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Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى '; ''Tsakhet'') is the northernmost
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...

region
of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
, which consists of the fertile
Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, دلتا النيل, or simply , ) is the delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), ...
between
Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد مصر ', shortened to , , locally: ; ) is the southern portion of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the ...
and the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
, from El Aiyat, south of modern-day
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
, and
Dahshur DahshurAlso transliterated ''Dahshour'' (in English often called ''Dashur''; ar, دهشور ' , ''Dahchur'') is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several p ...
. Historically, the Nile River split into seven branches of the delta in Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was divided into
nome Nome may refer to: Country subdivision * Nome (Egypt) A nome (, from grc, νομός, ''nomós'', "district") was a territorial division in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concen ...
s and began to advance as a civilization after 3600 BC. Today, it contains two major channels that flow through the delta of the Nile River – (ancient Agathos Daimon) and Muways Canal (, "waterway of Moses").


Name

In
Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistori ...
Lower Egypt was known as ''mḥw'' and means ''"north"''. Later on, during
Antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
and the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
,
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
and
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
called it ''Κάτω Αἴγυπτος'' or ''Aegyptus Inferior'' both meaning "Lower Egypt". Native population carried on using the old name related to north – ''Tsakhet'' () or ''Psanemhit'' () "Northern part", which they also divided into three regions – western part called ⲛⲓⲫⲁⲓⲁⲧ ''Niphaiat'' ("Libyans"), central part called ⲡⲉⲧⲙⲟⲩⲣ ''Petmour'' ("the one which bounds, girds", Greek: ''Πτιμυρις'') and eastern one called ϯⲁⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁ ''Tiarabia'' ("Arabia"). After the
Arab conquest of Egypt The Muslim conquest of Egypt by the Arabs took place between 639 and 646 Anno Domini, AD and was overseen by the Rashidun Caliphate. It ended the centuries long period of Roman Egypt, Roman/Byzantine reign (beginning in 30 BC) over Egypt (Roman ...
the middle part of the Delta (former Petmour) was called al-Rif () which means "countryside, rural area" and which is derived from
Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistori ...
r:Z1-pr*Z1:niwt ''r-pr'', "temple", because the rural areas were administered by them. The eastern part roughly comprising the ancient Tiarabia was called al-Hawf () meaning "edge, fringe".


Geography

In ancient times,
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
, in ''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history ...
'' (Book 5, chapter 11), said that upon reaching the delta the Nile split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the
Mendes Mendes ( grc-gre, Μένδης, '' gen''.: Μένδητος), the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locate ...
ian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the , and the
Canopic Canopus, also known as Canobus (), was an ancient Egyptian coastal town, located in the Nile Delta. Its site is in the eastern outskirts of modern-day Alexandria, around from the center of that city. Canopus was located on the western bank at t ...
. Today there are two principal channels that the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
takes through the
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of wate ...

river
delta: one in the west at
Rashid Rashid or Rachid ( ar, راشد ) and Rasheed ( ar, رشيد ), which means "rightly guided", may refer to: *Rashid (name), also Rachid and Rasheed, people with the given name or surname *Rached, a given name and surname *Rashad, a surname Place ...

Rashid
and one in the east at
Damietta Damietta ( ar, دمياط ', ; cop, ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ, Tamiati) is a harbor, port city and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former Diocese, bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta ...

Damietta
. The delta region is well watered, crisscrossed by
channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * Channel Country, region of outback Austr ...
and
canals Canals are waterways , or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service s. They may also help with irrigation. It can be thought of as an artificial version of a . Canals carry free surface flow under . In most cases, the eng ...

canals
. Owing primarily to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, the climate in Lower Egypt is milder than that of
Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد مصر ', shortened to , , locally: ; ) is the southern portion of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the ...
, the southern portion of the country. Temperatures are less extreme and rainfall is more abundant in Lower Egypt.


History

It was divided into twenty districts called
nome Nome may refer to: Country subdivision * Nome (Egypt) A nome (, from grc, νομός, ''nomós'', "district") was a territorial division in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concen ...
s, the first of which was at
el-Lisht Lisht or el-Lisht ( ar, اللشت, translit=Al-Lišt) is an Egyptian village located south of . It is the site of royal and elite burials, including two s built by and . The two main pyramids were surrounded by smaller pyramids of members of th ...
. Because Lower Egypt was mostly undeveloped
scrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community A plant community is a collection or Association (ecology), association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishab ...

scrubland
, filled with all types of plant life such as grasses and herbs, the organization of the nomes underwent several changes. The capital of Lower Egypt was
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
. Its patron goddess was the goddess
Wadjet Wadjet (; egy, wikt:wꜣḏ#Etymology, wꜢḏyt "Green One"), known to the Greek world as Uto (; grc-koi, Οὐτώ) or Buto (; ) among other renderings including Wedjat, Uadjet, and Udjo, was originally the ancient tutelary deity, local god ...
, depicted as a cobra. Lower Egypt was represented by the Red Crown ''
Deshret Deshret ( egy, dšrt "Red One") was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفل ...

Deshret
'', and its symbols were the papyrus and the bee. After unification the patron deities of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were represented together as the ''
Two Ladies In Ancient Egyptian texts, the "Two Ladies" ( egy, wikt:nbtj, nbtj, sometimes anglicized ''Nebty'') was a religious euphemism for the goddesses Wadjet and Nekhbet, two deity, deities who were Tutelary deity, patrons of the ancient Egyptians and wors ...

Two Ladies
'', Wadjet and
Nekhbet Nekhbet (; also spelt Nekhebit) was an early predynastic The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from the earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh Pharaoh (, ...
(depicted as a vulture), to protect all of the ancient Egyptians. By approximately 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the
Nile River The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...
had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC Egyptian society began to grow and advance rapidly toward refined civilization.Carl Roebuck, ''The World of Ancient Times'' (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1966) p. 52-53. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery in the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. The
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
n process of sun-dried bricks, and architectural building principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time. Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or
Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد مصر ', shortened to , , locally: ; ) is the southern portion of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the ...
, occurred. At the same time, the societies of the
Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, دلتا النيل, or simply , ) is the delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), ...
, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process. Warfare between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King
Narmer Narmer ( egy, Wiktionary:nꜥr-mr, nꜥr-mr, meaning "painful," "stinging," "harsh," or "fierce catfish;" ) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), Early Dynastic Period. He was the successor to the Naqada III, Protod ...

Narmer
defeated his enemies in the Delta and merged the kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt under his single rule.Carl Roebuck, ''The World of Ancient Times'' (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishers: New York, 1966), p. 53.


List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt

The Palermo stone, a royal annal written in the mid Fifth Dynasty (c. 2490 BC – c. 2350 BC) records a number of kings reigning over Lower Egypt before
Narmer Narmer ( egy, Wiktionary:nꜥr-mr, nꜥr-mr, meaning "painful," "stinging," "harsh," or "fierce catfish;" ) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), Early Dynastic Period. He was the successor to the Naqada III, Protod ...

Narmer
. These are completely unattested outside these inscriptions: In contrast, the following kings are attested through archeological finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt:
Double Falcon Double Falcon (also possibly Dju and Nebwy) was a ruler of Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى '; ''Tsakhit'' ...
,
Crocodile Crocodiles (family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. I ...
.


List of nomes


See also

*
Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد مصر ', shortened to , , locally: ; ) is the southern portion of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the ...
*
Middle Egypt Middle Egypt () is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد مصر ', shortened to , , locally: ; ) is the southern portion of Egypt and is composed of the lands on both sides of the N ...
*
Upper and Lower Egypt In Egyptian history The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river A river is a na ...
* Nomes of Egypt *
Geography of Egypt The geography of Egypt relates to two regions: North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching ...
*
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt


References


External links

{{Regions of Africa States and territories established in the 4th millennium BC States and territories disestablished in the 4th millennium BC * Nile Delta .Lower Middle Historical regions it:Geografia dell'antico Egitto#Basso Egitto