standardization, ISO/International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC 23000'' - ''Multimedia Application Format'', published since 2007. MPEG- ...
(2007): ''Multimedia application format (MPEG-A)''. (ISO/IEC 23000) (e.g., an explanation of the purpose for multimedia application formats, MPEG music player application format, MPEG photo player application format and others) * MPEG-B (2006): ''MPEG systems technologies''. (ISO/IEC 23001) (e.g., Binary MPEG format for XML, Fragment Request Units (FRUs), Bitstream Syntax Description Language (BSDL) and others) * MPEG-C (2006): ''MPEG video technologies''. (ISO/IEC 23002) (e.g., accuracy requirements for implementation of integer-output 8x8 inverse
discrete cosine transform A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are ...
and others) *
MPEG-DMPEG-D is a group of standards for audio coding formally known as ''International Organization for Standardization, ISO/International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC 23003'' - ''MPEG audio technologies'', published since 2007. MPEG-D consists of fo ...
(2007): ''MPEG audio technologies''. (ISO/IEC 23003) (e.g.,
MPEG Surround MPEG Surround ( ISO/ IEC 23003-1 or MPEG-D Part 1), also known as Spatial Audio Coding (SAC) is a lossy In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compression, data encoding methods that uses i ...
, SAOC-Spatial Audio Object Coding and USAC-
Unified Speech and Audio Coding Unified Speech and Audio Coding (USAC) is an audio compression format and codec A codec is a device or computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A com ...
) * MPEG-E (2007): ''Multimedia Middleware''. (ISO/IEC 23004) (a.k.a. M3W) (e.g., architecture, multimedia application programming interface (API), component model and others) * MPEG-G (2019) ''Genomic Information Representation'' (ISO/IEC 23092), Parts 1–6 for transport and storage, coding, metadata and
APIs Apis or APIS may refer to: *Apis (deity) In ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization ...
, reference software, conformance, and annotations *''Supplemental media technologies'' (2008, later replaced and withdrawn). (ISO/IEC 29116) It had one published part, media streaming application format protocols, which was later replaced and revised in MPEG-M Part 4's MPEG extensible middleware (MXM) protocols. * MPEG-V (2011): ''Media context and control''. (ISO/IEC 23005) (a.k.a. Information exchange with Virtual Worlds) (e.g., Avatar characteristics, Sensor information, Architecture and others) * MPEG-M (2010): ''MPEG eXtensible Middleware (MXM)''. (ISO/IEC 23006) (e.g., MXM architecture and technologies, API, and MPEG extensible middleware (MXM) protocols) * MPEG-U (2010): ''
Rich media Interactive media normally refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user's actions by presenting content such as text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory), any object that can ...
user interfaces''. (ISO/IEC 23007) (e.g., Widgets) *
MPEG-H MPEG-H is a group of international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Health Organization Guidelines in health, or Internation ...
(2013): ''High Efficiency Coding and Media Delivery in Heterogeneous Environments''. (ISO/IEC 23008) Part 1 – MPEG media transport; Part 2 –
High Efficiency Video Coding High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digita ...
(HEVC, ITU-T H.265); Part 3 – 3D Audio. *
MPEG-DASH Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), also known as MPEG-DASH, is an adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers. Similar to Apple ...
(2012): ''Information technology – Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH)''. (ISO/IEC 23009) Part 1 – Media presentation description and segment formats * MPEG-I (2020): ''Coded Representation of Immersive Media'' (ISO/IEC 23090), including Part 2 Omnidirectional Media Format (OMAF) and Part 3 –
Versatile Video Coding Versatile Video Coding (VVC), also known as H.266, ISO/IEC 23090-3, MPEG-I Part 3 and Future Video Coding (FVC), is a video compression standard finalized on 6 July 2020, by the Joint Video Experts Team (JVET), a joint video expert team of the ...
(VVC, ITU-T H.266) * MPEG-CICP (ISO/IEC 23091) ''Coding-Independent Code Points'' (CICP), Parts 1–4 for systems, video, audio, and usage of video code points


Standardization process

A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of an approval process that starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Stages of the standard development process include: * NP or NWIP – New Project or New Work Item Proposal * AWI – Approved Work Item * WD – Working Draft * CD or CDAM – Committee Draft or Committee Draft Amendment * DIS or DAM – Draft International Standard or Draft Amendment * FDIS or FDAM – Final Draft International Standard or Final Draft Amendment * IS or AMD – International Standard or Amendment Other abbreviations: * DTR – Draft Technical Report (for information) * TR – Technical Report * DCOR – Draft Technical Corrigendum (for corrections) * COR – Technical Corrigendum A proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at the Subcommittee level and then at the Technical Committee level (SC 29 and JTC 1, respectively, in the case of MPEG). When the scope of new work is sufficiently clarified, MPEG usually makes open "calls for proposals". The first document that is produced for audio and video coding standards is typically called a test model. When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a Working Draft (WD) is produced. When a WD is sufficiently solid (typically after producing several numbered WDs), the next draft is issued as a Committee Draft (CD) (usually at the planned time) and is sent to National Bodies (NBs) for comment. When a consensus is reached to proceed to the next stage, the draft becomes a Draft International Standard (DIS) and is sent for another ballot. After a review and comments issued by NBs and a resolution of comments in the working group, a Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) is typically issued for a final approval ballot. The final approval ballot is voted on by National Bodies, with no technical changes allowed (a yes/no approval ballot). If approved, the document becomes an International Standard (IS). In cases where the text is considered sufficiently mature, the WD, CD, and/or FDIS stages can be skipped. The development of a standard is completed when the FDIS document has been issued, with the FDIS stage only being for final approval, and in practice, the FDIS stage for MPEG standards has always resulted in approval.


See also

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Video Coding Experts Group The Video Coding Experts Group or Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG, also known as Question 6) is a working group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) concerned with video coding standards. It is responsible for standardiza ...
(VCEG) *
Joint Photographic Experts Group The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is the joint committee between ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an ...
(JPEG) *
Joint Bi-level Image Experts GroupThe Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG) is a group of experts nominated by national standards bodies and major companies to work to produce standards for binary image, bi-level image coding. The "joint" refers to its status as a committee worki ...
(JBIG) * Multimedia and Hypermedia information coding Expert Group (MHEG) *
Audio codec An audio codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream (a codec A codec is a device or computer program In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming l ...
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Audio coding format An audio coding format (or sometimes audio compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal ...
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Video codec A video codec is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the ...
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Video coding format A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing ...
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Video quality Video quality is a characteristic of a video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of el ...
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Video compression In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction is the process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation. Any particular compression is either Lossy compression, lossy or Lossless comp ...
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MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital a ...

MP3


Notes


External links

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MPEG.ORGPapers and books on MPEG
{{Authority control Computer file formats Film and video technology MPEG Organizations established in 1988 Working groups