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Louise Alexandra Marie Irene Mountbatten (13 July 1889 – 7 March 1965) was
Queen of Sweden The monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the #IOG, Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5. which is a constitutional monarchy, constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.Parliam ...
as the wife of
King Gustaf VI Adolf Gustaf VI Adolf (Oscar Fredrik Wilhelm Olaf Gustaf Adolf; 11 November 1882 – 15 September 1973) was King of Sweden from 29 October 1950 until his death. The eldest son of Gustaf V and his wife, Victoria of Baden, he had been Crown Prince for the ...
. Born a princess of the German
House of Battenberg The Battenberg family was formerly a morganatic Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royal family, royalty or other List of titles, inherited ti ...
, Louise was closely related to the ruling families of Britain and Russia. During the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, Louise served as a nurse in the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread specie ...

Red Cross
. She married the widowed Gustaf Adolf in 1923 and assumed the role of Sweden's first lady but did not become queen until his accession in 1950. Queen Louise was noted for her eccentricity and progressive views.


Early life

Louise was born a Princess of Battenberg at Schloss Heiligenberg,
Seeheim-Jugenheim Seeheim-Jugenheim is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is ...
, in the
Grand Duchy of Hesse The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (german: link=no, Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a grand duchy A grand duchy is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable poli ...

Grand Duchy of Hesse
. Her father,
Prince Louis of Battenberg Admiral of the Fleet An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (equivalent rank to admiral of the navy Admiral of the Navy was the highest possible rank in the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not ...
, who was an admiral in the British
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
, renounced his
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
title during the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
and anglicised his family name to "Mountbatten" at the behest of
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother ...

George V
. He was then created the first
Marquess of Milford Haven Marquess of Milford Haven is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a genera ...

Marquess of Milford Haven
in the
peerage of the United Kingdom The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked im ...
. From 1917, therefore, his daughter was known as "Lady Louise Mountbatten". Her mother was
Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Victoria Alberta Elizabeth Mathilde Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (5 April 1863 – 24 September 1950), later Victoria Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven, was the eldest daughter of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, and P ...

Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
, a granddaughter of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
. Louise was a sister of
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979), was a member of the British royal family, Royal Navy officer and statesman, a maternal uncle of P ...
, and of
Princess Alice of Battenberg Princess Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie of Battenberg (25 February 1885 – 5 December 1969) was the mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and mother-in-law of Queen Elizabeth II. A great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria, Alice was ...

Princess Alice of Battenberg
, who was the mother of
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,Multiple sources: * * * * later Philip Mountbatten; 10 June 1921 – 9 April 2021), was the husband of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexand ...
. She was also a niece of
Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia
Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia
. Because of her father's work, the family moved around between different territories in the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, such as
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...
, but they returned often to the Schloss Heiligenberg (Jugenheim), Heiligenberg outside Darmstadt which they considered their holiday home, always retaining a residence in England. Louise often visited her great-grandmother Queen Victoria on the Isle of Wight with her mother during her childhood. The family is described as harmonious; the parents of Louise lived in a happy loving relationship, not in an arranged marriage, and Louise was particularly close to her brother, with whom she corresponded until her death. Louise and her sister were educated by governesses, except for a brief period at Texter's girls school in Darmstadt. In 1914, Louise and her mother visited the Russian Empire, and were invited to a trip down the Volga with their Imperial relatives. During her visit, Louise noted the influence of Rasputin with concern. The trip was interrupted by the sudden outbreak of the First World War, and Louise's father telegraphed for them to return immediately. Louise's mother gave her jewellery to the empress for safe keeping, and they left Russia by boat from Hapsal in Estonia and travelled to neutral Sweden, paying for the trip with gold, as their money was suddenly not acceptable currency in Russia. They stayed in Sweden as guests of Gustaf VI Adolf, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Margaret of Connaught, Crown Princess Margaret, her first cousin once removed, at Drottningholm Palace, just one night before they returned to Great Britain. During the First World War, Louise was first active within the Soldiers and Sailors Families Association and the Smokes for Soldiers and Sailors, but she soon enlisted in the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread specie ...

Red Cross
for service as a nurse. She was active at a French military hospital in Nevers, and then at a war hospital at Palaves outside Montpellier, from March 1915 until July 1917. She was commended for her hard work, and was awarded British War Medal, The British War and Victory Medal (United Kingdom), Victory Medals, a medal from the British Red Cross, as well as the ''Médaille de la Reconnaissance française''. After the war, she was active in social work for the children in the slums of Battersea in London.


Courtships

In 1909, Louise received a proposal from Manuel II of Portugal. Her grand-uncle, Edward VII, the British monarch, was in favour of the match, but Louise declined, as she wished to marry for love. At the age of twenty, Louise became secretly engaged to Prince Christopher of Greece, but they were forced to give up their relationship for financial reasons. Shortly before World War I broke out, Louise fell in love with a man of whom her parents approved but he was killed in the early days of the war.Hugo Vickers. Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece. Macmillan, 2003, pp. 127–130. Later during the war, while she volunteered as a nurse in Nevers, she began a relationship with Alexander Stuart-Hill, a Scottish artist living in Paris. Anticipating that her parents would be disappointed in her choice, Louise kept their engagement a secret. Eventually, she confided in her parents, who were initially understanding, and invited Stuart-Hill for visits at Kent House twice. In fact, her family, referring to him as "Shakespeare" because of his odd appearance, found him "eccentric" and "wiktionary:affectation, affected". Lacking resources, the engaged couple agreed to postpone marriage until after the war. But in 1918 Louise's father explained to her that Stuart-Hill was most likely homosexual, and that a marriage with him was impossible. In 1923 Gustaf VI Adolf, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, having been for three years the widower of Louise's mother's cousin Princess Margaret of Connaught, paid a visit to London and, to Louise's surprise, began to court her. Although as a young woman Louise had said that she would never marry a king or a widower, she accepted the proposal of a man destined to be both. However, under §5 of the ''1810 Swedish Succession Law'' (Act 1810:0926), a prince of the Swedish royal house forfeited his right of succession to the throne if he "with or without the King's knowledge and consent, married a private Swedish or foreign man's daughter" (''med eller utan Konungens vetskap och samtycke, tager till gemål enskild svensk eller utländsk mans dotter''). Once the couple's engagement was announced, there were lively discussions in the media about whether the bride-to-be was constitutionally eligible to become Sweden's future queen.Lindorm, Erik. ''Ny svensk historia, Gustaf V och hans tid 1919–1927'', 1979, page 240. In response the Swedish Foreign Ministry, citing the law in question, clarified the term "a private Swedish or foreign man's daughter" to mean "he who did not belong to a sovereign family or to a family which, according to international practice, would not be equal thereto" (''som icke vore medlem av suverän familj eller familj som enligt internationell praxis vore därmed likställd''), and announced that the Swedish government had "requested the British government's explanation of Lady Louise Mountbatten's position in this respect." The ministry further announced that following the British government's reply to its inquiry and the subsequent investigation into the matter, it had been determined that the Crown Prince's choice of a future wife was in compliance with the succession law, thereby concluding debate on the imminent nuptials. On 27 October 1923 Sweden and Britain's respective plenipotentiary, plenipotentiaries signed the "Treaty between Great Britain and Sweden for the Marriage of Lady Louise Mountbatten with His Royal Highness Prince Gustaf Adolf, Crown Prince of Sweden". The treaty stated, in part, that the kings of the United Kingdom and Sweden "having judged it proper that an alliance should again be contracted between their respective Royal Houses by a marriage...have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles", which articles declared that the marriage would be celebrated in London and duly authenticated, that the couple's financial settlements would be expressed in a separate marriage contract which was declared to be "an integral part of the present Treaty", and that the two nations' ratifications of the treaty would be exchanged in Stockholm, which formally occurred 12 November 1923. On 3 November 1923, at age 34, Louise married Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf, in the Chapel Royal at St. James's Palace in the presence of
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother ...

George V
and members of both royal families.


Crown princess

The marriage between Louise and Gustav Adolf was by all accounts a love match and described as very happy. She was also liked by her mother-in-law because of her friendly nature, although they seldom saw each other, as Victoria of Baden, Queen Victoria spent most of her time in Italy. The fact that the queen spent most of her time abroad meant that Louise took on many royal duties from the beginning, which was initially hard for her as she was at this point described as quite shy. After the queen's death in 1930, Louise was officially the first lady of the nation, expected to perform all the duties of a queen, twenty years before she actually became queen. This meant that Louise was to take over the protection of all the organisations and associations traditionally assigned to the queen. She was made the protector of the Swedish Red Cross, :sv:Kronprinsessan Lovisas Barnsjukhus, Children's Hospital of Crown Princess Louise, :sv:Eugeniahemmet, Eugenia Home, ''Drottningens centralkommitté'' ('Queen's Emergency Relief Committee'), ''Arbetsflitens Befrämjande'' ('The Promoting of Diligence'), ''Sophiahemmet'' and ''Svenska Hemslöjdsföreningarns Riksförbund'' ('Swedish Handicraft's Society'). Regarding this matter, Louise remarked: "It is hard for me to be the protector of different institutions, as I have been accustomed to practical work, as an ordinary person, before my marriage". As a former nurse, a fact she was proud to point out, Louise was interested in improving the working conditions for nurses. Louise's only child, a daughter, was stillborn on 30 May 1925. In 1926–1927, the crown princely couple made an international trip around the world to benefit Swedish interests, which was described as a great success, especially the trip to the United States, during which they travelled across the nation from New York City to San Francisco. Public interest was high, and the couple acquired a reputation for being "democratic", after having refused such formalities as greeting the guests at a reception sitting on thrones, which they had been invited to do at the reception of an American millionaire. During an interview in Salt Lake City, Louise stated that she believed in gender equality and that women are fully capable of being active within all professions and in the business world, as well as within politics: "Women are completely intellectually equal to men and, provided they are given sufficient education, are just as capable to deserve respect and admiration as men in this field". In 1934–35, she made a similar trip with Gustav Adolf to Greece and around the Middle East and Africa, called the Orient Tour. In 1936, Louise attended the funeral of George V of Great Britain. During World War II, Louise was active in aid work within the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread specie ...

Red Cross
. She collected candles and other non-electric light sources for the needy during the campaign "Vinterljus" (English: Winter Lights). Another contribution was Kronprinsessans Gåvokommitté för Neutralitetsvakten (English: "The Crown Princess Gift Association For the Neutral Defence Forces"), which provided the soldiers mobilised to guard the borders of neutral Sweden with gifts: normally socks, scarfs and caps knitted by contributors from all over the country. As a citizen of a neutral country, Louise was also able to act as a messenger between relatives and friends across warfaring borders. She also provided supplies to many private citizens in this way, such as "two old ladies in Münich", the former German language teacher of her husband's late wife, and the exiled Princess Tatiana of Russia in Palestine. It is said many would have died, had it not been for Louise's help. In 1940, for example, she sent supplies to the British major Michael Smiley of the Rifle Brigade, who was captured and placed in a prisoner of war camp, after his mother-in-law Alicia Pearson had asked for her help. During the Finnish Winter War, Louise set up a home for Finnish war orphans at Ulriksdal Palace.


Queen consort

In 1950, Louise became queen after her husband's accession to the throne. Louise is described as a true democrat at heart, and was therefore somewhat disturbed at being celebrated merely in her capacity of queen. In reference to the attention, she remarked: "People look at me as if I were something special. Surely I do not look differently today from how I looked yesterday!" Louise disliked the strict pre-World War I protocol at court, retained during her mother-in-law's era, and reformed it when she became queen, instituting new guidelines in 1954 which democraticised many old customs. In 1962, she abolished the court presentations, replaced them with "democratic ladies' lunches", to which she invited professional career women, a custom which was to continue under Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Princess Sibylla after her death. Louise also renovated and redecorated the interior of the Royal Palace in Stockholm. Louise was described as eccentric for royalty and temperamental; she could get very angry, but was said to possess a good heart, a great sense of humour, a sense of self-irony and was able to distinguish between herself and her royal role. She could show her sympathies openly, and this was taken as a sign of her honesty. One courtier commented, "I would describe the queen as a 'gentleman'. She would never avoid acknowledging her own mistakes". Louise is described as a great lover and patriot of her new home country, and was often shocked by Swedish non-patriotic customs. She was a supporter of the political system and democracy in the form it had developed in Sweden and stated her opinion to her relatives that no other political system than the Swedish one had created such a happy development for any nation. Queen Louise also admired Swedish nature and in particular Swedish women, because of what she considered their natural dignity regardless of class, and remarked that she had never seen a country with less vulgarity than Sweden. Queen Louise had several Pomeranian dogs which she would hide about her person when visiting abroad which caused problems when travelling through customs (which she usually did under the pseudonym "Countess of Gripsholm" or "Mrs Olsson"). After having taken summer vacations with her husband in Italy every year, she always departed before he did to visit England prior to returning to Sweden. A popular story told of her alleges that Louise, after almost being hit by a bus in London (because she would often jay-walk), took to carrying a small card with the words, "I am the Queen of Sweden" printed on it, so that people would know who she was in case she was hit by a vehicle. In London, she often stayed at the Hyde Park Hotel, often crossing a heavily trafficked street there to shop, which prompted her note. In 1963, Louise accompanied her spouse on a state visit to France, where she made a great impression on President Charles de Gaulle. At dinner, she said to him: "I must ask you to excuse my ugly French. My French is the one spoken in the trenches of 1914." De Gaulle later attended her memorial service in Paris, which was the first occasion for a French president to visit the Swedish church there, as well as one of only two occasions de Gaulle visited a memorial service of the kind. Queen Louise's last official engagement was the Nobel Prize dinner of 1964, during which no one noticed that she was in fact already ill.


Death and funeral

Queen Louise died on 7 March 1965 at Saint Göran Hospital, in Stockholm, Sweden, following emergency surgery after a period of severe illness. She had made her last public appearance at the Nobel Prize Ceremony in December 1964. Queen Louise is buried beside her husband and his first wife, Crown Princess Margaret, in the Kungliga begravningsplatsen, Royal Cemetery in Solna Municipality, Solna north of Stockholm.


Honours

* : Grand Star of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria * : Knight of the Order of the Elephant * : Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the White Rose * : ** Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour ** Recipient of the Medal of French Gratitude * : Grand-Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany * : ** Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion ** Recipient of the Decorations and medals of the Netherlands, Queen Juliana Investiture Medal * : ** Member of the Royal Order of the Seraphim ** Royal Family Order of King Gustaf V ** Royal Family Order of King Gustaf VI Adolf ** Recipient of the Orders, decorations, and medals of Sweden, 90th Birthday Badge Medal of King Gustaf V ** Recipient of the Orders, decorations, and medals of Sweden, 70th Birthday Badge Medal of King Gustaf V * : ** Recipient of the Royal Red Cross (RRC) ** Recipient of the British War Medal ** Recipient of the Victory Medal (United Kingdom), Victory Medal ** Recipient of the Voluntary Medical Service Medal


Arms and monogram

File:Blason de la Princesse Louise de Suède.svg, Louise's coat of arms as
Crown Princess of Sweden File:Royal Monogram of Queen Louise of Sweden.svg, Royal monogram of
Queen Louise of Sweden File:Greater coat of arms of Queen Louise (Sweden).svg, Louise's coat of arms as
Queen of Sweden


Ancestry

Queen Louise was the second of the four children of
Prince Louis of Battenberg Admiral of the Fleet An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (equivalent rank to admiral of the navy Admiral of the Navy was the highest possible rank in the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not ...
, by his wife
Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Victoria Alberta Elizabeth Mathilde Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (5 April 1863 – 24 September 1950), later Victoria Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven, was the eldest daughter of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, and P ...

Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
and a great-granddaughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. Both Queen Louise and her stepchildren were great-grandchildren of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
.


References


Sources

*Fjellman, Margit: ''Drottning Louise – En biografi'' (Queen Louise – A Biography), Bonniers, 1965; 232 pages (Sweden) *Fjellman, Margit: Louise Mountbatten, Queen of Sweden, London, Allen Unwin, 1968; *Fridh, Kjell: ''Gamle kungen Gustaf VI Adolf. En biografi'' (Old King Gustaf VI Adolf. A Biography). Wahlström & Widstrand (W&W), Stockholm, 1995; 368 pages (Sweden) *Severin, Kid: ''Vår Drottning'' (Our Queen), Åhlén & Åkerlunds Förlags AB Stockholm, 1963; 64 pages (Sweden) *Ulfsäter-Troell, Agnetha: ''Drottningar är också människor: Sex kvinnoöden på Stockholms slott'', Förlaget Ulfsäter, 1996, 479 pages (kap. Drottning Louise / Chapt. Queen Louise). Also TV-programme: ''Drottning av Sverige'' (Queen of Sweden), history programme about the six Bernadotte queens consort, from Queen Desirée to Queen Louise (adapted from the book), produced by Agneta Ulfsäter-Troell and Marianne Söderberg for Swedish Television Sveriges Television, SVT, 1996–97 (Sweden)


Further reading

*


External links


The Swedish Royal Court
(official website) {{DEFAULTSORT:Louise Mountbatten 1889 births 1965 deaths People from Darmstadt-Dieburg Swedish queens, Louise 1950 People from the Grand Duchy of Hesse Battenberg family German princesses Crown Princesses of Sweden Daughters of British marquesses Burials at Kungliga begravningsplatsen Members of the Royal Red Cross Recipients of the Grand Star of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria Recipients of the Order of the Sword Order of the Polar Star Mountbatten family