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Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the
British Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

British Crown
during the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
, often referred to as Tories, Royalists or King's Men at the time. They were opposed by the Patriots, who supported the revolution, and called them "persons inimical to the liberties of America." Prominent Loyalists repeatedly assured the British government that many thousands of them would spring to arms and fight for the crown. The British government acted in expectation of that, especially in the southern campaigns in 1780–81. In practice, the number of Loyalists in military service was far lower than expected since Britain could not effectively protect them except in those areas where Britain had military control. The British were often suspicious of them, not knowing whom they could fully trust in such a conflicted situation; they were often looked down upon. Patriots watched suspected Loyalists very closely and would not tolerate any organized Loyalist opposition. Many outspoken or militarily active Loyalists were forced to flee, especially to their stronghold of
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
.
William Franklin William Franklin (22 February 1730 – 17 November 1813) was an American-born attorney, soldier, politician, and colonial administrator. He was the acknowledged illegitimate son of Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) wa ...
, the royal governor of New Jersey and son of Patriot leader
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
, became the leader of the Loyalists after his release from a Patriot prison in 1778. He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected. When their cause was defeated, about 15 percent of the Loyalists (65,000–70,000 people) fled to other parts of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, to Britain itself, or to
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or admini ...
(now Canada). The southern Loyalists moved mostly to Florida, which had remained loyal to the Crown, and to British Caribbean possessions. Northern Loyalists largely migrated to
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...
,
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...
,
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
, and
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
. They called themselves
United Empire Loyalist United Empire Loyalists (or simply Loyalists) is an honorific title which was first given by the 1st Lord Dorchester, the Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executiv ...
s. Most were compensated with Canadian land or British cash distributed through formal claims procedures. Loyalists who left the US received over £3 million or about 37% of their losses from the British government. Loyalists who stayed in the US were generally able to retain their property and become American citizens. Historians have estimated that between 15 and 20% of the 2,000,000 whites in the colonies in 1775 were Loyalists (300,000–400,000).


Background

Families were often divided during the American Revolution, and many felt themselves to be both American and British, still owing a loyalty to the mother country. Maryland lawyer
Daniel Dulaney the Younger Daniel Dulany the Younger (June 28, 1722 – March 17, 1797) was a Maryland Loyalist (American Revolution), Loyalist politician, Mayor of Annapolis, and an influential American lawyer in the period immediately before the American Revolution. His pam ...
opposed
taxation without representation "No taxation without representation" is a political slogan that originated in the American Revolution, and which expressed one of the primary grievances of the Thirteen Colonies, American colonists against Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain. ...
but would not break his oath to the King or take up arms against him. He wrote: "There may be a time when redress may not be obtained. Till then, I shall recommend a legal, orderly, and prudent resentment". Most Americans hoped for a peaceful reconciliation but were forced to choose sides by the Patriots who took control nearly everywhere in the Thirteen Colonies in 1775–76.


Motives for Loyalism

Yale historian Leonard Woods Larabee has identified eight characteristics of the Loyalists that made them essentially conservative and loyal to the King and to Britain: * They were older, better established, and resisted radical change. * They felt that rebellion against the Crown – the legitimate government – was morally wrong. They saw themselves as
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
and saw a rebellion against
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
as a betrayal to their homeland (
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
and the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
). At the time the
national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the lo ...
of
Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recogn ...
was still in formation and the very idea of Americans and Britons being two separate peoples (nationalities) was itself revolutionary. * They felt alienated when the Patriots (seen by them as
separatist Separatism is the advocacy of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. As with secession, separatism conventionally refers to full political separation. Groups simply seeking greater ...

separatist
s who rebelled against the Crown) resorted to violence, such as burning down houses and
tarring and feathering Tarring and feathering is a form of public torture and punishment used to enforce unofficial justice or revenge. It was used in feudal Europe and its colonies in the early modern period, as well as the early American frontier The American ...
. * They wanted to take a middle-of-the-road position and were not pleased when forced by Patriots to declare their opposition. * They had a long-standing sentimental attachment to Britain (often with business and family links). * They felt that independence from Britain would come eventually, but wanted it to come about organically. * They were wary that chaos, corruption, and mob rule would come about as a result of revolution. * Some were “pessimists” who did not display the same belief in the future that the Patriots did. Others recalled the dreadful experiences of many Jacobite rebels after the failure of the last Jacobite rebellion as recently as 1745 who often lost their lands when the Hanoverian government won. Other motives of the Loyalists included: * They felt a need for order and believed that Parliament was the legitimate authority. * In New York, powerful families had assembled colony-wide coalitions of supporters; men long associated with the French Huguenot/Dutch De Lancey faction went along when its leadership decided to support the crown. * They felt themselves to be weak or threatened within American society and in need of an outside defender such as the British Crown and Parliament. *
Black loyalists Black Loyalists were people of African descent who sided with the Loyalists during the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was ...
were promised freedom from slavery by the British. * They felt that being a part of the British Empire was crucial in terms of commerce and their business operations.


Loyalism and military operations

In the opening months of the Revolutionary War, the Patriots laid siege to
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
, where most of the British forces were stationed. Elsewhere there were few British troops and the Patriots seized control of all levels of government, as well as supplies of arms and gunpowder. Vocal Loyalists recruited people to their side, often with the encouragement and assistance of royal governors. In the South Carolina back country, Loyalist recruitment outstripped that of Patriots. A brief siege at
Ninety Six, South Carolina Ninety Six is a town in Greenwood County, South Carolina South Carolina () is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, i ...
in the fall of 1775 was followed by a rapid rise in Patriot recruiting. In what became known as the
Snow Campaign The Snow Campaign was one of the first major military operations of the American Revolutionary War in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War, southern colonies. An army of up to 3,000 Patriot (American Revolution), Patriot militia ...
, partisan militia arrested or drove out most of the back country Loyalist leadership. North Carolina back country Scots and former
Regulators Regulator may refer to: Technology * Regulator (automatic control), a device that maintains a designated characteristic, as in: ** Battery regulator ** Pressure regulator ** Diving regulator ** Voltage regulator * Regulator (sewer), a control devic ...

Regulators
joined forces in early 1776, but they were broken as a force at the
Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was a minor conflict of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates f ...
. By July 4, 1776, the Patriots had gained control of virtually all territory in the Thirteen Colonies and expelled all royal officials. No one who openly proclaimed their loyalty to the Crown was allowed to remain, so Loyalists fled or kept quiet. Some of those who remained later gave aid to invading British armies or joined uniformed Loyalist regiments. The British were forced out of Boston by March 17, 1776. They regrouped at Halifax and attacked
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
in August, defeating
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. Natio ...

George Washington
's army at
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
and capturing
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
and its vicinity, and they occupied the mouth of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
until 1783. British forces seized control of other cities, including
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
(1777),
Savannah, Georgia Savannah ( ) is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may al ...
(1778–83), and
Charleston, South Carolina Charleston is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, South Carolina, Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston metropolitan area, South Carolina, Charleston–North Charle ...

Charleston, South Carolina
(1780–82). But 90% of the colonial population lived outside the cities, with the effective result that Congress represented 80 to 90 percent of the population. The British removed their governors from colonies where the Patriots were in control, but Loyalist civilian government was re-established in coastal
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
Georgia Encyclopædia
from 1779 to 1782, despite presence of Patriot forces in the northern part of Georgia. Essentially, the British were only able to maintain power in areas where they had a strong military presence.


Numbers of Loyalists

Historian Robert Calhoon wrote in 2000, concerning the proportion of Loyalists to Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies: Before Calhoon's work, estimates of the Loyalist share of the population were somewhat higher, at about one-third, but these estimates are now rejected as too high by most scholars. In 1968 historian Paul H. Smith estimated there were about 400,000 Loyalists, or 16% of the white population of 2.25 million in 1780. Historian
Robert Middlekauff Robert Lawrence Middlekauff (1929 – March 10, 2021) was a professor emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, ...
summarized scholarly research on the nature of Loyalist support as follows:
The largest number of loyalists were found in the
middle colonies The Middle Colonies were a subset of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast ...
: many
tenant farmer A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord A landlord is the owner of a house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less perma ...

tenant farmer
s of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
supported , for example, as did many of the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
in the colony and in
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
. The
Germans Germans (, ) are the natives or inhabitants of Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas ...
in
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...
tried to stay out of the Revolution, just as many
Quakers Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...

Quakers
did, and when that failed, clung to the familiar connection rather than embrace the new.
Highland Scots The Highlands ( sco, the Hielands; gd, a’ Ghàidhealtachd , 'the place of the Gaels The Gaels (; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Sc ...
in
the Carolinas The Carolinas are the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina, considered collectively. They are bordered by Virginia to the north, Tennessee to the west, and Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia to the southwest. The Atlantic Ocean is to the ...
, a fair number of
Anglican clergy The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" commonly refers to the office of ordination, ordained clergy: the ''threefold order'' of bishops, priests and deacons. More accuratel ...
and their parishioners in
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
and
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
, a few
Presbyterians Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form ...
in the
southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandat ...
, and a large number of the
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
stayed loyal to the king.
New York City and Long Island were the British military and political base of operations in North America from 1776 to 1783 and had a large concentration of Loyalists, many of whom were refugees from other states.Calhoon (1973) According to Calhoon, Loyalists tended to be older and wealthier, but there were also many Loyalists of humble means. Many active
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
members became Loyalists. Some recent arrivals from Britain, especially those from Scotland, had a high Loyalist proportion. Loyalists in the southern colonies were suppressed by the local Patriots, who controlled local and state government. Many people—including former
Regulators Regulator may refer to: Technology * Regulator (automatic control), a device that maintains a designated characteristic, as in: ** Battery regulator ** Pressure regulator ** Diving regulator ** Voltage regulator * Regulator (sewer), a control devic ...

Regulators
in
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...
— refused to join the rebellion, as they had earlier protested against corruption by local authorities who later became Revolutionary leaders. The oppression by the local Whigs during the Regulation led to many of the residents of backcountry North Carolina sitting out the Revolution or siding with the Loyalists. In areas under Patriot control, Loyalists were subject to confiscation of property, and outspoken supporters of the king were threatened with public humiliation such as
tarring and feathering Tarring and feathering is a form of public torture and punishment used to enforce unofficial justice or revenge. It was used in feudal Europe and its colonies in the early modern period, as well as the early American frontier The American ...
, or physical attack. It is not known how many Loyalist civilians were harassed by the Patriots, but the treatment was a warning to other Loyalists not to take up arms. In September 1775,
William Drayton :''For other men with the same name, see: William Drayton (disambiguation).'' William Drayton (December 30, 1776May 24, 1846) was an United States, American politician, banker, and writer who grew up in Charleston, South Carolina. He was the son o ...
and Loyalist leader Colonel Thomas Fletchall signed a treaty of neutrality in the interior community of Ninety Six,
South Carolina South Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspap ...

South Carolina
. For actively aiding the British army when it occupied Philadelphia, two residents of the city were tried for treason, convicted, and executed by returning Patriot forces.


Slavery and Black Loyalists

As a result of the looming crisis in 1775, the Royal
Governor of Virginia The governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia serves as the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colo ...
,
Lord Dunmore Earl of Dunmore is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. History The title was created in 1686 for Charles Murray, 1st Earl of Dunmore, Lord Charles Murray, second son of John Murray, 1st Marquess of Atholl. He was made Lord Murray of Blair, Mou ...
, issued a proclamation that promised freedom to indentured servants and slaves who were able to bear arms and join his Loyalist Ethiopian Regiment. Many of the slaves in the South joined the Loyalists with intentions of gaining freedom and escaping the South. About 800 did so; some helped rout the Virginia militia at the Battle of Kemp's Landing and fought in the
Battle of Great Bridge The Battle of Great Bridge was fought December 9, 1775, in the area of Great Bridge, Virginia, early in the American Revolutionary War. The victory by colonial Virginia militia forces led to the departure of Royal Governor John Murray, 4th Earl o ...
on the Elizabeth River, wearing the motto "Liberty to Slaves", but this time they were defeated. The remains of their regiment were then involved in the evacuation of
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambe ...
, after which they served in the
ChesapeakeChesapeake often refers to: *Chesapeake people, a Native American tribe also known as the Chesepian * The Chesapeake, a.k.a. Chesapeake Bay *Delmarva Peninsula, also known as the Chesapeake Peninsula Chesapeake may also refer to: Populated place ...
area. Eventually the camp that they had set up there suffered an outbreak of smallpox and other diseases. This took a heavy toll, putting many of them out of action for some time. The survivors joined other Loyalist units and continued to serve throughout the war.
African-Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
were often the first to come forward to volunteer and a total of 12,000 African Americans served with the British from 1775 to 1783. This forced the Patriots to also offer freedom to those who would serve in the Continental Army, with thousands of Black Patriots serving in the
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
. Americans who gained their freedom by fighting for the British became known as
Black Loyalist Black Loyalists were people of African descent who sided with the Loyalists during the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was ...
s. The British honored the pledge of freedom in New York City through the efforts of General Guy Carleton, who recorded the names of African Americans who had supported the British in a document called the
Book of Negroes A book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, typically composed of many page (paper), pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) bookbinding, bound together and protected by a book cover, cover. The t ...
, which granted freedom to slaves who had escaped and assisted the British. About 4,000 Black Loyalists went to the British colonies of
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
, where they were promised land grants. They founded communities across the two provinces, many of which still exist today. Over 2,500 settled in
Birchtown, Nova Scotia Birchtown is a community and National Historic Site in the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North Am ...

Birchtown, Nova Scotia
, instantly making it the largest free black community in North America. However, the long period of waiting time to be officially given land grants that were given to them and the prejudices of white Loyalists in nearby Shelburne who regularly harassed the settlement in events such as the Shelburne Riots in 1784, made life very difficult for the community.
/ref> In 1791 the
Sierra Leone Company The Sierra Leone Company was the corporate body involved in founding the second British colony in Africa on 11 March 1792 through the resettlement of Black Loyalists who had initially been settled in Nova Scotia ) , image_map = N ...
offered to transport dissatisfied black Loyalists to the nascent colony of
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (, also , ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 co ...

Sierra Leone
in West Africa, with the promise of better land and more equality. About 1,200 left Nova Scotia for Sierra Leone, where they named the capital
Freetown Freetown is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Sierra Leone. It is a major port city on the Atlantic Ocean and is located in the Western Area of the country. Freetown is Sierra Leone's major urban, economic, financial, cultural, edu ...

Freetown
. After 1787 they became Sierra Leone's ruling elite. About 400 to 1,000 free blacks who joined the British side in the Revolution went to London and joined the free black community of about 10,000 there.


Loyalist women

While men were out fighting for the Crown, women served at home protecting their land and property. At the end of the war, many loyalist men left America for the shelter of England, leaving their wives and daughters to protect their land The main punishment for Loyalist families was the expropriation of property, but married women were protected under " feme covert", which meant that they had no political identity and their legal rights were absorbed by their husbands. This created an awkward dilemma for the confiscation committees: confiscating the land of such a woman would punish her for her husband's actions. In fact, many women were punished in this way. Grace Growden Galloway recorded the experience in her diary. Galloway's property was seized by the Rebels and she spent the rest of her life fighting to regain it. It was returned to her heirs in 1783, after she and her husband had died.


Loyalism in Canada and Nova Scotia

Rebel agents were active in
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...
(which was then frequently called "Canada", the name of the earlier French province) in the months leading to the outbreak of active hostilities. John Brown, an agent of the
Boston Committee of Correspondence The committees of correspondence was the brainchild of Boston patriot Samuel Adams, intended to establish an underground network of communication among patriot leaders in the Thirteen Colonies via letter writing. The purpose of the Committees of Cor ...
, worked with Canadian merchant Thomas Walker and other rebel sympathisers during the winter of 1774–1775 to convince inhabitants to support the actions of the
First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from 12 of the 13 British colonies that became the United States. It met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall Carpenters' Hall is the official birthplace of the C ...
. However, many of Quebec's inhabitants remained neutral, resisting service to either the British or the Americans. Although some Canadians took up arms in support of the rebellion, the majority remained loyal to the King.
French Canadians French Canadians (referred to as Canadiens mainly before the twentieth century ; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identif ...
had been satisfied by the British government's
Quebec Act The Quebec Act 1774 (french: Acte de Québec), formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification ...
of 1774, which offered religious and linguistic toleration; in general, they did not sympathize with a rebellion that they saw as being led by Protestants from
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
, who were their commercial rivals and hereditary enemies. Most of the settlers had arrived following the British conquest of Canada in 1759–1760, and were unlikely to support separation from Britain. The older British colonies,
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
and
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
(including what is now
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
) also remained loyal and contributed military forces in support of the Crown. In late 1775 the
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
sent a force into Quebec, led by General
Richard Montgomery Richard Montgomery (December 2, 1738 – December 31, 1775) was an Ireland, Irish soldier who first served in the British Army. He later became a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and he is most fa ...
and Colonel
Benedict Arnold Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 414 June 1801) was an United States, American military officer who served during the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War. He fought with distinction for the American Continental Army, rising to the r ...

Benedict Arnold
, with the goal of convincing the residents of Quebec to join the Revolution. Although only a minority of Canadians openly expressed loyalty to King George, about 1,500 militia fought for the King in the Siege of Fort St. Jean. In the region south of Montreal that was occupied by the Continentals, some inhabitants supported the rebellion and raised two regiments to join the Patriot forces.Mason Wade, ''The French Canadians'' (1955) 1:67–9. In
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Nova Scotia
, there were many Yankee settlers originally from New England, and they generally supported the principles of the revolution. The allegiance toward the rebellion waned as American privateers raided Nova Scotia communities throughout the war. As well, the Nova Scotia government used the law to convict people for sedition and treason for supporting the rebel cause. There was also the influence of an influx of recent immigration from the British isles, and they remained neutral during the war, and the influx was greatest in Halifax. Britain in any case built up powerful forces at the naval base of
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
after the failure of
Jonathan Eddy Jonathan Eddy (Circa, c. 1726–1804) was a British-American soldier, who fought for the British in the French and Indian War and for the Americans in the American Revolution. After the French and Indian War, he settled in Nova Scotia as a New Engl ...
to capture Fort Cumberland in 1776. Although the Continentals captured
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
in November 1775, they were turned back a month later at
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the juri ...

Quebec City
by a combination of the British military under Governor Guy Carleton, the difficult terrain and weather, and an indifferent local response. The Continental forces would be driven from Quebec in 1776, after the breakup of ice on the St. Lawrence River and the arrival of British transports in May and June. There would be no further serious attempt to challenge British control of present-day Canada until the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
. In 1777, 1,500 Loyalist militia took part in the
Saratoga campaign The Saratoga campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British high command for North America to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through ea ...
in New York, and surrendered with General after the
Battles of Saratoga The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1 ...
in October. For the rest of the war, Quebec acted as a base for raiding expeditions, conducted primarily by Loyalists and Indians, against frontier communities.


Military service

The Loyalists rarely attempted any political organization. They were often passive unless regular British army units were in the area. The British, however, assumed a highly activist Loyalist community was ready to mobilize and planned much of their strategy around raising Loyalist regiments. The British provincial line, consisting of Americans enlisted on a regular army status, enrolled 19,000 Loyalists (50 units and 312 companies). The maximum strength of the Loyalist provincial line was 9,700 in December 1780.Calhoon 502. In all about 19,000 at one time or another were soldiers or militia in British forces. Loyalists from South Carolina fought for the British in the
Battle of Camden The Battle of Camden (August 16, 1780), also known as the Battle of Camden Court House, was a major victory for the British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, Bri ...

Battle of Camden
. The British forces at the
Battle of Monck's Corner The Battle of Monck's Corner was fought on April 14, 1780, outside the city of Charleston, South Carolina, which was under Siege of Charleston, siege by British forces under the command of General Henry Clinton (1730–1795), Sir Henry Clinton in t ...
and the
Battle of Lenud's Ferry The Battle of Lenud's Ferry was a battle of the American Revolutionary War that was fought on May 6, 1780 in present-day Berkeley County, South Carolina. All of the British soldiers who took part in the Battle of Lenud's Ferry were in fact Loyalis ...
consisted entirely of Loyalists with the exception of the commanding officer (
Banastre Tarleton Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, GCB (21 August 175415 January 1833) was a Kingdom of Great Britain, British soldier and politician. Tarleton was eventually ranked as a General officer, general years ...
). Both white and black Loyalists fought for the British at the Battle of Kemp's Landing in Virginia.


Emigration from the United States

Historian
Maya Jasanoff Maya R. Jasanoff is an American academic. She serves as Coolidge Professor of History at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as ...
estimated how many Loyalists departed the United States for British North America. She calculates 60,000 in total, including about 50,000 whites (Wallace Brown cites about 80,000 Loyalists in total permanently left the United States.). The majority of them – 36,000 – to
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
and
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Nova Scotia
, while about 6,600 went to Quebec and 2,000 to
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually ref ...

Prince Edward Island
. 5,090 white Loyalists went to Florida, bringing along their slaves who numbered about 8,285 (421 whites and 2561 blacks returned to the States from Florida ). When Florida was returned to Spain, however, very few Loyalists remained there. 6,000 whites went to Jamaica and other Caribbean islands, notably the Bahamas. About 13,000 went to Britain (including 5,000 free blacks). The total is 60–62,000 whites. A precise figure cannot be known because the records were incomplete and not accurate, and small numbers continued to leave after 1783. The 50,000 or-so white departures represented about 10% of the Loyalists (at 20-25% of the white population). Loyalists (especially soldiers and former officials) could choose evacuation. Loyalists whose roots were not yet deeply embedded in the United States were more likely to leave; older people who had familial bonds and had acquired friends, property, and a degree of social respectability were more likely to remain in the US. The vast majority of the half-million white Loyalists, about 20-25% of the total number of whites, remained in the US. Starting in the mid–1780s a small percentage of those who had left returned to the United States. The exiles amounted to about 2% of the total US population of 3 million at the end of the war in 1783. After 1783 some former Loyalists, especially Germans from Pennsylvania, emigrated to Canada to take advantage of the British government's offer of free land. Many departed the fledgling United States because they faced continuing hostility. In another migration-motivated mainly by economic rather than political reasons- more than 20,000 and perhaps as many as 30,000 "Late Loyalists" arrived in Ontario in the 1790s attracted by 's policy of land and low taxes, one-fifth those in the US and swearing an oath of allegiance to the King. The 36,000 or so who went to Nova Scotia were not well received by the 17,000 Nova Scotians, who were mostly descendants of New Englanders settled there before the Revolution. "They he Loyalists, Colonel Thomas Dundas wrote in 1786, "have experienced every possible injury from the old inhabitants of Nova Scotia, who are even more disaffected towards the British Government than any of the new States ever were. This makes me much doubt their remaining long dependent." In response, the colony of
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
, until 1784 part of Nova Scotia, was created for the 14,000 who had settled in those parts. Of the 46,000 who went to Canada, 10,000 went to Quebec, especially what is now modern-day Ontario, the rest to Nova Scotia and PEI. Realizing the importance of some type of consideration, on November 9, 1789, Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec, declared that it was his wish to "put the mark of Honour upon the Families who had adhered to the Unity of the British Empire, Empire." As a result of Dorchester's statement, the printed militia rolls carried the notation:
Those Loyalists who have adhered to the Unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Separation in the year 1783, and all their Children and their Descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following Capitals, affixed to their names: U.E. Alluding to their great principle The Unity of the Empire.
The Post-nominal letters, post-nominals "U.E." are rarely seen today, but the influence of the Loyalists on the evolution of Canada remains. Their ties to Britain and/or their antipathy to the United States provided the strength needed to keep Canada independent and distinct in North America. The Loyalists' basic distrust of republicanism and "Ochlocracy, mob rule" influenced Canadian Confederation, Canada's gradual path to independence. The new British North American provinces of Upper Canada (the forerunner of Ontario) and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
were founded as places of refuge for the United Empire Loyalists. In an interesting historical twist Peter Matthews (rebel), Peter Matthews, a son of Loyalists, participated in the Upper Canada Rebellion which sought relief from oligarchic British colonial government and pursued American-style Republicanism. He was arrested, tried and executed in Toronto, and later became heralded as a patriot to the movement which led to Canadian self governance. The wealthiest and most prominent Loyalist exiles went to Great Britain to rebuild their careers; many received pensions. Many Southern Loyalists, taking along their slaves, went to the West Indies, particularly to the Abaco Islands in the The Bahamas, Bahamas. Certain Loyalists who fled the United States brought their slaves with them to Canada (mostly to areas that later became Ontario and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
) where Slavery in Canada, slavery was legal. An imperial law in 1790 assured prospective immigrants to Canada that their slaves would remain their property. However, a law enacted by eminent British lieutenant general and founder of modern Toronto John Graves Simcoe in 1793 entitled the Act Against Slavery tried to suppress slavery in Upper Canada by halting the sale of slaves to the United States, and by freeing slaves upon their escape from the latter into Canada. Simcoe desired to demonstrate the merits of loyalism and abolitionism in Upper Canada in contrast to the nascent republicanism and prominence of slavery in the United States, and, according to historian Stanley R. Mealing: :"...he had not only the most articulate faith in its imperial destiny but also the most sympathetic appreciation of the interests and aspirations of its inhabitants". However the actual law was a compromise. According to historian Afua Cooper, Simcoe's law required children in slavery to be freed when they reached age 25 and: :forbade the importation of slaves but, to Simcoe's disappointment, did not grant freedom to adult slaves. Having not been freed by the act, many Canadian slaves fled across the border into the Old Northwest Territory, where slavery had been abolished. Thousands of
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
and other Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans were expelled from New York and other states and resettled in Canada. The descendants of one such group of Iroquois, led by Joseph Brant (Thayendenegea), settled at Six Nations of the Grand River, the largest First Nations Indian reserve, reserve in Canada. (The remainder, under the leadership of Cornplanter (John Abeel) and members of his family, stayed in New York.) A group of African-American Loyalists settled in Nova Scotia but emigrated again for
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (, also , ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 co ...

Sierra Leone
after facing discrimination there. Many of the Loyalists were forced to abandon substantial properties to America restoration of or compensation for these lost properties was a major issue during the negotiation of the Jay Treaty in 1794. The British Government eventually settled several thousand claims for more than 3.5 million Pounds Sterling, an enormous sum of money worth at that time.


Return of some expatriates

The great majority of Loyalists never left the United States; they stayed on and were allowed to be citizens of the new country. Some became nationally prominent leaders, including Samuel Seabury, who was the first Bishop of the Episcopal Church, and Tench Coxe. There was a small, but significant trickle of returnees who found life in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick too difficult. Perhaps 10% of the refugees to New Brunswick returned to the States as did an unknown number from Nova Scotia. Some Massachusetts Tories settled in the Maine District. Nevertheless, the vast majority never returned. Captain Benjamin Hallowell, who as Mandamus Councilor in Massachusetts served as the direct representative of the Crown, was considered by the insurgents as one of the most hated men in the Colony, but as a token of compensation when he returned from England in 1796, his son was allowed to regain the family house. Alexander Hamilton enlisted the help of the Tories (ex-Loyalists) in New York in 1782–85 to forge an alliance with moderate Whigs to wrest the State from the power of the George Clinton (vice president), Clinton faction. Moderate Whigs in other States who had not been in favor of separation from Britain but preferred a negotiated settlement which would have maintained ties to the Mother Country mobilized to block radicals. Most States had rescinded anti-Tory laws by 1787, although the accusation of being a Tory was heard for another generation. Several hundred who had left for Florida returned to Georgia in 1783–84. South Carolina which had seen a bitter bloody internal civil war in 1780-82 adopted a policy of reconciliation that proved more moderate than any other state. About 4500 white Loyalists left when the war ended, but the majority remained behind. The state government successfully and quickly reincorporated the vast majority. During the war, pardons were offered to Loyalists who switched sides and joined the Patriot forces. Others were required to pay a 10% fine of the value of the property. The legislature named 232 Loyalists liable for the confiscation of their property, but most appealed and were forgiven. In Connecticut much to the disgust of the Radical Whigs the moderate Whigs were advertising in New York newspapers in 1782-83 that Tories who would make no trouble would be welcome on the grounds that their skills and money would help the State's economy. The Moderates prevailed. All anti-Tory laws were repealed in early 1783 except for the law relating to confiscated Tory estates: "... the problem of the loyalists after 1783 was resolved in their favor after the War of Independence ended." In 1787 the last of any discriminatory laws were rescinded.


Impact of the departure of Loyalist leaders

The departure of so many royal officials, rich merchants and landed gentry destroyed the hierarchical networks that had dominated most of the colonies. A major result was that a Patriot/Whig elite supplanted royal officials and affluent Tories. In New York, the departure of key members of the De Lancey, De Peyster, Walton and Cruger families undercut the interlocking families that largely owned and controlled the Hudson Valley. Likewise in Pennsylvania, the departure of powerful families—Penn, Allen, Chew, Shippen—destroyed the cohesion of the old upper class there. Massachusetts passed an act banishing forty-six Boston merchants in 1778, including members of some of Boston's wealthiest families. The departure of families such as the Ervings, Winslows, Clarks, and Lloyds deprived Massachusetts of men who had hitherto been leaders of networks of family and clients. The bases of the men who replaced them were much different. One rich Patriot in Boston noted in 1779 that "fellows who would have cleaned my shoes five years ago, have amassed fortunes and are riding in chariots." New men became rich merchants but they shared a spirit of republican equality that replaced the former elitism. The Patriot reliance on Catholic France for military, financial and diplomatic aid led to a sharp drop in anti-Catholic rhetoric. Indeed, the king replaced the pope as the demon Patriots had to fight against. Anti-Catholicism remained strong among Loyalists, some of whom went to Canada after the war most remained in the new nation. By the 1780s, Catholics were extended legal toleration in all of the New England states that previously had been so hostile. "In the midst of war and crisis, New Englanders gave up not only their allegiance to Britain but one of their most dearly held prejudices."


Loyalists in art

* John Singleton Copley painted many prominent Loyalists and produced an oil-on-canvas depiction of a soldier wearing the uniform of the Royal Ethiopian Regiment (a regiment composed of black Loyalist soldiers) in ''The Death of Major Peirson, 6 January 1781, The Death of Major Pierson'' (1784). * Benjamin West characterized the ethnic and economic diversity of the Loyalists in his ''Reception of the American Loyalists by Great Britain in the Year 1783''. The original painting was lost, but a smaller version of it can be seen in the background of West's portrait of John Eardley Wilmot. * Gilbert Stuart painted a portrait of James De Lancey, James DeLancey around 1785. It stays in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, a bequest of his descendant George DeLancey Harris, Jr. of New York City & Annapolis Royal, Annapolis Royal, NS. File:John Singleton Copley 001.jpg, John Copley's "The Death of Major Pierson" File:Benjamin West - John Eardley Wilmot - Google Art Project.jpg, Benjamin West's "John Eardley Wilmot"


Loyalists in literature

* ''The Adventures of Jonathan Corncob, Loyal American Refugee'' (1787) by Jonathan Corncob. According to Maya Jasanoff, "traveling to London to file a claim served as the opening gambit" for this "picaresque novel about the American Revolution". * "Rip Van Winkle" (1819), short story by Washington Irving * ''The Spy (Cooper novel), The Spy: a Tale of the Neutral Ground'' (1821), novel by James Fenimore Cooper * ''Oliver Wiswell'' (1940), a novel by Kenneth Roberts (author), Kenneth Roberts * ''The Book of Negroes (novel), The Book of Negroes'' (2007) by Lawrence Hill * ''The Fort (novel), The Fort'' (2010), novel by Bernard Cornwell * Well received historical fiction account of the life of Elizabeth Graeme Fergusson


List of notable Loyalists


See also

* Military history of Nova Scotia#American Revolution, American Revolution - Nova Scotia theatre * Expulsion of the Loyalists * List of places named for Loyalists (American Revolution) * Frederick Haldimand (1718–1791) while serving in Canada amassed a hug
collection
filling 115 microfilm reels of documents, letters, etc. reflecting the Loyalist experience in Canada.

to this collection may be found on the Queens University Archives website. * Godfrey–Milliken Bill, proposed Canadian law demanding compensation from the US for Loyalist claims after its independence. * Lorenzo Sabine (1803–1877), early historian and chronicler of the Loyalist experience * ''Martin v. Hunter's Lessee'' * Maryland Loyalists Battalion * Tory * Treaty of Paris (1783) *
United Empire Loyalist United Empire Loyalists (or simply Loyalists) is an honorific title which was first given by the 1st Lord Dorchester, the Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executiv ...


References


Further reading

* Thomas B. Allen (author), Allen, Thomas B. ''Tories: Fighting for the King in America's First Civil War.'' New York: HarperCollins, 2010. 496 pp. * Andrews, Matthew Page, ''History of Maryland'', Doubleday, New York (1929) * Bernard Bailyn, Bailyn, Bernard. ''The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution'' (2nd ed. 1992) pp 230–319. * ———. ''The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson: Loyalism and the Destruction of the First British Empire'' (1974), full scale biography of the most prominent Loyalist * Brown, Wallace. "The Loyalists and the American Revolution." ''History Today'' (Mar 1962), 12# 3, pp149-157. * Brown, Wallace. ''The King's Friends: The Composition and Motives of the American Loyalist Claimants'' (1966). * Calhoon, Robert M. "Loyalism and neutrality" in Jack P. Greene and J.R. Pole, eds., ''The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution'' (1991); reprinted in * Calhoon, Robert M. ''The Loyalists in Revolutionary America, 1760–1781'' (1973), the most detailed scholarly study * Calhoon, Robert M., Timothy M. Barnes and George A. Rawlyk, eds. ''Loyalists and Community in North America'' (1994). * Chopra, Ruma. "Enduring Patterns of Loyalist Study: Definitions and Contours" ''History Compass'' (2013) 11#11 pp 983–993, DOI: 10.1111/hic3.12105 * Chopra, Ruma. ''Choosing Sides: Loyalists in Revolutionary America'' (2015) * Doré, Gilbert. "Why The Loyalists Lost," ''Early America Review'' (Winter 2000
online
* Frazer, Gregg L. ''God Against the Revolution: The Loyalist Clergy's Case against the American Revolution'' Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2018. * Maya Jasanoff, Jasanoff, Maya. ''Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World'' (2011), excellent comprehensive treatment and winner of the 2011 National Book Critics Circle Award for Non-Fiction and 2012 George Washington Book Prize * Merrill Jensen, Jensen, Merrill. ''The New Nation: A History of the United States during the Confederation, 1781–1789'' 1950; detailed discussion of return of Loyalists, popular anger at their return; repeal of wartime laws against them * Kermes, Stephanie. "'I Wish for Nothing More Ardent upon Earth, than to See My Friends and Country Again': The Return of Massachusetts Loyalists." ''Historical Journal of Massachusetts'' 2002 30(1): 30–49. * Kerber, Linda. ''Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America'' (1997) * Knowles, Norman. ''Inventing the Loyalists: The Ontario Loyalist Tradition and the Creation of Usable Pasts'' (1997) explores the identities and loyalties of those who moved to Canada. * Lambert, Robert Stansbury. ''South Carolina Loyalists in the American Revolution'' (2nd ed. Clemson University Digital Press, 2011)
full text online free
273 pp * Middlekauff, Robert. "The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789." (2005 edition) * Moore, Christopher. ''The Loyalist: Revolution Exile Settlement''. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart (1994). * Mason, Keith. "The American Loyalist Diaspora and the Reconfiguration of the British Atlantic World." In ''Empire and Nation: The American Revolution and the Atlantic World'', ed. Eliga H. Gould and Peter S. Onuf (2005). * Nelson, William H. ''The American Tory'' (1961) * Mary Beth Norton, Norton, Mary Beth. ''The British-Americans: The Loyalist Exiles in England, 1774–1789''. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1972. * ———. ''Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750–1800'' (1996) * ———. "The Problem of the Loyalist—and the Problems of Loyalist Historians," ''Reviews in American History'' June 1974 v.2 #2 pp 226–231 * Peck, Epaphroditus; ''The Loyalists of Connecticut'' Yale University Press
(1934) online
* Potter, Janice. ''The Liberty We Seek: Loyalist Ideology in Colonial New York and Massachusetts'' (1983). * Quarles, Benjamin; ''Black Mosaic: Essays in Afro-American History and Historiography'' University of Massachusetts Press. (1988) * Ranlet, Philip. "How Many American Loyalists Left the United States?." ''Historian'' 76.2 (2014): 278–307; estimates that only 20,000 adult white Loyalists went to Canada. * Egerton Ryerson, Ryerson, Egerton. ''The Loyalists of America and Their Times: From 1620 to 1816''. 2 volumes. Second edition. 1880. * Smith, Paul H. "The American Loyalists: Notes on Their Organization and Numerical Strength," ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 25 (1968): 259–77
in JSTOR
* Claude H. Van Tyne, Van Tyne, Claude Halstead. ''The Loyalists in the American Revolution'' (1902
online
* Wade, Mason. ''The French Canadians: 1760–1945'' (1955) 2 vol.


Compiled volumes of biographical sketches

* Palmer, Gregory. ''Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution''. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1983. 998 pp. * Lorenzo Sabine, Sabine, Lorenzo. ''The American Loyalists, or Biographical Sketches of Adherents to the British Crown in The War of the Revolution; Alphabetically Arranged; with a Preliminary Historical Essay.'' Boston, MA: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1847.
Google Book vi, 733 pp.
* ———. ''Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution, with an Historical Essay''. 2 volumes. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1864.
Google Book Volume 1—vi, 608 pp. Google Book Volume 2—600 pp.


Studies of individual Loyalists

* * Gainey, Joseph R. "Rev. Charles Woodmason (''c''. 1720–1789): Author, Loyalist, Missionary, and Psalmodist." ''West Gallery: The Newsletter of the West Gallery Music Association'' (), Issue No. 59 (Autumn 2011), pp. 18–25. This undocumented article is the first publication to identify Woodmason's parents, background, baptism, marriage, and burial dates and places and contains much previously unavailable information. * Hill, James Riley, III. ''An exercise in futility: the pre-Revolutionary career and influence of loyalist James Simpson''. M. A. Thesis. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 1992. viii, 109 leaves ; 28 cm
OCLC 30807526
* Hooker, Richard J., ed. ''The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution: The Journal and Other Writings of Charles Woodmason, Anglican Itinerant''. 1953. * Lohrenz, Otto; "The Advantage of Rank and Status: Thomas Price, a Loyalist Parson of Revolutionary Virginia." ''The Historian.'' 60#3 (1998) pp 561+
online
* Randall, Willard Sterne. ''A Little Revenge: Benjamin Franklin & His Son'' Little, Brown & Co, 1984. * Skemp, Sheila. ''William Franklin: Son of a Patriot, Servant of a King'' Oxford University Press, 1990. * Wright, J. Leitch. ''William Augusutus Bowles: Director General of the Creek Nation''. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1967. * Zimmer, Anne Y. ''Jonathan Boucher, loyalist in exile''. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1978.


Primary sources and guides to manuscripts and the literature

* Allen, Robert S. ''Loyalist Literature: An Annotated Bibliographic Guide to the Writings on the Loyalists of the American Revolution''. Issue 2 of Dundurn Canadian historical document series, 1982. * Brown, Wallace. "Loyalist Historiography." ''Acadiensis'', Vol. 4, No. 1 (Autumn 1974), pp. 133–138. Link t
downloadable pdf
of this article. * ———.
"The View at Two Hundred Years: The Loyalists of the American Revolution"
''Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society'', Vol. 80, Part 1 (April 1970), pp. 25–47. * Crary, Catherine S., ed. ''Price of Loyalty: Tory Writings from the Revolutionary Era'' (1973) * Egerton, Hugh Edward, ed. ''The Royal commission on the losses and services of American loyalists, 1783 to 1785, being the notes of Mr. Daniel Parker Coke, M. P., one of the commissioners during that period''. Oxford: The Roxburghe Club, 1915
Link to downloadable pdf
* Joseph Galloway, Galloway, Joseph. ''The claim of the American loyalists: reviewed and maintained upon incontrovertible principles of law and justice''. G. and T. Wilkie, 1788. Downloadabl
Google Book pdf 138 pages


website, Harriet Irving Library, Fredericton campus, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Guide to the New York Public Library Loyalist Collection
(19 pdfs) * Palmer, Gregory S. ''A Bibliography of Loyalist Source Material in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain''. Westport, CT, 1982. * ''The Particular Case of the Georgia Loyalists: in Addition to the General Case and Claim of the American Loyalists, which was Lately Published by Order of Their Agents. February, 1783''. n.p.:n.p., 1783. 16 pp.
Google Book pdf


External links




The American Loyalists: Or, Biographical Sketches of Adherents to the ... (1847) by Lorenzo Sabine
Complete text of the first of two editions (the second appeared in 1864 in two volumes) of Lorenzo Sabine, Sabine's ''magnum opus'' in pdf format.
Benjamin Franklin to Baron Francis Maseres, June 26, 1785
(Opinion of
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
on persons who called themselves "Loyalists", whom he judged better called "Royalists")
Bibliography of the Loyalist Participation in the American Revolution
compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History
"Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People"

Haldimand Collection
The main source for historians in the study of the settlement of the American Loyalists in Canada. More than 20,000 letters and documents, now fully indexed, and free on the Web.
Story of Loyalist Privateer "Vengeance"


* [http://www.royalprovincial.com/military/facts/ofrdecl.htm The Loyalist Declaration of Independence] published in ''The Royal Gazette'' (New York) on November 17, 1781 (Transcription provided by Bruce Wallace and posted on The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies.)
The Loyalist Link: The Forest and The Sea – Port Roseway Loyalists



The Loyalist Research Network (LRN)
This website focuses on Canadian Loyalists, but, the links and bibliographies are extremely helpful to all serious Loyalist researchers.


The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies


* [https://books.google.com/books?id=LxKCmTq3cZwC&pg=PA244&dq=Joseph+Blaney+married+Abigail+Browne&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi-y_f5yorbAhWD7IMKHTi0DSI4ChDoAQg_MAU#v=onepage&q=Joseph%20Blaney%20married%20Abigail%20Browne&f=false "Salem Loyalists-unpublished letters" THE NEW-ENGLAND HISTORICAL AND GEUEALOGICAL REGISTER AND ANTIQUARIAN JOURNAL 1872 pp.243-248]
"A Short History of the United Empire Loyalists" Ann Mackenzie


* Originally published in 1987. 272 pages, available online in PDF format.
United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada (UELAC)



“What is a Loyalist? The American Revolution as civil war”
by Prof. Edward Larkin published in www.common-place.org, Vol. 8, No. 1 (October 2007).


Videos

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