HOME

TheInfoList




Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
and
Saône 250px, Scenic view of the banks of the Saône in Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral, the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière">Lyon_Cathedral.html" ;"title="Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral">Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral, the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fou ...

Saône
, about southeast of Paris, north of
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Bouches-du-Rhône Departments of France, department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, France. Situ ...

Marseille
and northeast of
Saint-Étienne Saint-Étienne (; frp, Sant-Etiève, oc, Sant Estève; en, Saint Stephen) is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, southwest of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, on the trunk road that connec ...
. The City of Lyon proper had a population of 516,092 in 2017 within its small municipal territory of ,Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017
INSEE
but together with its suburbs and exurbs the Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,323,221 that same year, the second-most populated in France. Lyon and 58 suburban municipalities have formed since 2015 the
Metropolis of Lyon The Metropolis of Lyon (french: Métropole de Lyon), also known as (i.e. "Greater Lyon"), is a French territorial collectivity located in the east-central region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characterist ...
, a directly elected metropolitan authority now in charge of most urban issues, with a population of 1,385,927 in 2017. Lyon is the
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
of the
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (ARA; ; frp, Ôvèrgne-Rôno-Ârpes; oc, Auvèrnhe Ròse Aups; it, Alvernia-Rodano-Alpi) is a Regions of France, region in southeast-central France created by the 2014 territorial reform of French regions; it resulted fro ...
region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wo ...
and seat of the Departmental Council of
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...
(whose jurisdiction, however, no longer extends over the Metropolis of Lyon since 2015). Former capital of the
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly fro ...

Gaul
s at the time of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
, Lyon is the seat of an
archbishopric In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted ...
whose holder bears the title of Primate of the Gauls. Lyon became a major economic hub during the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...
. The city is recognised for its
cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, world, from grill ...
and
gastronomy 200px, Fine food, the principal study of gastronomy Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, ...

gastronomy
, as well as historical and architectural landmarks; as such, the districts of , the , the Presqu'île and the slopes of the
Croix-Rousse La Croix-Rousse is a hill high in the city of Lyon, France, as well as the name of a neighborhood located on this hill. The neighborhood is divided into les pentes (slopes, belonging to the city's Arrondissements of Lyon, 1st arrondissement) and le ...
are inscribed on the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
. Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the
history of cinema Although the advent of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the ...
: it is where
Auguste and Louis Lumière The Lumière brothers (, ; ), Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Lumière, Louis Jean Lumière (5 October 1864 – 6 June 1948), were manufacturers of photography equipment, best known for their cin ...
invented the
cinematograph Cinematograph or Kinematograph is an early term for several types of motion picture film mechanisms. The name was used for movie camera A movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of pho ...
. It is also known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of "Capital of Lights". Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical and biotech industries. The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games; in recent years it has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of
Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police criminelle), commonly known as Interpol ( , ), is an that facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control. Headquartere ...

Interpol
, the
International Agency for Research on Cancer The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; french: Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list ...
, as well as
Euronews Euronews is a French-based pan-European television news News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different Media (communication), media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electroni ...

Euronews
. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute, Lyon is considered a Beta city, . It ranked second in France and 40th globally in Mercer's 2019 liveability rankings.


History


Ancient Lyon

According to the historian
Dio Cassius Lucius Cassius Dio (; ) or Dio Cassius ( ''Dion Kassios'')), Cassius Lucius Dio or Cassius Claudius Dio; alleged to have the ' (nickname) Cocceianus was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin. He published 80 volumes of the ...
, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the
Allobroges The Allobroges (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language ...
. These refugees had been expelled from
Vienne Vienne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...
and were now encamped at the confluence of the
Saône 250px, Scenic view of the banks of the Saône in Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral, the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière">Lyon_Cathedral.html" ;"title="Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral">Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral, the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fou ...

Saône
and
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
rivers. The foundation was built on hill and officially called ''Colonia Copia Felix Munatia'', a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as ''
Lugdunum Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (; modern Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located ...
'' (and occasionally ''Lugudunum''). The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century '' Endlicher Glossary''. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lug unon, after the
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
god
Lugus Lugus was a deity of the Celtic pantheon Replica of the incomplete Pillar of the Boatmen, from Paris, with four gods, including the only depiction of Cernunnos to name him (left, 2nd from top). The God (male deity), gods and goddesses of the p ...
(cognate with
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
''
Lugh Lugh or Lug (; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish (also called in Standard Irish Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requir ...
'', Modern Irish ''Lú''), and ''dúnon'' (hill-fort). The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of main
Roman roads Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Re ...
in the area, and it quickly became the capital of the province,
Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Lugdunensis (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily locat ...
. Two Emperors were born in this city:
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). Th ...

Claudius
, whose speech is preserved in the
Lyon Tablet The Lyon Tablet is an ancient bronze tablet that bears the transcript of a speech given by the Roman emperor Claudius. The surviving bottom portion of the tablet was discovered in 1528 by a draper in his vineyard on La Croix-Rousse, Croix-Rousse Hil ...
in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, and
Caracalla Caracalla ( 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variet ...

Caracalla
.
Early Christians The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religio ...
in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a from 161 to 180 and a philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the (a term coined some 13 centuries later by ), and the last emperor of the (27 BC to 180 AD), ...

Marcus Aurelius
and
Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus (; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was from 193 to 211. He was born in (present day , ) in the Roman province of . As a young man he advanced through under the reigns of and . Severus seized power after the death ...
. Local saints from this period include
Blandina Saint Blandina (french: Blandine, 162–177 AD) was a Christian martyr A martyr ( Greek: μάρτυς, ''mártys'', "witness"; stem μαρτυρ-, ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing ...
,
Pothinus Pothinus or Potheinos ( grc-gre, Ποθεινὸς; early 1st century BC – 48 or 47 BC), a eunuch, was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. He is most remembered for turning Ptolemy against his sister and co-r ...
, and Epipodius, among others. The Greek
Irenaeus Irenaeus (; grc-gre, Εἰρηναῖος ''Eirēnaios''; c. 130 – c. 202 AD) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Repu ...
was the second bishop of Lyon during the latter part of the second century. To this day, the
archbishop of Lyon The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Throug ...
is still referred to as " ''Primat des Gaules''".
Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germani ...
fleeing the destruction of
Worms The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a taxonomic database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms. Content The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialists ...
by the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part ...

Huns
in 437 were re-settled in eastern Gaul. In 443 the Romans established the
Kingdom of the Burgundians The Kingdom of the Burgundians or First Kingdom of Burgundy was established by Germanic Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic tribe ...
, and Lugdunum became its capital in 461. In 843, under the
Treaty of Verdun The Treaty of Verdun, signed on 10 August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. The treaty, signed in Verdun-s ...

Treaty of Verdun
, Lyon went to the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
Lothair I Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" ...
. It later was made part of the
Kingdom of Arles The Kingdom of Arles (also known as Arelat) was a dominion established in 933 by the merger of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy under King Rudolf II. The kingdom came to be named after the Lower Burgundian residence at Arles Arles (, ...
which was incorporated into the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
in 1033. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century.


Modern Lyon

Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (; 24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: ''The Mediterranean'' (1923–49, then 1949–66), ''Civilization and Capitalism' ...
remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, which is a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
". In the late 15th century, the
fairs A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks. Typ ...
introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic
counting house A counting house, or counting room, was traditionally an office in which the financial books of a business were kept. It was also the place that the business received appointments and correspondence relating to demands for payment. As the use of c ...
of France. Even the ''Bourse'' (treasury), built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
, then
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the late 1400s and 1500s Lyon was also a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers (such as , Antoine Heroet, and ) and of Italians in exile (such as Luigi Alamanni and
Gian Giorgio Trissino Gian Giorgio Trissino (8 July 1478 – 8 December 1550), also called Giovan Giorgio Trissino, was an Italian Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from ...

Gian Giorgio Trissino
). In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant
Huguenot The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a Religious denomination, religious group of French people, French Protestantism, Protestants who held to the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition of Protestantism. The term, which may be derived from the name of a ...

Huguenot
s in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries later, Lyon was again convulsed by violence during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, when the citizenry rose up against the
National Convention The National Convention (french: link=no, Convention nationale) was a parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Del ...
and supported the
Girondins The Girondins ( , ), or Girondists, were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active in the Legislative Assembly (France), Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. ...

Girondins
. The city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before it surrendered in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed, especially around the
Place Bellecour La Place Bellecour is a large square in the centre of Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is locat ...

Place Bellecour
, and
Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois (19 June 1749 – 8 June 1796) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Répub ...
and
Joseph Fouché Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché (21 May 1759 – 25 December 1820) was a French statesman A statesman or stateswoman is usually a politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the s ...

Joseph Fouché
administered the execution of more than 2,000 people. The Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City", and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty; Lyons no longer exists". A decade later,
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during that period. The convention was not the only target within Lyon during the French Revolution. After the Convention faded into history, the
French Directory The Directory (also called Directorate, ) was the governing five-member committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, ...
appeared and days after the September 4, 1797
Coup of 18 Fructidor The Coup of 18 Fructidor, Year V, was a seizure of power by members of the French Directory The Directory (also called Directorate, ) was the governing five-member committee in the French First Republic from 2 November 1795 until 9 November ...
, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Lyon. The city became an important industrial town in the 19th century. In 1831 and 1834, the ''
canut The canuts () were Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, ...
s'' (silk workers) of Lyon staged two major uprisings for better working conditions and pay. In 1862, the first of Lyon's extensive network of
funicular railway A funicular (, , ) is a transportation system that uses cable-driven cars to connect points along a steep incline. By definition, a funicular uses two counterbalanced passenger cars attached to opposite ends of the same cable, which is looped ...
s began operation. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Lyon was a centre for the occupying
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazi
forces, including
Klaus Barbie Nikolaus “Klaus” Barbie (25 October 1913 – 25 September 1991) was a Nazi Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a ...

Klaus Barbie
, the infamous "Butcher of Lyon". However, the city was also a stronghold of the
French Resistance The French Resistance (french: La Résistance) was a collection of organisations who fought the Nazi occupation of France The Military Administration in France (german: Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; french: Occupation de la France par l ...
, the many secret passages known as ''
traboule Courtyard of a traboule (Vieux Lyon) Traboules (from Latin ''transambulare'' via vulgar Latin ''trabulare'' meaning "to cross") are a type of secret covered passageways primarily associated with the city of Lyon, France, but also located in the F ...
s'', enabled people to escape Gestapo raids. On 3 September 1944, Lyon was liberated by the 1st Free French Division and the Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur. The city is now home to a Resistance museum.


Geography

The Rhône and Saône converge to the south of the historic city centre, forming a peninsula – the "''Presqu'île (Lyon), Presqu'île''" – bounded by two large hills to the west and north and a large plain eastward.
Place Bellecour La Place Bellecour is a large square in the centre of Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is locat ...

Place Bellecour
is located on the Presqu'île between the two rivers and is the third-largest public square in France. The broad, pedestrian-only Rue de la République leads north from Place Bellecour. The northern hill is La Croix-Rousse, known as "the hill that works" because it is traditionally home to many small silk workshops, an industry for which the city has long been renowned. The western hill is , known as "the hill that prays" because it is the location for Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière, several convents, and Archbishop residence. The district, Vieux Lyon, also hosts the Metallic tower of Fourvière, Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower, replicating the last stage of the Eiffel Tower) and one of the city's railways. Fourvière, along with portions of the Presqu'île and much of La Croix-Rousse, is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. East of the Rhône from the Presqu'île is a large flat area upon which sits much of modern Lyon and contains most of the city's population. Situated in this area is La Part-Dieu urban centre, which clusters the landmark structures Tour Incity, Tour du Crédit Lyonnais, Tour Part-Dieu, Tour Oxygène, and Tour Swiss Life, as well as the city's primary railway station, Gare de Lyon-Part-Dieu. North of this district lays the sixth arrondissement, which is home to one of Europe's largest urban parks, the Parc de la Tête d'or, as well as Lycée du Parc and
Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police criminelle), commonly known as Interpol ( , ), is an that facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control. Headquartere ...

Interpol
's world headquarters.


Climate

Lyon has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfa''), bordering on an oceanic climate (''Cfb'') due to the higher average temperature being around 22 °C. But in modified classifications such as that of Trewartha climate classification, Trewartha, List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, France's third largest city has an oceanic climate (''Do''). The mean temperature in Lyon in the coldest month is in January and in the warmest month in July is . Precipitation is adequate year-round, at an average of , but the winter months are the driest. The highest recorded temperature was on 13 August 2003 while the lowest recorded temperature was on 22 December 1938.


Administration


Commune

Like Paris and
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Bouches-du-Rhône Departments of France, department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, France. Situ ...

Marseille
, the Communes of France, commune (municipality) of Lyon is divided into a number of Municipal arrondissements of France, municipal arrondissements, each of which is identified by a number and has its own council and town hall. Five arrondissements were originally created in 1852, when three Neighbourhood, neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse, La Guillotière, and Vaise) were annexed by Lyon. Between 1867 and 1959, the third arrondissement (which originally covered the whole of the Left Bank of the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
) was split three times, creating a new arrondissement in each case. Then, in 1963, the commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed to Lyon's fifth arrondissement. A year later, in 1964, the fifth was split to create Lyon's 9th – and, to date, final – arrondissement. Within each arrondissement, the recognisable ''quartiers'' or neighbourhoods are: * 1st arrondissement of Lyon, 1st arrondissement: Slopes of La Croix-Rousse, Place des Terreaux, Terreaux, Martinière/St-Vincent * 2nd arrondissement of Lyon, 2nd arrondissement: Les Cordeliers, Cordeliers, Place Bellecour, Bellecour, Ainay, Perrache (quarter), Perrache, Confluence, Sainte-Blandine * 3rd arrondissement of Lyon, 3rd arrondissement: Guillotière (north), Préfecture, La Part-Dieu, Part-Dieu, Villette, Dauphiné/Sans Souci, Montchat, Grange Blanche (north), Monplaisir (north) * 4th arrondissement of Lyon, 4th arrondissement: Plateau de la Croix-Rousse, Serin * 5th arrondissement of Lyon, 5th arrondissement: Vieux Lyon (Saint-Paul (Lyon), Saint-Paul, Lyon Cathedral, Saint-Jean, Église Saint-Georges, Saint-Georges), Saint-Just (Lyon), Saint-Just, Saint-Irénée, , Point du Jour, Ménival, Battières, Champvert (south) * 6th arrondissement of Lyon, 6th arrondissement: Les Brotteaux, Brotteaux, Bellecombe, Parc de la Tête d'or, Cité Internationale * 7th arrondissement of Lyon, 7th arrondissement: Guillotière (south), Jean Macé, Gerland * 8th arrondissement of Lyon, 8th arrondissement: Monplaisir (south), Le Bachut, Bachut, États-Unis, Grand Trou/Moulin à Vent, Grange Blanche (south), Laënnec, Mermoz, Monplaisir-la-Plaine * 9th arrondissement of Lyon, 9th arrondissement: Vaise, Duchère, Rochecardon, St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe, Gorge de Loup, Observance, Champvert (north) Geographically, Lyon's two main rivers, the Saône and the Rhône, divide the arrondissements into three groups: * To the west of the Saône, the fifth arrondissement covers the old city of Vieux Lyon, Fourvière hill and the plateau beyond. The 9th is immediately to the north, and stretches from Gorge de Loup, through Vaise to the neighbouring suburbs of Écully, Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or, Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or, Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or and Collonges-au-Mont-d'Or. * Between the two rivers, on the Presqu'île (Lyon), Presqu'île, are the second, first, and fourth arrondissements. The second includes most of the city centre, Bellecour and Perrache railway station, and reaches as far as the confluence of the two rivers. The first is directly to the north of the second and covers part of the city centre (including the Hôtel de Ville, Lyon, Hôtel de Ville) and the slopes of La Croix-Rousse. To the north of the Boulevard is the fourth arrondissement, which covers the Plateau of La Croix-Rousse, up to its boundary with the commune of Caluire-et-Cuire. * To the east of the Rhône, are the third, sixth, seventh, and eighth arrondissements.


Mayors

This is a list of mayors of the commune of Lyon since the end of the 19th century.


Metropolis

Since 2015, the commune of Lyon ( in land area) and 58 suburban communes have formed the Metropolis of Lyon ( in land area), a directly elected metropolitan authority now in charge of most urban issues. The Metropolis of Lyon is the only metropolitan authority in France which is a territorial collectivity, on par with French Communes of France, communes and Departments of France, departments. Its metropolitan council was for the first time directly elected by universal suffrage in 2020 within 14 electoral wards, the only directly elected metropolitan council in France. The 14 electoral wards are the following (see map for location): The 6 wards with names starting with "Lyon" are all located within the commune of Lyon. The Villeurbanne ward is coterminous with the namesake commune. All other 7 wards each group various suburban communes. The division of the Metropolis of Lyon in large electoral wards often grouping various communes and dividing the commune of Lyon into 6 wards was criticized by the suburban mayors, as it ended the rule of 'one commune, one metropolitan councilor'. The goal of this electoral division of the metropolis was to focus metropolitan elections more on metropolitan issues than parochial communal issues, and ensure the 'one person, one vote' rule be respected, by creating electoral wards of more homogeneous population sizes. Opponents said it diluted the voice of the small suburban communes, which are now part of large electoral wards and do not each possess a representative in the metropolitan council anymore.


Presidents of the Metropolitan Council

The two first presidents of the Metropolis of Lyon's metropolitan council were chosen by indirectly elected metropolitan councilors. The current president since July 2020 was elected by new metropolitan councilors following their election by universal suffrage in March (1st round) and June (2nd round) 2020, the first direct election of a metropolitan council in France.


Main sights


Antiquity

* The Roman ruins on the hillside near the Fourvière Basilica, with the Ancient Theatre of Fourvière, the Odeon of Lyon and the accompanying Lugdunum (museum), Gallo-Roman museum; * Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls – ruins of a Roman amphitheatre.


Middle Ages and Renaissance

* Lyon Cathedral, Cathedral of St. John, a medieval church with architectural elements of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, also the principal religious structure in the city and the seat of the Archbishop of Lyon; * Basilique Saint-Martin d'Ainay, Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay, one of the rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches in Lyon; * Église Saint-Paul, Romanesque (12th and 13th century) and Gothic (15th–16th century) church; * Église Saint-Bonaventure, 14th- and 15th-century Gothic church; * Église Saint-Nizier (Lyon), Église Saint-Nizier, Gothic church from the 15th century, having a doorway carved in the 16th century by Philibert de l'Orme, Philibert Delorme; * Vieux Lyon (English: Old Lyon) area, Medieval and Renaissance quarter of the town, with shops, dining and cobbled streets; * The many Renaissance ''hôtel particulier, hôtels particuliers'' of the Old Lyon quarter, such as the ''Hôtel de Bullioud,'' were also built by Philibert Delorme.


17th and 18th centuries

* Hôtel de Ville, Lyon, City Hall on the Place des Terreaux, built by architects Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Robert de Cotte; * Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon, fine arts museum housed in a former convent of the 17th century, including the Baroque ''chapelle Saint-Pierre''; * Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon (17th and 18th century), historical hospital with a baroque chapel; * Temple du Change (17th and 18th century), former stock exchange of Lyon, Protestant temple since the 18th century; *
Place Bellecour La Place Bellecour is a large square in the centre of Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is locat ...

Place Bellecour
, one of the largest town squares in Europe; * Chapelle de la Trinité (1622), the first Baroque chapel built in Lyon, and part of the former École de la Trinité, now Collège-lycée Ampère; * Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670), Classical church; * Église Saint-Just (16th to 18th century), Classical church; * Saint-Bruno des Chartreux (17th and 18th century), church, masterpiece of Baroque architecture; * Église Notre Dame Saint-Vincent (18th century), Neo-classical church.


19th century and modern city

* Opéra Nouvel (1831), renovated in 1993 by Jean Nouvel; * Théâtre des Célestins (1877), designed by Gaspard André; * Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière, large 19th-century basilica on the top of Fourvière Hill; * Metallic tower of Fourvière, Tour métallique de Fourvière (1894); * ''La Mouche'' Cattle Market and Abbatoir (1914, 1928), designed by Tony Garnier (architect), Tony Garnier; * Sainte Marie de La Tourette monastery (1960) designed by Le Corbusier; * Lyon-Saint Exupéry Airport, Saint-Exupéry International Airport (formerly Satolas Airport), designed by Guillaume Gilbert; * Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry (1994) by Santiago Calatrava; * Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998), designed by Renzo Piano and a group of buildings for various functions; * Tour du Crédit Lyonnais; * Tour Oxygène; * Tour Incity.


Museums

* Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (''Fine Arts Museum''), main museum of the city and one of the largest art galleries in France. Housed in the "Palais Saint Pierre", a former 17th-century convent, it displays a major collection of paintings by artists (including Tintoretto; Paolo Veronese; Nicolas Poussin; Peter Paul Rubens, Rubens; Rembrandt; Francisco Zurbarán, Zurbaran; Canaletto; Michel Delacroix (artist), Delacroix; Claude Monet, Monet; Paul Gauguin, Gauguin; Vincent van Gogh, Van Gogh; Cézanne; Henri Matisse, Matisse; Pablo Picasso, Picasso; Francis Bacon (painter), Francis Bacon...); collections of sculptures, drawings and printings, decorative arts, Roman and Greek antiquities; the second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities in France after that of the Louvre; and a medal cabinet of 50.000 medals and coins. * The Gallo-Roman Museum of Lyon, Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects and artworks found on the site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such as Circus Games Mosaic, Coligny calendar and the Taurobolic Altar; * Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation; * Musée des Confluences, new museum of sciences and anthropology which opened its doors on 20 December 2014. * La Sucrière, contemporary art centre; * Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon houses the "Musée des Hospices Civils", a permanent exhibit tracing the history and practice of medicine from the Middle Ages to modern times; * Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs, decorative arts and textile museum. It holds one of the world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works; * Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon, contemporary art museum; * Musée de L'imprimerie, printing museum; * Musée Gadagne, museum of the history of Lyon housed in a historic building in Vieux Lyon. Also includes a large collection of marionettes; * Musée des Automates, museum of automated puppets in Vieux Lyon, open since 1991. * Musée Miniature & Cinéma, museum featuring miniature movie sets, movie props, and special effects.


Parks and gardens

* Parc de la Tête d'or, aka Golden Head Park, in central Lyon is the largest urban park in France at 117 hectares. Located in the 6th arrondissement, it features a large lake on which boating takes place during the summer months. * Jardin botanique de Lyon (8 hectares), included in the Parc de la Tête d'Or, is a municipal botanical garden and is open weekdays without charge. The garden was established in 1857 as a successor to earlier botanical gardens dating to 1796, and now describes itself as France's largest municipal botanical garden. * Parc de Gerland, in the south of the city (80 hectares); * Parc des hauteurs, in Fourvières; * Parc de Miribel-Jonage (2200 hectares); * Parc de Lacroix-Laval (115 hectares); * Parc de Parilly (178 hectares).


Economy

The GDP of Lyon was 74 billion euro in 2012, making it the second richest city in France after Paris. Lyon and its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of the most important economies in Europe and, according to Loughborough University, can be compared to Philadelphia, Mumbai or Athens with regard to its international position. The city of Lyon is working in partnership to more easily enable the establishment of new headquarters in the territory (ADERLY, Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Lyon, Chambre du commerce et d'industrie, Urban Community of Lyon, Grand Lyon...). High-tech industries such as biotechnology, software development, video game (Arkane Studios, Ivory Tower (company), Ivory Tower, Eden Games, EA France, Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe), and internet services are also growing. Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Lyon is home to the P4-Inserm–ean Merieux Laboratory which conducts top-level vaccine research. The city is home to the headquarters of many large companies such as Groupe SEB, Sanofi Pasteur, Renault Trucks, Norbert Dentressangle, LCL S.A., Descours & Cabaud, Merial, Point S, BioMérieux, Iveco Bus, Compagnie Nationale du Rhône, GL Events, April Group, Boiron, Feu Vert, Panzani, Babolat,
Euronews Euronews is a French-based pan-European television news News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different Media (communication), media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electroni ...

Euronews
, Lyon Airports, LVL Medical, and inter-governmental agencies International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC,
Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police criminelle), commonly known as Interpol ( , ), is an that facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control. Headquartere ...

Interpol
. The specialisation of some sectors of activities has led to the creation of many main business centres: La Part-Dieu, located in the 3rd arrondissement is the second biggest business quarter after La Défense in Paris with over of office space and services and more than 55,000 jobs. ''Cité Internationale'', created by the architect Renzo Piano is located in the border of the Parc de la Tête d'Or in the 6th arrondissement. The worldwide headquarters of
Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police criminelle), commonly known as Interpol ( , ), is an that facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control. Headquartere ...

Interpol
is located there. The district of ''Confluence'', in the south of the historic centre, is a new pole of economical and cultural development. Tourism is an important part of the Lyon economy, with one billion euros in 2007 and 3.5 million hotel-nights in 2006 provided by non-residents. Approximately 60% of tourists visit for business, with the rest for leisure. In January 2009, Lyon ranked first in France for hostels business. The festivals most important for attracting tourists are the ''Festival of Lights (Lyon), Fête des lumières'', the ''Nuits de Fourvière'' every summer, the ''Biennale d'art contemporain'' and the ''Nuits Sonores''.


Culture

Since the Middle Ages, the region residents have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal. The Lyonnais dialect was replaced by the French language as the importance of the city grew. However some "frenchified" Franco-Provençal words can also be heard in the French of the Lyonnais, who call their little boys and girls "gones" and "fenottes" for example.Jean-Baptiste Onofrio : ''Essai d'un glossaire des patois de Lyonnais, Forez et Beaujolais'', Lyon 1864 * The Auguste and Louis Lumière, Lumière brothers pioneered cinema in the town in 1895. The Institut Lumière, built as Auguste Lumiere's house, and a fascinating piece of architecture in its own right, holds many of their first inventions and other early cinematic and photographic artifacts. * 8 December each year is marked by the Festival of Lights (Lyon), Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières), a celebration of thanks to the Mary (mother of Jesus), Virgin Mary, who purportedly saved the city from a deadly plague in the Middle Ages. During the event, the local population places candles (''luminions'') at their windows and the city of Lyon organizes impressive large-scale light shows onto the sides of important Lyonnais monuments, such as the medieval Cathédrale St-Jean. * The Francis de Sales, Saint Francis of Sales church is famous for its large and unaltered Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ, attracting audiences from around the world. * The Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) is the home of the Opéra National de Lyon. The original opera house was re-designed by the distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 and 1993 and is named after him. * Lyon is also the French capital of "''Trompe-l'œil, trompe l'œil''" walls, a very ancient tradition. Many are to be seen around the city. This old tradition is now finding a contemporary expression, for example in the art of Guillaume Bottazzi. * The Brothers of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools in Europe and North America, was founded in Lyon in 1821. * The African Museum of Lyon is one of the oldest museums situated in Lyon. * The Museum of Resistance and Deportation looks at the various individuals prominent in the Resistance movement in World War II. The building is strongly linked to
Klaus Barbie Nikolaus “Klaus” Barbie (25 October 1913 – 25 September 1991) was a Nazi Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a ...

Klaus Barbie
. Lyon sees itself as the centre of the French resistance and many members were shot in Place Bellecour in the town centre. The exhibition is largely a series of mini-biographies of those involved. * The unusual project Lyon Dubai City, a reproduction of some districts of Lyon in Dubai, is a major point for tourism in Lyon. * Lyon is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities program.


UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Historic Site of Lyon was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998. In its designation, UNESCO cited the "exceptional testimony to the continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia on a site of great commercial and strategic significance." The specific regions comprising the Historic Site include the Roman district and Fourvière, the Renaissance architecture, Renaissance district (Vieux Lyon), the silk district (slopes of Croix-Rousse), and the Presqu'île, which features architecture from the 12th century to modern times. Both Vieux Lyon and the slopes of Croix-Rousse are known for their narrow passageways (named ''
traboule Courtyard of a traboule (Vieux Lyon) Traboules (from Latin ''transambulare'' via vulgar Latin ''trabulare'' meaning "to cross") are a type of secret covered passageways primarily associated with the city of Lyon, France, but also located in the F ...
s'') that pass through buildings and link streets on either side. The first examples of traboules are thought to have been built in Lyon in the 4th century. The traboules allowed the inhabitants to get from their homes to the
Saône 250px, Scenic view of the banks of the Saône in Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral, the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière">Lyon_Cathedral.html" ;"title="Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral">Lyon, showing Lyon Cathedral, the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fou ...

Saône
quickly and allowed the canuts on the Croix-Rousse hill to get from their workshops to the textile merchants at the foot of the hill.


Gastronomy

Lyon has a long and chronicled culinary arts tradition. The noted food critic Curnonsky referred to the city as "the gastronomic capital of the world", a claim repeated by later writers such as Bill Buford. Renowned 3-star Michelin chefs such as Marie Bourgeois and Eugénie Brazier developed Lyonnaise cuisine into a national phenomenon favoured by the French elite; a tradition which Paul Bocuse later turned into a worldwide success. The ''bouchon'' is a traditional Lyonnais restaurant that serves local fare such as sausages, duck pâté or roast pork, along with local wines. Two of France's best known wine-growing regions are located near the city: the Beaujolais (wine), Beaujolais region to the north and the Côtes du Rhône AOC, Côtes du Rhône region to the south. Another Lyon tradition is a type of brunch food called "mâchons", made of local charcuterie and usually accompanied by Beaujolais red wine. Mâchons were the customary meal of the
canut The canuts () were Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, ...
s, the city's silk workers, who ate a late-morning meal after they finished their shifts in the factories. Other traditional local dishes include coq au vin; quenelle; gras double; salade lyonnaise (lettuce with bacon, croûtons and a poached egg); and the sausage-based Rosette de Lyon, rosette lyonnaise and andouillette. Popular local confections include marron glacé and coussin de Lyon. Cervelle de canut (literally, "silk worker's brains") is a cheese spread/dip made of a base of fromage frais, fromage blanc, seasoned with chopped herbs, shallots, salt, pepper, olive oil and vinegar. More recently, the french tacos was invented in Lyon suburbs in the early 2000s and is now worldwide famous.


Sport

Lyon is home to the Association football, football club Olympique Lyonnais (OL), whose men's team plays in Ligue 1 and has won the championship of that competition seven times, all consecutively from 2002 to 2008). OL played until December 2015 at the 43,000-seat Stade de Gerland, which also hosted matches of the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Since 2016, the team has played at the Parc Olympique Lyonnais, a 59,000-seat stadium located in the eastern suburb of Décines-Charpieu. OL operates a women's team, Olympique Lyonnais Féminin, which competes in and dominates Division 1 Féminine. They are on a streak of 14 top-flight championships (2007–present), and additionally claim the four titles won by the original incarnation of FC Lyon, a women's football club that merged into OL in 2004 (the current FC Lyon was founded in 2009). The OL women have also won the UEFA Women's Champions League seven times, including the five most recent editions from 2016 to 2020. Lyon hosted the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup semi-finals as well as the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup Final, Final on 7 July at Parc Olympique Lyonnais, Stade de Lyon. Lyon has a rugby union team, Lyon OU, in the Top 14, which moved into Stade de Gerland full-time in 2017–18. In addition, Lyon has a rugby league side called Lyon Villeurbanne that plays in the French rugby league championship. The club's home is the Stade Georges Lyvet in Villeurbanne. Lyon is also home to the Lyon Hockey Club, an ice hockey team that competes in France's national ice hockey league. The Patinoire Charlemagne is the seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon, the club of Olympic ice dancing champions Marina Anissina and Gwendal Peizerat, and world champions Isabelle Delobel and Olivier Shoenfelder. Lyon-Villeurbanne also has a basketball team, ASVEL Basket, ASVEL, that plays at the Astroballe arena.


Street art

Since 2000, Birdy Kids, a group of graffiti artists from the city, has decorated several random buildings and walls along the Lyon ring road. In 2012, the artist collective has been chosen to represent the city as its cultural ambassadors.


Demographics

The population of the city (commune) of Lyon proper was 516,092 at the January 2017 census. As of 2011, 14% of its population was born outside Metropolitan France. The city of Lyon and 58 suburban municipalities have formed since 2015 the Metropolis of Lyon, a directly elected metropolitan authority now in charge of most urban issues, with a population of 1,385,927 in 2017.


Education


Universities and tertiary education

* École centrale de Lyon, École Centrale de Lyon; * École Normale Supérieure de Lyon * École de management de Lyon, EM Lyon (École de Management de Lyon); * ECE Lyon (École de Commerce Européenne de Lyon); * Institut d'études politiques de Lyon (Sciences Po Lyon); * École supérieure de chimie physique électronique de Lyon, CPE Lyon; * Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Lyon, CNSMD (Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Lyon) * École Catholique des Arts et Métiers, ECAM Lyon (École Catholique d'Arts et Métiers de Lyon); * EPITECH; * EPITA; * ENTPE (École Nationale des Travaux Publiques de l'État); * ESME-Sudria; * École des Beaux-Arts; * E-Artsup; * Institut national des sciences appliquées de Lyon, INSA Lyon (Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon); * Polytech Lyon; * Institut supérieur européen de gestion group; * ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes); * Institution des Chartreux; * Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées; * Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, Université Claude Bernard (Lyon 1); * Lumière University Lyon 2, Université Lumière (Lyon 2); * Jean Moulin University Lyon 3, Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3); * IAE Jean Moulin University Lyon 3, IAE (Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Lyon); * Institut Sup'Biotech de Paris; * Catholic University of Lyon; * ESDES Business School; * IDRAC (International School of Management); * Wesford Graduate Business School; * IFAG (Business Management School); * Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action; * Le Lycée du Parc; * La Martiniere Lyon; * Web@cademie; * CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie); * Bellecour, Ecoles D'Arts.


Primary and secondary schools

There are some international private schools in the Lyon area, including: * Cité Scolaire Internationale de Lyon or the Lycée de Gerland; ** Includes the ''Section Japonaises'' (リヨン・ジェルラン補習授業校 ''Riyon Jeruran Hoshū Jugyō Kō'' "Lyon Gerland Japanese Supplementary School"), which the Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) counts as a Hoshuko, part-time Japanese supplementary school欧州の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)


. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Retrieved on 10 May 2014. Cite Scolaire: "Cité Scolaire Internationale, 2 place de Montréal,69361 LYON CEDEX 07 FRANCE" and Lyon: "Maison Berty Albrecht 14, Place Grandclement, 69100 Viueurbanne, FRANCE"
* Ombrosa; * International School of Lyon in nearby Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon; * Montessori School of Lyon.


Supplementary education

Other Japanese supplementary schools: * The ''Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises'' (ADLCJ; リヨン補習授業校 ''Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō'') is held in the ''Maison Berty Albrecht'' in Villeurbanne, near Lyon. It was formed in 1987. It serves Japanese expatriate children who wish to continue their Japanese education whilst abroad.


Transport

Lyon–Saint-Exupéry Airport, located east of Lyon, serves as a base for domestic and international flights. It is a key transport facility for the entire Rhône-Alpes region, with coach links to other cities in the area. The in-house train station Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry connects the airport to the nationwide TGV network. The Rhônexpress, Rhônexpress tram monopoly links the airport with the business quarter of La Part Dieu in less than 30 minutes, and offers connections with Underground A & B, Tramway T1, T3 & T4, and bus lines. Lyon public transport Sytral offers a bus service, Route 47, that links the airport to Meyzieu where passengers can change onto Tram T3. The regular price of public transport is €1.90, as opposed to €15 one way for the Rhonexpress. In the suburb of Bron, the smaller Lyon-Bron Airport provides an alternative for domestic aviation. Lyon has two major railway stations: Gare de Lyon-Part-Dieu, Lyon Part-Dieu, which was built to accommodate the TGV, and Gare de Lyon-Perrache, Lyon Perrache, an older station that now provides mostly regional service. Smaller railway stations include Gare de Lyon-Gorge-de-Loup, Gorge-de-Loup, Gare de Lyon-Vaise, Vaise, Vénissieux, Gare de Lyon-Saint-Paul, Saint-Paul and Gare de Lyon-Jean Macé, Jean Macé. Lyon was the first city to be connected to Paris by the TGV in 1981. Since that time the TGV train network has expanded and links Lyon directly to Perpignan, Toulouse, Nice, Marseille, Strasbourg, Nantes and Lille. International trains operate directly to Madrid, Barcelona, Milan, Turin, Geneva, Frankfurt, Luxembourg, Brussels and London. The city is at the heart of a dense road network and is located at the meeting point of several highways: A6 autoroute (France), A6 to Paris, A7 autoroute, A7
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Bouches-du-Rhône Departments of France, department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, France. Situ ...

Marseille
, A42 autoroute, A42 to Geneva, and A43 autoroute, A43 to Grenoble. The city is now bypassed by the A46 autoroute, A46. A double motorway tunnel passes under Fourvière, connecting the A6 autoroute (France), A6 and the A7 autoroute, A7 autoroutes, both forming the "Autoroute du Soleil". Lyon is served by the Eurolines intercity coach organisation. Its Lyon terminal is located at the city's Perrache railway station, which serves as an intermodal transportation hub for tramways, local and regional trains and buses, the terminus of Metro line A, of the Tramway T2, the bicycle service Vélo'v, and taxis. The Transports en commun lyonnais (TCL), Lyon's public transit system, consisting of metro, tramways and buses, serves 62 communes of the Lyon metropolis. The metro network has four lines ( ), 42 stations, and runs with a frequency of up to a train every 2 minutes. There are seven Lyon tramway, Lyon tram lines ( ) since April 2009: T1 from ''Debourg'' in the south to ''IUT-Feyssine'' in the north, Tram T2 from ''Perrache'' railway station to Saint-Priest, Rhône, Saint-Priest in the south-east, Tram T3 from Gare de Lyon-Part-Dieu, Part-Dieu to Meyzieu, Tram T4 from 'Hôptial Feyzin Venissieux' to Gaston Berger. Tram T5 from Grange Blanche, in the south-east to Eurexpo in the south-west. Tram T6 from Debourg, in the south to Hôpitaux Est-Pinel in the east. Tram T7 from Vaux-en-Velin la soie, in the north-east to Décines – OL Vallée in the east. The Buses in Lyon, Lyon bus network consists of the Trolleybuses in Lyon, Lyon trolleybus system, motorbuses, and coaches for areas outside the centre. There are also two Funiculars of Lyon, funicular lines from Vieux Lyon to Saint-Just and Fourvière. The ticketing system is relatively simple as the city has only one public transport operator, the SYTRAL. The public transit system has been complemented since 2005 by ''Vélo'v'', a bicycle network providing a low-cost service where bicycles can be hired and returned at any of 340 stations throughout the city. Borrowing a bicycle for less than 30 minutes is free. Free rental time can be extended for another 30 minutes at any station. Lyon was the first city in France to introduce this bicycle renting system. In 2011 the Auto'lib car rental service was introduced; it works much the same way as the Velo'v but for cars. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Lyon on a weekday is 45 minutes. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 17% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.7 km, while 4% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.


International relations

Lyon is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission "Intercultural cities" program. Lyon is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Addis Ababa, Ethiopia * Bamako, Mali * Barcelona, Spain * Beersheba, Israel * Birmingham, England, United Kingdom * Boston, United States * Craiova, Romania * Frankfurt, Germany, since 1960 * Gothenburg Municipality, Gothenburg, Sweden * Guangzhou, China, since 1988 * Haute Matsiatra, Madagascar * Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, since 1997 * Jericho, Palestine * Leipzig, Germany, since 1981 * Łódź, Poland, since 1991 * Milan, Italy, since 1966 * Montreal, Canada, since 1979 * Oran, Algeria * Osaka, Japan, since 1984 * Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso * Porto-Novo, Benin * Rabat, Morocco * St. Louis, United States * Saint Petersburg, Russia * Sétif, Algeria * Tinca, Romania * Turin, Italy * Yerevan, Armenia, since 1992 * Yokohama, Japan, since 1959


Notable people

* André-Marie Ampère


See also

*
Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Lugdunensis (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily locat ...
* List of movies set in Lyon * List of people from Lyon * List of streets and squares in Lyon * Mères of France


Notes


References


External links

*
Visit Lyon, the official website for tourism in France

Lyon Tourist Office and Convention Bureau

Lyon’s English Language News and InformationRues de Lyon
Streets, Places, Monuments (in French)

The National Library of Israel {{Authority control Lyon, Communes of Rhône (department) Populated places on the Rhône Cities in France Prefectures in France Segusiavi Lyonnais World Heritage Sites in France