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Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
in the west of
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China Provincial-level administrative divisions () or first-level administrative divisions (), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisio ...

Henan
province. Governed as a
prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefect ...
, it borders the provincial capital of
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppe ...

Zhengzhou
to the east,
Pingdingshan Pingdingshan (), also known as the Eagle City ( zh, s=鹰城, p=Yīngchéng), is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This ...

Pingdingshan
to the southeast,
Nanyang Nanyang is the romanization of two common Chinese place names. It may refer to: Written as 南洋 (Southern Ocean) * Nanyang (region), a Chinese term denoting the Southeast Asian lands surrounding the South China Sea ;China * Nanyang Fleet, Qing d ...
to the south,
Sanmenxia Sanmenxia (; postal: Sanmenhsia) is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefe ...

Sanmenxia
to the west,
Jiyuan Jiyuan () is a sub-prefecture-level city in northwestern Henan Henan (; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is of ...

Jiyuan
to the north, and
Jiaozuo Jiaozuo ( ; postal: Tsiaotso) is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectur ...

Jiaozuo
to the northeast. As of December 31, 2018, Luoyang had a population of 6,888,500 inhabitants with 2,751,400 people living in the built-up (''or metro'') area made of the city's five out of six urban districts (except the
Jili District Jili District () was a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several ...
not continuously urbanized) and Yanshy county, now being conurbated.https://www.citypopulation.de/en/china/henan/admin/ Situated on the central plain of China, Luoyang is among the
oldest cities in China
oldest cities in China
and one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. It is also one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China and the earliest of the four.


Names

The name "Luoyang" originates from the city's location on the north or sunny ( "yang") side of the Luo River. Since the river flows from west to east and the sun is to the south of the river, the sun always shines on the north side of the river. Luoyang has had several names over the centuries, including Luoyi () and Luozhou (), though Luoyang has been its primary name. It has also been called Dongdu () during the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organizat ...
, Xijing () during the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
, or Jingluo (). During the rule of
Wu Zetian Wu Zhao, commonly known as Wu Zetian (17 February 624 – 26 November 705), alternatively Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, ...
, the only female emperor in Chinese history, the city was known as Shendu (). Luoyang was renamed Henanfu () during the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
but regained its former name in 1912.


History


Classical era

The greater Luoyang area has been sacred ground since the late
Neolithic period The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the ...
. This area at the intersection of the Luo River and Yi River was considered to be the geographical center of China. Because of this sacred aspect, several cities – all of which are generally referred to as "Luoyang" – have been built in this area. In 2070 BC, the
Xia dynasty #REDIRECT Xia dynasty The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese historiography. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great, after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors, gave the thr ...

Xia dynasty
king
Tai Kang Tai Kang () was the third king of the Xia Dynasty. He was the son of the king Qi of Xia and paternal grandson of Yu the Great and queen Nu Jiao. Biography Tai Kang loved to Hunting, hunt and did not rule well. According to the ''Bamboo Annals'' ...
moved the Xia capital to the intersection of the Luo and Yi and named the city
Zhenxun Zhenxun () was the last capital for the pre historical China, Chinese Xia dynasty. There is a consensus among many Chinese scholars that the Erlitou site about 20 km east of central Luoyang is identified as Zhenxun. References ...
(). In 1600 BC,
Tang of Shang Cheng Tang (; – 1646 BC), personal name Zi Lü (), recorded on oracle bones as Da Yi (大乙), was the first King of China, king of the Shang dynasty in Chinese history. He overthrew Jie of Xia, Jie, the last ruler of the Xia dynasty. Rise of ...
defeated Jie, the final Xia dynasty king, and built Western Bo, (), a new capital on the Luo River. The ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang Prefecture. In the 1036 BC a settlement named Chengzhou () was constructed by the
Duke of Zhou Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou (), was a member of the royal family of the early Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historical ...
for the remnants of the captured
Shang The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang
nobility. The Duke also moved the
Nine Tripod Cauldrons A tripod cauldron or ding from the late Shang Dynasty The Nine Tripod Cauldrons () were a collection of ding cast by the legendary Yu the Great Yu the Great (大禹) (c. 2123–2025 BC) was a legendary king in History of China#Ancient China, ...
to
Chengzhou Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, afte ...
from the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscript ...
capital at
Haojing Hao or Haojing (), also called Zongzhou (), was one of the two settlements comprising the capital of the Western Zhou dynasty (1066–770 BCE), the other being Fēng or Fēngjīng (). Together they were known as Fenghao and stood on opposite banks ...
. A second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng (also: Luoyi) was built west of Chengzhou. Wangcheng became the capital of the
Eastern Zhou Dynasty The Eastern Zhou (; zh, c=, p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It was divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn period, Spring and Autumn and the Warring States period, Warring States. H ...
in 771 BC. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty capital was moved to Chengzhou in 510 BC. Later, the
Eastern Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
capital of Luoyang would be built over Chengzhou. Modern Luoyang is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still visible today at Wangcheng Park. Qin Shi Huang's chief minister, Lu Buwei, was given Luoyang. Lu began programs to develop and beautify Luoyang. It is said that
Liu Bang Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang () with courtesy name Ji (季), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning in 202–195 BC. His temple name was "Taizu" while his posthumous name was Emper ...

Liu Bang
visited Luoyang and considered making it his capital but was persuaded to reconsider by his ministers to turn to Xian instead for his capital.


Han dynasty

In 25 AD, Luoyang was declared the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty on November 27 by
Emperor Guangwu of Han The Emperor Guangwu of Han (15 January 5 BC – 29 March AD 57), born Liu Xiu (), Wenshu, was a Chinese monarch. He served as an of the by restoring the dynasty in AD 25, thus founding the . He ruled over parts of China at first, and throug ...
. The city walls formed a rectangle 4 km south to north and 2.5 km west to east, with the Gu River, a tributary of the Luo River just outside the northern eastern walls. The rectangular Southern Palace and the Northern Palace were 3 km apart and connected by The Covered Way. In 26, the Altar of the Gods of the Soils and Grains, the Altar of Heaven, and the Temple of the eminent Founder,
Emperor Gao Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang () with courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the ...
of Former Han were inaugurated. The Imperial University was restored in 29. In 48, the Yang Canal linked the capital to the Luo. In 56, main imperial observatory, the Spiritual Terrace, was constructed. For several centuries, Luoyang was the focal point of China. In AD 68, the
White Horse Temple White Horse Temple () is a Buddhist temple in Luoyang, Henan that, according to tradition, is the first Buddhism, Buddhist temple in China, having been first established in 68 AD under the patronage of Emperor Ming of Han, Emperor Ming in the East ...
, the first
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...

Buddhist
temple in China, was founded in Luoyang. The temple still exists, though the architecture is of later origin, mainly from the 16th century.
An Shigao An Shigao (, Korean: An Sego, Japanese: An Seikō, Vietnamese: An Thế Cao) (fl. c. 148-180 CE) was an early Buddhist missionary to China, and the earliest known translator of Indian Buddhist texts into Chinese. According to legend, he was a prin ...
was one of the first monks to popularize Buddhism in Luoyang. The ambassador Banchao restored the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
in Eastern Han dynasty and this has made the capital city Luoyang the start of Silk Road In 166 AD, the first Roman mission, sent by "the king of Da Qin he Roman Empire Andun" (
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
, r. 161–180 AD), reached Luoyang after arriving by sea in Rinan Commandery in what is now central
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
. The late 2nd century saw China decline into anarchy:
The decline was accelerated by the rebellion of the Yellow Turbans, who, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184 AD, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang on 24 September 189 AD. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire.
In 190 AD, Chancellor
Dong Zhuo Dong Zhuo () (died 22 May 192), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere Th ...
ordered his soldiers to ransack, pillage, and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him by regional lords all across China. The court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of
Chang'an Chang'an (; ) is the traditional name of Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between th ...
. Following a period of disorder, during which warlord
Cao Cao Cao Cao (; ; ; – 15 March 220), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
held the last Han emperor
Xian Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ( ...
in
Xuchang Xuchang (; postal: Hsuchang) is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectu ...

Xuchang
(196–220), Luoyang was restored to prominence when his son Cao Pi, Emperor Wen of the Wei dynasty, declared it his capital in 220 AD. The Jin dynasty, successor to Wei, was also established in Luoyang. When Jin was overrun by
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
forces in 311 AD, it was forced to move its capital to
Jiankang Jiankang (), or Jianye (), as it was originally called, was capital city of the Eastern Wu Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three ...
(modern day
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
). The Xiongnu warriors then sacked and nearly totally destroyed Luoyang. The same fate befell
Chang'an Chang'an (; ) is the traditional name of Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between th ...
in 316 AD.


Northern Wei

In winter 416, Luoyang fell to Liu Yu's general
Tan Daoji Tan Daoji () (died April 9, 436) was a high level general of the History of China, Chinese dynasty Liu Song. He was one of the most respected generals during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. Because of this, however, he was feared by Emp ...
. In 422, Luoyang was captured by
Northern Wei Maitreya Maitreya (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Euro ...
.
Liu Song The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南朝宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that laste ...
general Dao Yanzhi took the city back, but by 439 the Wei conquered the city definitively. In 493 AD,
Emperor Xiaowen
Emperor Xiaowen
of the Northern Wei dynasty moved the capital from
Datong Datong is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Datong
to Luoyang and started the construction of the rock-cut
Longmen Grottoes The Longmen Grottoes () or Longmen Caves are some of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Shakyamuni Buddha The Buddha (also known as Siddhattha Gotama or Siddhārtha Gautama or Buddha S ...

Longmen Grottoes
. More than 30,000
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...

Buddhist
statues from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves. Many of these sculptures were two-faced. At the same time, the
Shaolin Temple The Shaolin Monastery (), also known as the Shaolin Temple, is a Chan ("Zen") Buddhist temple located in Dengfeng County, Henan Province Henan (; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China, in the central part of the cou ...
was also built by the Emperor to accommodate an Indian monk on the Mont Song right next to Luoyang City. The Yongning Temple (), the tallest pagoda in China, was also built in Luoyang.


Sui-Tang dynasties

When
Emperor Yang of Sui Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (), alternative name Ying (), Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mong ...
took control in 604 AD he founded the new Luoyang on the site of the existing city using a layout inspired by his father
Emperor Wen of Sui The Emperor Wen of Sui (; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (), Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close t ...
's work in newly rebuilt Chang'an. During the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organizat ...
, Luoyang was Dongdu (), the "Eastern Capital", and at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang'an, which, at the time, was the largest city in the world. At the interval of Tang dynasty, the first and the only empress in Chinese history –
Empress Wu#REDIRECT Asterisk The asterisk , from Late Latin , from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often ...
, moved the capital of her Zhou Dynasty to Luoyang and named it as Shen Du (Capital of the God). She constructed the tallest palace in Chinese history, which is now in the site of Sui Tang Luoyang city. Luoyang was heavily damaged during the
An Lushan Rebellion The An Lushan Rebellion was an uprising against the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dy ...

An Lushan Rebellion
. During the short
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from t ...
, Luoyang was the capital of the
Later LiangLater Liang may refer to the following states in Chinese history: * Later Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms) (後涼; 386–403), one of the Sixteen Kingdoms * Western Liang (555–587) The Liang (555–587), known in historiography as the Western Liang () ...
(only for a few years before the court moved to
Kaifeng Kaifeng () is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Historical capitals of China, Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese ...

Kaifeng
) and
Later Tang Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford University Press ...

Later Tang
.


Later history

During the North
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
, Luoyang was the 'Western Capital' and birthplace of Zhao Kuangyin, the founder of the Song dynasty. It served as a prominent cultural center, housing some of the most important philosophers. This prosperity was mainly caused by Luoyang undergoing new developments and reconstruction during this period. During the
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
Jin dynasty, Luoyang was the "Middle Capital". Since the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
, Luoyang was no longer the capital of China in the rest of the ancient dynasties. During the Yuan and
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
dynasties, Luoyang was razed and rebuilt twice. Its walls were destroyed by peasant rebels in the late Ming period. The city walls were then rebuilt during the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
. The population was reduced to that of an average county. However, for one last time, Luoyang city was the capital of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
for a brief period of time during the Japanese invasion. By 1949, Luoyang's population was 75,000.


People's Republic of China

After the People's Republic of China was established, Luoyang was revived as a major heavy industrial hub. In the first five-year plan of China, 7 of 156 Soviet-aided major industrial programmes were launched in Luoyang's Jianxi District, including Dongfanghong Tractor Factory, Luoyang Mining Machines Factory and Luoyang Bearing Factory. Later, during the Third Front construction, a group of heavy industry factories was moved to or founded in Luoyang, including Luoyang Glass Factory. Industrial development significantly shifted Luoyang's demographic makeup, and about half of Luoyang's population are new immigrants after 1949 from outside the province or their descendants.


World Heritage

*
Longmen Grottoes The Longmen Grottoes () or Longmen Caves are some of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Shakyamuni Buddha The Buddha (also known as Siddhattha Gotama or Siddhārtha Gautama or Buddha S ...

Longmen Grottoes
(2000.11.30) * The Grand Canal – Huiluo Barn, Hanjia Barn (2014.6.22) * Silk Roads – Han Wei Luoyang City Site, Dingding Gate Site of Sui Tang Luoyang City, Xin'an Hangu Guan Site (2014.6.22)


Ancient city sites

* Erlitou Site (
Zhenxun Zhenxun () was the last capital for the pre historical China, Chinese Xia dynasty. There is a consensus among many Chinese scholars that the Erlitou site about 20 km east of central Luoyang is identified as Zhenxun. References ...
) of
Xia dynasty #REDIRECT Xia dynasty The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese historiography. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great, after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors, gave the thr ...

Xia dynasty
* Yanshi Shang City Site (Xibo) of
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
* Wangcheng Site of
Eastern Zhou Dynasty The Eastern Zhou (; zh, c=, p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It was divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn period, Spring and Autumn and the Warring States period, Warring States. H ...
* Luoyang City Site of
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...

Han
and Wei dynasty * Luoyang City Site of and
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organizat ...


Administrative divisions

The
prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefect ...
of Luoyang administers 7
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
and 7
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
: *Districts ** Jianxi District () ** Xigong District () ** Laocheng District () **
Chanhe Hui District Chanhe Hui District () is a district of the city of Luoyang, Henan Henan (; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is ...
() **
Luolong District Luolong District () is a district of the city of Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ' ...
() ** Yanshi District () **Mengjin District () *Defunct District **
Jili District Jili District () was a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several ...
(), now part of Mengjin District *Counties *Xin'an County () *Luoning County () *Yiyang County, Luoyang, Yiyang County () *Yichuan County, Henan, Yichuan County () *Song County () *Luanchuan County () *Ruyang County () During the 2010 Chinese census, 2010 census, the 5 "built-up" urban districts held a population of 1,857,003, making it the fourth-largest city in
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China Provincial-level administrative divisions () or first-level administrative divisions (), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisio ...

Henan
. The entire area of Luoyang's municipal government held 6,549,941 inhabitants total.


2021 administrative reorganization

With the 2017 designation of Zhengzhou as a National Central City, Henan Province in 2020 proposed a new development plan for Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area, which called for the development of Luoyang as a sub-central city. As part of this development, authorities decided to expand the urban area of Luoyang. This not only facilitated planning and coordinated use of resources and infrastructure in Luoyang, but also allowed for better integration towards Zhengzhou, as Yanshi, Jili and Mengjin previously separated the Luoyang urban area from Zhengzhou.https://news.sina.com.cn/c/2021-03-28/doc-ikkntiam9617153.shtml On 28 March 2021, the central government approved a major administrative reorganization of Luoyang city. Yanshi District, Yanshi City was reorganized into an urban district (Yanshi District), while Jili District, Jili District and Mengjin District, Mengjin County were merged into Mengjin District. This reorganization effectively doubled the urban area of Luoyang.


Geography

As #Names, its name states, the Old Town of Luoyang is located on the north bank of the Luo River (Henan), Luo, a southern tributary of the middle reaches of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
. The districts of the modern urban center include both banks and some of the surrounding mountains. The countryside controlled by the municipal government includes still more rugged land: mountains comprise 45.51% of the total area; hills, 40.73%; and plains, 13.8%.


Climate

Luoyang has a highly continental dry-winter humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: ''Cwa'').


Culture

;Sites The
Longmen Grottoes The Longmen Grottoes () or Longmen Caves are some of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Shakyamuni Buddha The Buddha (also known as Siddhattha Gotama or Siddhārtha Gautama or Buddha S ...

Longmen Grottoes
south of the city were listed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in November 2000. Guanlina series of temples built in honor of Guan Yu, a hero of the Three Kingdoms periodis nearby. The
White Horse Temple White Horse Temple () is a Buddhist temple in Luoyang, Henan that, according to tradition, is the first Buddhism, Buddhist temple in China, having been first established in 68 AD under the patronage of Emperor Ming of Han, Emperor Ming in the East ...
is located east of the modern town. The Luoyang Museum (established 1958) features ancient relics dating back to the Xia dynasty, Xia,
Shang The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang
, and Zhou dynasty, Zhou list of Chinese dynasties, dynasties. The total number of exhibits on display is 1,700. China's only tomb museum, the Luoyang Ancient Tombs Museum, opened to the public in 1987 and is situated north of the modern town. The Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory (also known as the Dengfeng Observatory or the Tower of Chou Kong) stands south-east of Luoyang. It was constructed in 1276 during the Yuan Dynasty by Guo Shoujing as a giant gnomon for "the measurement of the sun's shadow". Prior to the Jesuit China Missions, it was used for establishing the summer solstice, summer and winter solstices in traditional Chinese astronomy.Needham, Joseph. ''Science and Civilisation in China''. ;Cuisine Water Banquet, which is one of the famous banquets passed on for generations in the history of Chinese cuisine, consists of 8 cold and 16 warm dishes all cooked in various broths, gravies, or juices. The water here has two meanings: one is that all the hot dishes have soup-tang soup water; the other is that each dish is served after another smoothly just like flowing water. It comprises a wide selection of ingredients, simple and versatile, diverse tastes, sour, spicy, sweet and salty, comfortable and delicious. ;Botany Luoyang is also celebrated for the cultivation of Paeonia suffruticosa, peonies, its city flower. Since 1983, each mid-April the city hosts the Peony Culture Festival of Luoyang. More than 19 million tourists visited Luoyang during the 2014 festival. ;Music "Spring in Luoyang" (), an ancient Chinese composition, became popular in Korea during the Goryeo, Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and is still performed in its ''dangak'' (Koreanized) version ''Nakyangchun'' (). Lou Harrison, an American composer, has also created an arrangement of the work. ;Dialect Residents of Luoyang typically speak a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin. Although Luoyang's dialect was a prestige dialect of dialects of Chinese, spoken Chinese from the Warring States period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty, Zhou until the Ming Dynasty, it differs from the Beijing dialect, Beijing form of Mandarin dialects, Mandarin which became the basis of the Standard Chinese, standard modern dialect. ;Outer space Asteroid (239200) 2006 MD13 is named after Luoyang.


Education

*Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology *Henan University of Science and Technology *Luoyang Normal University *PLA Foreign Language Institute, formerly known as the Luoyang PLA College of Foreign Languages


Transportation

The city can be reached by highways, trains or planes. Long-distance buses are also an option although they generally tend to take longer. High-speed rail is the most common way to get into the city from either Xi'an or
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppe ...

Zhengzhou
. Luoyang has a bus system of around 30+ lines. Taxis are also a common sight in the city.


Subway

The Luoyang Subway's first line Line 1 will be completed by 28 March 2021. Line 2 is under construction and will be completed by 2021.


Rail

The main station for conventional rail services is Luoyang railway station on the Longhai railway. Guanlin railway station on the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou railway has a far less frequent service, only seeing north-south trains or vice-versa that don't stop at Luoyang railway station. Luoyang Longmen railway station sees high-speed services on the Zhengzhou–Xi'an high-speed railway.


Road

*G30 Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway *G36 Nanjing–Luoyang Expressway *G55 Erenhot–Guangzhou Expressway *China National Highway 207 *China National Highway 310


Air

Luoyang is served by Luoyang Beijiao Airport.


Twin towns and sister cities

Luoyang is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * La Crosse, Wisconsin, United States * Okayama, Okayama, Japan


Famous residents

*Laozi, legendary founder of Taoism *The list of Zhou emperors, emperors of the Eastern Zhou dynasty *Guiguzi, feng shui, geomancer and numerologist *The list of Han emperors, emperors of the Eastern Han dynasty *Xuanzang, Buddhist monk and hero of the ''Journey to the West'' *Liu Yuxi, poet *Emperor Taizu of Song, founder of the Song Dynasty *Gao Hong, pipa player *Du Wei (footballer), Du Wei, soccer player *Wang Yibo, actor, singer, idol *Chen Dong (astronaut), Chen Dong, List of Chinese astronauts, astronaut of Shenzhou 11 *Meng Meiqi, singer, dancer (WJSN and Rocket Girls 101)


See also

*List of twin towns and sister cities in China * Historical capitals of China *Luoyang Longmen railway station * Sino-Roman Relations * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism * Roman Catholic Diocese of Luoyang


References


Further reading

* Abramson, Marc. ''Ethnic Identity in Tang China''. University of Pennsylvania Press (Philadelphia), 2008. . * Cotterell, Arthur. ''The Imperial Capitals of China: An Inside View of the Celestial Empire''. Pimlico (London), 2008. . * Hill, John E. ''Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE''. BookSurge (Charleston, South Carolina, Charleston), 2009. . * Jenner, W. J. ''Memories of Loyang''. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1981. * Yang Hsüan-chih. ''Lo-yang ch'ien-lan chi'', translated by Wang Yi-t'ung as ''A Record of Buddhist Monasteries in Lo-yang.'' Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton), 1984. .


External links


Official website
of the Luoyang Municipal Government *

at China.org {{Authority control Luoyang, Ancient Chinese capitals National Forest Cities in China 12th-century BC establishments 2nd-millennium BC establishments in China Prefecture-level divisions of Henan