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The Luapula River is a section of
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
's second-longest river, the
Congo Congo may refer to either of two countries that border the Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa ...
. It is a transnational river forming for nearly all its length part of the border between
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" ...

Zambia
and the
DR Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DRC, the DROC, or the Congo, and formerly Zaire Zaire (, ), officially the Republic of Zaire (frenc ...
. It joins
Lake Bangweulu Bangweulu — 'where the water sky meets the sky' — is one of the world's great wetland systems, comprising Lake Bangweulu, the Bangweulu Swamps and the Bangweulu Flats or floodplain.Camerapix: ''Spectrum Guide to Zambia.'' Camerapix Internation ...

Lake Bangweulu
(wholly in
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" ...

Zambia
) to
Lake Mweru Lake Mweru (also spelled ''Mwelu'', ''Mwero'') is a freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the m ...

Lake Mweru
(shared between the two countries) and gives its name to the
Luapula Province Luapula Province is one of Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa ...
of Zambia.Terracarta/International Travel Maps, Vancouver Canada: "Zambia, 2nd edition", 2000


Source and upper Luapula

The Luapula drains
Lake Bangweulu Bangweulu — 'where the water sky meets the sky' — is one of the world's great wetland systems, comprising Lake Bangweulu, the Bangweulu Swamps and the Bangweulu Flats or floodplain.Camerapix: ''Spectrum Guide to Zambia.'' Camerapix Internation ...

Lake Bangweulu
and its swamps into which flows the
Chambeshi River The Chambeshi (or Chambezi) River of northeastern Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a P ...

Chambeshi River
, the source of the Congo. There is no single clear channel connecting the two rivers and the lake, but a mass of shifting channels,
lagoon A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by a narrow landform, such as reefs, barrier islands, barrier peninsulas, or isthmuses. Lagoons are commonly divided into ''coastal lagoons'' and ''atoll lagoons''. They ...

lagoon
s and swamps, as the explorer
David Livingstone David Livingstone (; 19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish physician, Congregationalist, and pioneer Christian missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote thei ...

David Livingstone
found to his cost. (He died exploring the area, and one of his last acts was to question Chief Chitambo about the course of the Luapula.)Blaikie, William Garden (1880): ''The Personal Life Of David Livingstone''
Project Gutenberg Ebook #13262
release date: August 23, 2004.
David Livingstone David Livingstone (; 19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish physician, Congregationalist, and pioneer Christian missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote thei ...

David Livingstone
and Horace Waller (ed.): ''The Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa from 1865 to his Death''. Two volumes, John Murray, 1874.
The channel boldly marked as the 'Luapula' and confidently shown on many maps flowing south out of Lake Bangweulu at 11°25'S 29°49'E can be seen on satellite images such as
Google Earth Google Earth is a computer program, formerly known as Keyhole EarthViewer, that renders a 3D computer graphics, 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposition, superimposing satell ...
to actually peter out into green vegetation around 11°46'S 29°48'E.Google Earth
accessed 2007.
Below the Bangweulu swamps and floodplain, the Luapula flows steadily in an arc south-west turning north-west then north, with some rapids and well-known set of cataracts,
Mambilima Falls Mambilima Falls is a series of rapids on the Luapula River on the boundary between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The falls used to be called the Johnstone Falls. They extend along a stretch of the river. Below Lake Bangweulu th ...
near the main road. A far less well-known site is Tangwa, about south where the river has eroded a gap through rocky hills carving huge caves, arches, and potholes, and leaving giant boulders, including two balancing rocks called 'God's Corn Bin'.William Lammond
"The Luapula Valley"
''The
Northern Rhodesia Journal The ''Northern Rhodesia Journal'', often referred to simply as "NRJ", was produced between 1950 and 1965, by the Northern Rhodesian Government Printer, to record some of the early history of Northern Rhodesia. It is one of the most important sourc ...
'', Vol 2 No 5 (1954), pp50−55. Accessed 16 December 2017.


The Luapula Valley

From the
Chembe Ferry Chembe is a new District pronounced by President Michael Sata Michael Charles Chilufya Sata (6 July 1937 – 28 October 2014) was a Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca ...
to Lake Mweru, the long Luapula Valley has a higher rural population than the plateau through which it cuts to a depth of up to . The river is known for this valley and for its long thin
delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet * Delta Air Lines, an Ame ...

delta
entering Lake Mweru, usually referred to as the Luapula Swamps. The well-populated part of the valley starts north from Mambilima Falls, and along the rest of its length is nicknamed 'Mwapoleni Road', after the
Chibemba The Bemba language, ''ChiBemba'' (also ''Cibemba, Ichibemba, Icibemba'' and ''Chiwemba''), is a Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Af ...
greeting called out as people pass each other. For many practical study purposes, the lower Luapula and Mweru can be considered as one entity. They lie in a
rift valley A rift valley is a linear shaped lowland between several Highland, highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift. Rifts are formed as a result of the pulling apart of the lithosphere due to extensional tectonics. The ...
or
graben In geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over ti ...

graben
once considered separate from the
East African Rift The East African Rift (EAR) or East African Rift System (EARS) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa East Africa, Eastern Africa, or East of Africa is the eastern sub-region A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent ...
but now seen as a branch of it. Mweru, however, drains not into
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Ba ...

Lake Tanganyika
in the
Albertine Rift The Albertine Rift is the western branch of the East African Rift File:East Africa Rift System GPS and stresses.png, Main rift faults, plates, plate boundaries, GPS plate velocities between adjacent blocks and minimum horizontal stress directions ...
but via the
Luvua River The Luvua River (or ''Lowa River'') is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of ...
, which has cut a deep, narrow zigzag valley to join the
Lualaba River The Lualaba River flows entirely within the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DRC, the DROC, or t ...
, as the upper Congo is named. The Luapula is part of the longest tributary of the Congo, and hence, by convention, is part of its source, even though the upper Lualaba carries more water. Overlying the edge of the rift valley west of the Luapula Swamps is the , a wide series of concentric rings. It has been recently confirmed as a meteoritic impact crater (an astrobleme) formed less than 600 million years ago.P Master, P. Dumont and H. Ladmirant: "Age Constraints On The Luizi Structure"
''64th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting'.' (2001). Accessed 30 March 2007. The Luizi structure can be seen on Google Earth at decimal latitude/longitude 10.16 S, 28.00 E.


The Luapula Swamps

The swamps stretch along the last of the river before it reaches the lake, and for much of that, they are wide, covering an area of about . There are four inhabited islands in the DR Congo part of the delta, including the largest in the system which is connected to dry land in the dry season. Zambia has three inhabited islands in the delta including Chisenga Island. There are also many lagoons, the largest of which is
Mofwe Lagoon The Mofwe Lagoon is the largest of several lagoons in the Luapula River swamps south of Lake Mweru, in the Luapula Province of Zambia. Geography Its size and shape depends on the season and amount of water flowing into the swamps, especially fro ...
on the Zambian side. As in the Bangweulu Swamps, floating beds of
papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, ''Cyperus papyrus'', a wetland sedge. ''Papyrus'' (plural: ''papyri'') can also refer to a do ...

papyrus
are a feature of the swamps, which often block channels and change the shape of lagoons. However, the main river channel does not get blocked and stays consistently about wide. It has not developed the branching channels typical of river deltas. Very tall reeds grow at the edge of the swamps in most places, making it difficult to see over the lagoons from land or to find the way to the maze of narrow channels used by dugout canoes. Guides are needed to navigate through them, and they are a haven for smuggling between the two countries sharing the swamps.
Crocodile Crocodiles (family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. I ...

Crocodile
and
hippopotamus The hippopotamus ( ; ''Hippopotamus amphibius''), also called the hippo, common hippopotamus or river hippopotamus, is a large, mostly herbivorous A herbivore is an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryo ...

hippopotamus
are common and a hazard for fishermen and travellers. However, the Shila people used to hunt hippopotamus using nothing more than harpoons thrown from canoes. On the western side of the delta in DR Congo is a broad grassy floodplain covering about 1600 km2. At the end of the rainy season, the combined Luapula wetlands exceed . The floodplain was home to herds of
lechwe The lechwe (''Kobus leche''), red lechwe or southern lechwe, is an antelope The term antelope is used to refer to many species of even-toed ruminant Ruminants (suborder In biological classification, the order ( la, wikt:ordo#Latin, ordo) ...
and the shy
sitatunga The sitatunga or marshbuck (''Tragelaphus spekii'') is a swamp A swamp is a forested wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Fl ...

sitatunga
, the famous semi-aquatic antelopes of the region, but both are believed extinct in the lower Luapula due to hunting and the lack of wildlife management.


Human settlement

The upper and middle reaches of the Luapula are quite sparsely populated. The natural resources of the lower valley, which include fisheries in the river, lagoons and wetlands with fertile farmland at the margins, attracted the Lunda invaders of
Mwata Kazembe Kazembe is a traditional kingdom in modern-day Zambia, Southeastern Congo. For more than 250 years, Kazembe has been an influential kingdom of the Luba-Katanga language, Kiluba-Bemba language, Chibemba, speaking the language of the Eastern Luba ...
to settle there around 1750. Their present capital is at Mwansabombwe on the edge of the delta.
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
traders and slavers from
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
and
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
traders from
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-lar ...

Mozambique
were attracted to the area in the 18th and 19th Centuries.
David Livingstone David Livingstone (; 19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish physician, Congregationalist, and pioneer Christian missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote thei ...

David Livingstone
was the first
Briton The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mix ...

Briton
to visit in 1867. He did not explore the river but in his hunt for the origin of the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
, Mwata Kazembe was the first to tell him that the Luapula connects the Chambeshi/Bangweulu and Mweru/Luvua/Lualaba systems. Livingstone wrongly believed the Lualaba then flowed to the Nile rather than to the River Congo. Some of the first missionaries in Central Africa were also attracted to the valley. The first was the Garanganze Mission of the
Plymouth Brethren The Plymouth Brethren or Assemblies of Brethren are a low church In Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England fol ...
at Mambilima around 1892, followed by the
London Missionary Society The London Missionary Society was an interdenominational Ecumenism (), also spelled oecumenism, is the concept and principle in which Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abraham ...
at Mbereshi in 1900. The first large town of the
colonial era The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adv ...
was the river port,
Kasenga Kasenga is a town in Kasenga territory of Haut-Katanga Haut-Katanga (French for "Upper Katanga") is one of the 21 new provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo created in the Subdivisions of the DR Congo#New provinces, 2015 repartitionin ...
, in DR Congo, which grew prosperous in the 1930s from supplying fish to Elizabethville and other towns of the Katanga
Copperbelt The Copperbelt is a natural region in Central Africa which sits on the border region between northern Zambia and the southern Democratic Republic of Congo. It is known for copper mining. Traditionally, the term ''Copperbelt'' includes the mining ...

Copperbelt
via the first motor road to reach the valley. Most of the fish was caught in Lake Mweru and brought by boat up the Luapula to Kasenga, where it was packed in ice produced in several plants. Although the fish catch has declined and most now travels on the better roads of Zambia, Kasenga remains the only port on the river. For more on the
fisheries Fishery can mean either the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical ...

fisheries
of the area, see ''
Lake Mweru Lake Mweru (also spelled ''Mwelu'', ''Mwero'') is a freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the m ...

Lake Mweru
''. On the Zambian side of the Luapula, an outbreak of sleeping sickness made the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
colonial Colonial or The Colonial may refer to: * Colonial, of, relating to, or characteristic of a colony or colony (biology) Architecture * American colonial architecture * French Colonial * Spanish Colonial architecture Automobiles * Colonial (1920 auto ...

colonial
authorities move their Fort Rosebery boma out of the valley onto the plateau at
MansaMansa may refer to: Places In India * Mansa, Gujarat, a town in northern Gujarat, Western India; the capital of: ** Mansa (Vidhan Sabha constituency) ** Mansa State, a princely state under the Mahi Kantha Agency in India * Mansa district, Punja ...
, while fears of
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
in the Luapula Swamps made them establish the next on the plateau at
Kawambwa Kawambwa is a town in the Zambian province of Luapula Province, Luapula located on thedge of the northern Zambian plateau above the Luapula River, Luapula valley at an altitude of 1300 m. It was chosen as an administrative district of the same nam ...
. Consequently, the towns and villages in the valley, such as the largest, Mwansabombwe, do not have the same ex-colonial character as the administrative towns. However, following the lead of missionary builders and Mwata Kazembe, from the early 1900s, most housing in the valley was of solid brick construction,
sun-dried brick A mudbrick or mud-brick is an air-dried brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw. Mudbricks are known from 9000 BCE, though since 4000 BC, bricks have also been fired, t ...
mainly, but with some burnt brick.


Water transport on the Luapula

Before the advent of road transport, people travelled by canoe along the river between lakes Bangweulu and Mweru. The lower river between Kasenga and Kilwa on Mweru is now the only stretch of the river carrying much boat transport and most of that is now for DR Congo, where roads are frequently impassable. Up to the late 1940s, the upper Luapula from Kapalala to Lake Bangweulu and the Chambeshi River was one of the most important stretches for river transport in the then
Northern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in southern Africa, south central Africa, formed in 1911 by Amalgamation (politics), amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia.''Commonwealth ...
. Goods travelled by road from the
railhead In the UK, railheading refers to the practice of travelling further than necessary to reach a rail service, typically by car. The phenomenon is common among commuters seeking a more convenient journey. Reasons for railheading include but are n ...
at Sakania north of
Ndola Ndola is the third largest city in Zambia and third in terms of size and population, with a population of 475,194 (''2010 census provisional''), after the capital, Lusaka, and Kitwe, and the second largest in terms of infrastructure development. It ...
to Kapalala to be loaded onto dugout canoes and small boats. During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, a fleet of 1885 such craft were used to convey
matériel Materiel or matériel (; ) refers to supplies, equipment, and weapons in military supply-chain management, and typically supplies and equipment in a commerce, commercial supply chain management, supply chain context. In a military context, the ...
to Chambeshi from where it went on a military road to Mbala for the East African Campaign. Unfortunately, the floating papyrus and other vegetation frequently choked the channels through the Bangweulu swamps joining the lake, the Luapula and the Chambeshi, making it difficult to use larger motorboats.NRZAM website: H. C. Marshall: "Water Transport in the Bangweulu Swamps"
''The Northern Rhodesia Journal'', Vol III, No 3 pp.189−197 (1957). Accessed 27 March 2007.


River crossings

The first vehicle pontoon ferries were at Kasenga, Kapalala and Shiniama near Matanda. None remain, though a passenger ferry operates between Kasenga and Kashiba, Zambia. Around 1950 the
Chembe Ferry Chembe is a new District pronounced by President Michael Sata Michael Charles Chilufya Sata (6 July 1937 – 28 October 2014) was a Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca ...
on the
Congo Pedicle road The Congo Pedicle road (at one time referred to as the 'Zaire Pedicle road') crosses the DR Congo, Congolese territory of the Congo Pedicle and was constructed by and is maintained by Zambia to connect its Copperbelt Province, Copperbelt and Luap ...
became on the main vehicle crossing. The river there is wide but can flood to wide in a heavy rainy season. In 1983 the first bridge over the river was built, the long Luapula Bridge on the
Samfya Samfya is a town located in the Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a Polynesia P ...

Samfya
-
Serenje Serenje is a town of Serenje District, Zambia, lying just off the Great North Road (Zambia), Great North Road and TAZARA Railway. Serenje has a railway station on the TAZARA railway. Serenje is approximately 191 km from Kapiri Mposhi on the G ...
Road. The bridge approaches include nearly of elevated causeway over wetlands and another of embankment over flood plain. The second bridge over the river, the long Chembe Bridge is under construction for completion in 2008.


See also

*
Lake Mweru Lake Mweru (also spelled ''Mwelu'', ''Mwero'') is a freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the m ...

Lake Mweru
*
Mofwe Lagoon The Mofwe Lagoon is the largest of several lagoons in the Luapula River swamps south of Lake Mweru, in the Luapula Province of Zambia. Geography Its size and shape depends on the season and amount of water flowing into the swamps, especially fro ...
*
Lake Bangweulu Bangweulu — 'where the water sky meets the sky' — is one of the world's great wetland systems, comprising Lake Bangweulu, the Bangweulu Swamps and the Bangweulu Flats or floodplain.Camerapix: ''Spectrum Guide to Zambia.'' Camerapix Internation ...

Lake Bangweulu
''includes a similar satellite map'' *
Chambeshi River The Chambeshi (or Chambezi) River of northeastern Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a P ...

Chambeshi River
*
Congo Pedicle The Congo Pedicle (at one time referred to as the Zaire Pedicle; in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Rép ...
''with map showing the river's course'' *
Luvua River The Luvua River (or ''Lowa River'') is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of ...
*
Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both case ...
*
Katanga Province Katanga was one of the four large provinces created in the Belgian Congo The Belgian Congo (french: link=no, Congo belge, ; nl, Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colonial empire, Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence ...
*
Luapula Province Luapula Province is one of Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa ...
*
Mwata Kazembe Kazembe is a traditional kingdom in modern-day Zambia, Southeastern Congo. For more than 250 years, Kazembe has been an influential kingdom of the Luba-Katanga language, Kiluba-Bemba language, Chibemba, speaking the language of the Eastern Luba ...


References

* Camerapix: "Spectrum Guide to Zambia." Camerapix International Publishing, Nairobi, 1996. {{Coord, 9.41384, S, 28.52188, E, type:river_region:ZM, display=title International rivers of Africa Rivers of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Rivers of Zambia Lake Bangweulu Lake Mweru Miombo Border rivers Democratic Republic of the Congo–Zambia border