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Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called a "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He was an influential architect of the Chicago School, a mentor to
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and th ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the
Prairie School Robie House, 1910. It is considered by many to be the quintessential Prairie house Prairie School is a late 19th- and early 20th-century architectural style, most common in the Midwestern United States. The style is usually marked by horizon ...
. Along with Wright and
Henry Hobson Richardson Henry Hobson Richardson (September 29, 1838 – April 27, 1886) was a prominent North American architect, best known for his work in a style that became known as Richardsonian Romanesque. Along with Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, Richards ...
, Sullivan is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture". The phrase "
form follows function Form follows function is a principle of design associated with late 19th and early 20th century architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45 ...
" is attributed to him, although he credited the concept to ancient Roman architect
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
. In 1944, Sullivan was the second architect to posthumously receive the
AIA Gold Medal The AIA Gold Medal is awarded by the American Institute of Architects conferred "by the national AIA Board of Directors in recognition of a significant body of work of lasting influence on the theory and practice of architecture." It is the Insti ...
.


Early life and career

Sullivan was born to a Swiss-born mother, Andrienne List (who had emigrated to Boston from
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 1248 ...

Geneva
with her parents and two siblings, Jenny, b. 1836, and Jules, b. 1841) and an Irish-born father, Patrick Sullivan. Both had immigrated to the United States in the late 1840s.Sullivan, Louis H. ''Autobiography of an Idea.'' Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 2009 (reprint of 1924 edition), p. 31.
This reference illustrates Sullivan's adoption of the "Henri" spelling of his middle name towards the end of his life.
He learned that he could both graduate from high school a year early and bypass the first two years at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a in . Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern technology and science, ranking it among the top in the world. Founded in response to the increasing ...
by passing a series of examinations. Entering MIT at the age of sixteen, Sullivan studied architecture there briefly. After one year of study, he moved to
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the of in the . It is the in the United States and the city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2020 population of 1,603,797. It is also the in the Northeastern U ...

Philadelphia
and took a job with architect
Frank Furness Frank Heyling Furness (November 12, 1839 - June 27, 1912) was an American architect of the Victorian era. He designed more than 600 buildings, most in the Philadelphia area, and is remembered for his diverse, muscular, often unordinarily scaled bui ...
. The
Depression of 1873 The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered an depression (economics), economic depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 to 1877 or 1879 in France and in United Kingdom, Britain. In Britain, the Panic started two d ...
dried up much of Furness's work, and he was forced to let Sullivan go. Sullivan moved to Chicago in 1873 to take part in the building boom following the
Great Chicago Fire The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration A conflagration is a large and destructive fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Pro ...
of 1871. He worked for
William LeBaron Jenney William Le Baron Jenney (September 25, 1832 – June 14, 1907) was an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connect ...
, the architect often credited with erecting the first
steel frame frame at 30 St Mary Axe 30 St Mary Axe (known previously as the Swiss Re Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd,
" Swis ...
building. After less than a year with Jenney, Sullivan moved to Paris and studied at the
École des Beaux-Arts École des Beaux-Arts (; ) refers to a number of influential art schools in France. The term is associated with the Beaux-Arts style 300px, Beaux-arts buildings at the University of California, Berkeley, designed by John Galen Howard ">John_ ...
for a year. He returned to Chicago and began work for the firm of Joseph S. Johnston & John Edelman as a
draftsman A drafter, draughtsman/draughtswoman (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engla ...

draftsman
. Johnston & Edleman were commissioned for the design of the Moody Tabernacle, and had the interior decorative ''fresco secco'' stencils (stencil technique applied on dry plaster) designed by Sullivan. In 1879
Dankmar Adler Dankmar Adler (July 3, 1844 – April 16, 1900) was a German-born American architect and civil engineer. He is best known for his fifteen-year partnership with Louis Sullivan, during which they designed influential skyscrapers that boldly address ...

Dankmar Adler
hired Sullivan. A year later, Sullivan became a partner in Adler's firm. This marked the beginning of Sullivan's most productive years.
Adler and SullivanAdler & Sullivan was an architectural firm founded by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. It is known for designing the Auditorium Building in Chicago and the Wainwright Building in St Louis. In 1883 Louis Sullivan was added to Adler's architectural fi ...
initially achieved fame as theater architects. While most of their theaters were in Chicago, their fame won commissions as far west as
Pueblo, Colorado The City of Pueblo () is the List of municipalities in Colorado#Home rule municipality, home rule municipality that is the county seat and the List of municipalities in Colorado, most populous municipality of Pueblo County, Colorado, Pueblo Co ...
, and
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a seaport File:PorticcioloCedas.jpg, The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility which may comprise one or more Wharf, wharves where shi ...

Seattle
, Washington (unbuilt). The culminating project of this phase of the firm's history was the 1889
Auditorium Building The Auditorium Building in Chicago is one of the best-known designs of Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler. Completed in 1889, the building is located at the northwest corner of South Michigan Avenue (Chicago), Michigan Avenue and Congress Street ...
(1886–90, opened in stages) in Chicago, an extraordinary mixed-use building that included not only a 4,200-seat theater, but also a hotel and an office building with a 17-story tower and commercial storefronts at the ground level of the building, fronting Congress and Wabash Avenues. After 1889 the firm became known for their office buildings, particularly the 1891
Wainwright Building The Wainwright Building (also known as the Wainwright State Office Building) is a 10-story, terra cotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ...
in
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. With more than six million residents, it is the List of U.S. states and territor ...

St. Louis
and the Schiller (later Garrick) Building and theater (1890) in Chicago. Other buildings often noted include the Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894), the Guaranty Building (also known as the Prudential Building) of 1895–96 in
Buffalo, New York Buffalo is the in the of and the largest city in . 's census estimates, the city proper population was 255,284. The city is the of and serves as a major gateway for commerce and travel across the , forming part of the bi-national , the an ...

Buffalo, New York
, and the 1899–1904 Carson Pirie Scott Department Store by Sullivan on State Street in Chicago.


Sullivan and the steel high-rise

Prior to the late nineteenth century, the weight of a multi-story building had to be supported principally by the strength of its walls. The taller the building, the more strain this placed on the lower sections of the building; since there were clear engineering limits to the weight such "load-bearing" walls could sustain, tall designs meant massively thick walls on the ground floors, and definite limits on the building's height. The development of cheap, versatile steel in the second half of the nineteenth century changed those rules. America was in the midst of rapid social and economic growth that made for great opportunities in architectural design. A much more urbanized society was forming and the society called out for new, larger buildings. The mass production of steel was the main driving force behind the ability to build skyscrapers during the mid-1880s. By assembling a framework of steel girders, architects and builders could create tall, slender buildings with a strong and relatively lightweight steel skeleton. The rest of the building elements—walls, floors, ceilings, and windows—were suspended from the skeleton, which carried the weight. This new way of constructing buildings, so-called "column-frame" construction, pushed them up rather than out. The steel weight-bearing frame allowed not just taller buildings, but permitted much larger windows, which meant more daylight reaching interior spaces. Interior walls became thinner, which created more usable (and rentable) floor space. Chicago's
Monadnock Building The Monadnock Building (historically the Monadnock Block; pronounced ) is a 16-story skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 ...

Monadnock Building
(not designed by Sullivan) straddles this remarkable moment of transition: the northern half of the building, finished in 1891, is of load-bearing construction, while the southern half, finished only two years later, is of column-frame construction. While experiments in this new technology were taking place in many cities, Chicago was the crucial laboratory. Industrial capital and civic pride drove a surge of new construction throughout the city's downtown in the wake of the 1871 fire. The technical limits of weight-bearing masonry had imposed formal as well as structural constraints; suddenly, those constraints were gone. None of the historical precedents needed to be applied and this new freedom resulted in a technical and stylistic crisis of sorts. Sullivan addressed it by embracing the changes that came with the steel frame, creating a grammar of form for the high rise (base, shaft, and cornice), simplifying the appearance of the building by breaking away from historical styles, using his own intricate floral designs, in vertical bands, to draw the eye upward and to emphasize the vertical form of the building, and relating the shape of the building to its specific purpose. All this was revolutionary, appealingly honest, and commercially successful. In 1896, Louis Sullivan wrote:
It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human, and all things super-human, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. ''This is the law.'' (italics in original)
"
Form follows function Form follows function is a principle of design associated with late 19th and early 20th century architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45 ...
" would become one of the prevailing tenets of modern architects. Sullivan attributed the concept to
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is ...
, the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
architect, engineer, and author, who first asserted in his book, ''
De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is a treatise on architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the ...

De architectura
(On architecture)'', that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of ''firmitas, utilitas, venustas'' – that is, it must be "solid, useful, beautiful." This credo, which placed the demands of practical use above
aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality R ...

aesthetics
, later would be taken by influential designers to imply that decorative elements, which architects call "ornament", were superfluous in modern buildings, but Sullivan neither thought nor designed along such dogmatic lines during the peak of his career. While his buildings could be spare and crisp in their principal masses, he often punctuated their plain surfaces with eruptions of lush
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating somet ...
or
Celtic Revival The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture. Artists and writers drew on the traditions of Gaelic lit ...
decorations, usually cast in iron or
terra cotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", literally "cooked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the Pottery fi ...

terra cotta
, and ranging from organic forms, such as vines and ivy, to more geometric designs and interlace, inspired by his Irish design heritage. Terra cotta is lighter and easier to work with than stone masonry. Sullivan used it in his architecture because it had a malleability that was appropriate for his ornament. Probably the most famous example of ornament used by Sullivan is the writhing green ironwork that covers the entrance canopies of the Carson Pirie Scott store on south State Street. Such ornaments, often executed by the talented younger draftsmen in Sullivan's employ, eventually would become Sullivan's trademark; to students of architecture, they are instantly recognizable as his signature. Another signature element of Sullivan's work is the massive, semi-circular arch. Sullivan employed such arches throughout his career—in shaping entrances, in framing windows, or as interior design. All of these elements are found in Sullivan's widely admired Guaranty Building, which he designed while partnered with Adler. Completed in 1895, this office building in
Buffalo, New York Buffalo is the in the of and the largest city in . 's census estimates, the city proper population was 255,284. The city is the of and serves as a major gateway for commerce and travel across the , forming part of the bi-national , the an ...

Buffalo, New York
is in the Palazzo style, visibly divided into three "zones" of design: a plain, wide-windowed base for the ground-level shops; the main office block, with vertical ribbons of masonry rising unimpeded across nine upper floors to emphasize the building's height; and an ornamented cornice perforated by round windows at the roof level, where the building's mechanical units (such as the elevator motors) were housed. The cornice is covered by Sullivan's trademark Art Nouveau vines and each ground-floor entrance is topped by a semi-circular arch. Because Sullivan's remarkable accomplishments in design and construction occurred at such a critical time in architectural history, he often has been described as the "father" of the American skyscraper. But many architects had been building skyscrapers before or as contemporaries of Sullivan; they were designed as an expression of new technology. Chicago was replete with extraordinary designers and builders in the late years of the nineteenth century, including Sullivan's partner,
Dankmar Adler Dankmar Adler (July 3, 1844 – April 16, 1900) was a German-born American architect and civil engineer. He is best known for his fifteen-year partnership with Louis Sullivan, during which they designed influential skyscrapers that boldly address ...

Dankmar Adler
, as well as
Daniel Burnham Daniel Hudson Burnham, (September 4, 1846 – June 1, 1912) was an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection wi ...

Daniel Burnham
and
John Wellborn Root John Wellborn Root (January 10, 1850 – January 15, 1891) was an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection wit ...
. Root was one of the builders of the Monadnock Building (see above). That and another Root design, the Masonic Temple Tower (both in Chicago), are cited by many as the originators of skyscraper aesthetics of bearing wall and column-frame construction, respectively.


Later career and decline

In 1890 Sullivan was one of the ten U.S. architects, five from the east and five from the west, chosen to build a major structure for the "White City", the
World's Columbian Exposition The World's Columbian Exposition (the official shortened name for the World's Fair: Columbian Exposition, also known as the Chicago World's Fair) was a world's fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columb ...
, held in Chicago in 1893. Sullivan's massive Transportation Building and huge arched "Golden Door" stood out as the only building not of the current Beaux-Arts style, and with the only multicolored facade in the entire White City. Sullivan and fair director
Daniel Burnham Daniel Hudson Burnham, (September 4, 1846 – June 1, 1912) was an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection wi ...

Daniel Burnham
were vocal about their displeasure with each other. Sullivan later claimed (1922) that the fair set the course of American architecture back "for half a century from its date, if not longer." His was the only building to receive extensive recognition outside America, receiving three medals from the French-based ''Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs'' the following year. Like all American architects, Adler and Sullivan suffered a precipitous decline in their practice with the onset of the
Panic of 1893 The Panic of 1893 was an economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recession, which is a slowdown ...
. According to Charles Bebb, who was working in the office at that time, Adler borrowed money to try to keep employees on the payroll. By 1894, however, in the face of continuing financial distress with no relief in sight, Adler and Sullivan dissolved their partnership. The Guaranty Building was considered the last major project of the firm. By both temperament and connections, Adler had been the one who brought in new business to the partnership, and following the rupture Sullivan received few large commissions after the Carson Pirie Scott Department Store. He went into a twenty-year-long financial and emotional decline, beset by a shortage of commissions, chronic financial problems, and alcoholism. He obtained a few commissions for small-town Midwestern banks (see below), wrote books, and in 1922 appeared as a critic of
Raymond HoodRaymond Mathewson Hood (March 29, 1881 – August 14, 1934) was an American architect who worked in the Neo-Gothic Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1 ...
's winning entry for the
Tribune Tower The Tribune Tower is a , 36-floor Gothic Revival architecture, neo-Gothic skyscraper located at 435 Magnificent Mile, North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Built between 1923 and 1925, the international design competition for ...

Tribune Tower
competition. He died in a Chicago hotel room on April 14, 1924. He left a wife, Mary Azona Hattabaugh, from whom he was separated. A modest headstone marks his final resting spot in
Graceland Cemetery Graceland Cemetery is a large historic garden cemetery located in the north side community area of Uptown, in the city of Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactiv ...

Graceland Cemetery
in Chicago's
Uptown Uptown may refer to: Neighborhoods or regions in several cities United States * Uptown, entertainment district east of Downtown and Midtown Albuquerque, New Mexico * Uptown Charlotte, North Carolina * Uptown, area surrounding the University of Cin ...
and Lake View neighborhood. Later, a monument was erected in Sullivan's honor, a few feet from his headstone.


Legacy

Sullivan's legacy is contradictory. Some consider him the first modernist. His forward-looking designs clearly anticipate some issues and solutions of Modernism; however, his embrace of ornament makes his contribution distinct from the Modern Movement that coalesced in the 1920s and became known as the " International Style". Sullivan's built work expresses the appeal of his incredible designs: the vertical bands on the Wainwright Building, the burst of welcoming
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating somet ...
ironwork on the corner entrance of the Carson Pirie Scott store, the (lost) terra cotta griffins and porthole windows on the Union Trust building, and the white angels of the Bayard Building, Sullivan's only work in New York City. Except for some designs by his longtime draftsman
George Grant Elmslie George Grant Elmslie (February 20, 1869 – April 23, 1952) was a Scottish-born American Prairie School File:Frank Lloyd Wright - Robie House 2.JPG, Robie House, 1910. It is considered by many to be the quintessential Prairie house Prairie ...
, and the occasional tribute to Sullivan such as Schmidt, Garden & Martin's First National Bank in
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...
, Colorado (built across the street from Adler and Sullivan's Pueblo Opera House), his style is unique. A visit to the preserved
Chicago Stock Exchange NYSE Chicago, formerly known as the Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX), is a stock exchange in Chicago, Illinois, US. The exchange is a national securities exchange and self-regulatory organization, which operates under the oversight of the U.S. Securi ...
trading floor, now at The Art Institute of Chicago, is proof of the immediate and visceral power of the ornament that he used so selectively. Original drawings and other archival materials from Sullivan are held by the
Ryerson & BurnhamImage:Burnham Library Simon Fieldhouse 1.jpg, The Burnham Library was founded in 1912 The Ryerson & Burnham Libraries are the art and architecture research collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. The libraries cover all periods with extensive h ...
Libraries in the
Art Institute of Chicago The Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdiv ...

Art Institute of Chicago
and by the drawings and archives department in the
Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library 275px, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library is a library located in Avery Hall on the Morningside Heights campus of Columbia University in the New York City. It is the large ...
at
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a in . Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of in , Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in and ...

Columbia University
. Fragments of Sullivan buildings also are held in many fine art and design museums around the world.


Preservation

During the postwar era of
urban renewal File:Cabrini Green Housing Project.jpg, upright=1.35, 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicago's Cabrini–Green Homes, Cabrini–Green Public housing, housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts Urban renewal (also called urban regene ...
, Sullivan's works fell into disfavor, and many were demolished. In the 1970s growing public concern for these buildings finally resulted in many being saved. The most vocal voice was
Richard Nickel Richard Stanley Nickel (May 31, 1928 – April 13, 1972) was a Polish American Polish Americans ( pl, Polonia amerykańska) are Americans who have total or partial Poles, Polish ancestry. There are an estimated 9.15 million self-identified Polish ...
, who organized protests against the demolition of architecturally significant buildings. Nickel and others sometimes rescued decorative elements from condemned buildings, sneaking in during demolition. Nickel died inside Sullivan's Stock Exchange building while trying to retrieve some elements, when a floor above him collapsed. Nickel had compiled extensive research on Adler and Sullivan and their many architectural commissions, which he intended to publish in book form. After Nickel's death, in 1972 the Richard Nickel Committee was formed, to arrange for completion of his book, which was published in 2010. The book features all 256 commissions of Adler and Sullivan. The extensive archive of photographs and research that underpinned the book was donated to the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries at The Art Institute of Chicago. More than 1,300 photographs may be viewed on their website and more than 15,000 photographs are part of the collection at The Art Institute of Chicago. As finally published, the book, ''The Complete Architecture of Adler & Sullivan'', was authored by Richard Nickel, Aaron Siskind, John Vinci, and Ward Miller. Another champion of Sullivan's legacy was the architect Crombie Taylor (1907–1991), of Crombie Taylor Associates. After working in Chicago, where he had headed the famous "Institute of Design", later known as the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), in the 1950s and early 1960s, he had moved to Southern California. He led the effort to save the Van Allen Building in
Clinton, Iowa Clinton is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Hungary and the Uni ...
from demolition. Taylor, acting as an aesthetic consultant, had worked on the renovation of the
Auditorium Building The Auditorium Building in Chicago is one of the best-known designs of Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler. Completed in 1889, the building is located at the northwest corner of South Michigan Avenue (Chicago), Michigan Avenue and Congress Street ...
(now
Roosevelt University Roosevelt University is a Private school, private university with campuses in Chicago, Peoria, Illinois, Peoria, Waukegan, Illinois, Waukegan and Schaumburg, Illinois, Schaumburg, Illinois. Founded in 1945, the university is named in honor of both ...

Roosevelt University
) in Chicago. When he read an article about the planned demolition in Clinton, he uprooted his family from their home in southern California and moved them to Iowa. With the vision of a destination neighborhood comparable to
Oak Park, Illinois Oak Park is a village in Cook County Cook County is the most populous county (United States), county in the U.S. state of Illinois and the List of the most populous counties in the United States, second-most-populous county in the United Stat ...
, he set about creating a nonprofit to save the building, and was successful in doing so. Another advocate both of Sullivan buildings and of Wright structures was Jack Randall, who led an effort to save the Wainwright Building in St. Louis, Missouri at a very critical time. He relocated his family to Buffalo, New York to save Sullivan's Guaranty Building and
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and th ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
's
Darwin Martin House
Darwin Martin House
from possible demolition. His efforts were successful in both St. Louis and Buffalo. A collection of architectural ornaments designed by Sullivan is on permanent display at Lovejoy Library at
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or ...
. The St. Louis Art Museum also has Sullivan architectural elements displayed. The
City Museum
City Museum
in St. Louis has a large collection of Sullivan ornamentation on display, including a cornice from the demolished Chicago Stock Exchange, 29 feet long on one side, 13 feet on another, and nine feet high. The Guaranty Building Interpretive Center in Buffalo, on the first floor of the building now owned and occupied by the law firm Hodgson Russ, LLP, opened in 2017. The exhibit space was financed by Hodgson Russ, LLP, and co-designed by Flynn Battaglia Architects and Hadley Exhibits. It features a scale model of the building by David J. Carli, Professor of Engineering at the State University of New York at Alfred. The Center's exhibits were donated to Preservation Buffalo Niagara. The Center, the only museum dedicated to Sullivan, is open to the public.


Sullivan in Ayn Rand's ''The Fountainhead''

That the fictional character of Henry Cameron in
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, ''The Fountainhead'' and ''Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosophic ...

Ayn Rand
's 1943 novel ''
The Fountainhead ''The Fountainhead'' is a 1943 novel by Russian-American author Ayn Rand, her first major literary success. The novel's protagonist, Howard Roark, is an intransigent young architect, who battles against conventional standards and refuses to compr ...
'' was similar to the real-life Sullivan was noted, if only in passing, by at least one journalist contemporary to the book. More recent study of Rand's posthumously published journal notes, as well as a close comparison of the respective careers of the real and fictional architects by Heynick, has explored this connection in some detail. Although Rand's journal notes contain ''in toto'' only some 50 lines directly referring to Sullivan, it is clear from her mention of Sullivan's ''Autobiography of an Idea'' (1924) in her 25th-anniversary introduction to her earlier novel ''
We the Living ''We the Living'' is the debut novel of the Russian American novelist Ayn Rand. It is a story of life in post-revolutionary Russia and was Rand's first statement against communism Communism (from Latin la, communis, lit=common, univer ...
'' (first published in 1936, and unrelated to architecture) that she was intimately familiar with his life and career. The term "the Fountainhead," which appears nowhere in Rand's novel proper, is found twice (as "the fountainhead" and later as "the fountain head") in Sullivan's autobiography, both times used metaphorically. The fictional Cameron is, like Sullivan – whose physical description he matches – a great innovative skyscraper pioneer late in the nineteenth century who dies impoverished and embittered in the mid-1920s. Cameron's rapid decline is explicitly attributed to the wave of classical Greco-Roman revivalism in architecture in the wake of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, just as Sullivan in his autobiography attributed his own downfall to the same event. The major difference between novel and real life was in the chronology of Cameron's relation with his protégé Howard Roark, the novel's hero, who eventually goes on to redeem his vision. That Roark's uncompromising individualism and his innovative organic style in architecture were drawn from the life and work of
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and th ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
is clear from Rand's journal notes, her correspondence, and various contemporary accounts. In the novel, however, the 23-year-old Roark, a generation younger than the real-life Wright, becomes Cameron's protégé in the early 1920s, when Sullivan was long in decline. The young Wright, by contrast, was Sullivan's protégé for seven years, beginning in 1887, when Sullivan was at the height of his fame and power. The two architects would sever their ties in 1894 due to Sullivan's angry reaction to Wright's moonlighting in breach of his contract with Sullivan, but Wright continued to call Sullivan "lieber Meister" ("beloved Master") for the rest of his life. After decades of estrangement, Wright would again become close to the now-destitute Sullivan in the early 1920s, the time when Roark first comes under the likewise impoverished Cameron's tutelage in the novel. Wright, however, was now in his fifties. Nevertheless, both the young Roark and middle-aged Wright had in common at that time that they both faced a decade of struggle ahead. After the triumphs earlier in his career, Wright came increasingly to be viewed as a has-been, until he experienced a renaissance in the latter half of the 1930s with such projects as
Fallingwater Fallingwater is a house designed by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. T ...
and the
Johnson Wax Headquarters Johnson Wax Headquarters is the world headquarters and administration building of S. C. Johnson & Son in Racine, Wisconsin Racine ( ) is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital cit ...
.


Selected projects

''Buildings 1887–1895 by
Adler & SullivanAdler & Sullivan was an architectural firm founded by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. It is known for designing the Auditorium Building in Chicago and the Wainwright Building in St Louis. In 1883 Louis Sullivan was added to Adler's architectural fi ...
:'' * Martin Ryerson Tomb,
Graceland Cemetery Graceland Cemetery is a large historic garden cemetery located in the north side community area of Uptown, in the city of Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactiv ...

Graceland Cemetery
, Chicago (1887) *
Auditorium Building The Auditorium Building in Chicago is one of the best-known designs of Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler. Completed in 1889, the building is located at the northwest corner of South Michigan Avenue (Chicago), Michigan Avenue and Congress Street ...
, Chicago (1889) *
Carrie Eliza Getty Tomb The Carrie Eliza Getty Tomb, located in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, United States, was commissioned in 1890 by the lumber baron, Henry Harrison Getty, for his wife, Carrie Eliza. It was designed by the noted American ...
, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago (1890) *
Wainwright Building The Wainwright Building (also known as the Wainwright State Office Building) is a 10-story, terra cotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ...
, St. Louis (1890) * Charlotte Dickson Wainwright Tomb,
Bellefontaine Cemetery Bellefontaine Cemetery is a , and in , . Founded in 1849 as a , Bellefontaine is home to a number of architecturally significant and such as the -designed , which is listed on the . The cemetery contains of land and over 87,000 graves, in ...

Bellefontaine Cemetery
, St. Louis (1892), listed on the National Register of Historic Places (shown at right), is considered a major American architectural triumph, a model for ecclesiastical architecture, a "masterpiece", and has been called "the
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (; , ), is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan () to house the tomb of his favourite wi ...

Taj Mahal
of St. Louis." The family name appears nowhere on the tomb. * Union Trust Building (now 705 Olive), St. Louis (1893; street-level ornament heavily altered in 1924) * Guaranty Building (formerly Prudential Building),
Buffalo
Buffalo
(1894) ''Buildings 1887–1922 by Louis Sullivan:'' (256 total commissions and projects) * Springer Block (later Bay State Building and Burnham Building) and Kranz Buildings, Chicago (1885–1887) * Selz, Schwab & Company Factory, Chicago (1886–1887) * Hebrew Manual Training School, Chicago (1889–1890) * James H. Walker Warehouse & Company Store, Chicago (1886–1889) * Warehouse for E. W. Blatchford, Chicago (1889) *
James Charnley House The James Charnley Residence, also known as the Charnley-Persky House, is a historic house museum at 1365 North Astor Street in the Gold Coast, Chicago, Gold Coast neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. Built in 1892, it is one of the few surviving ...

James Charnley House
(also known as the Charnley–Persky House Museum Foundation and the National Headquarters of the Society of Architectural Historians), Chicago (1891–1892) * Albert Sullivan Residence, Chicago (1891–1892) * McVicker's Theater, second remodeling, Chicago (1890–1891) * Bayard Building, (now Bayard-Condict Building), 65–69 Bleecker Street, New York City (1898). Sullivan's only building in New York, with a glazed terra cotta curtain wall expressing the steel structure behind it. * Commercial Loft of
Gage Brothers & Company
Gage Brothers & Company
, Chicago (1898–1900) * Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Cathedral and Rectory, Chicago (1900–1903) * Carson Pirie Scott store, (originally known as the Schlesinger & Mayer Store, now known as "Sullivan Center") Chicago (1899–1904) * Virginia Hall of
Tusculum College Tusculum University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two de ...
,
Greeneville, Tennessee Greeneville is a town in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Tow ...
(1901) * Van Allen Building,
Clinton, Iowa Clinton is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Hungary and the Uni ...
(1914) * St. Paul United Methodist Church,
Cedar Rapids, Iowa Cedar Rapids () is the second-largest city in Iowa Iowa () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux R ...
(1910) *
Krause Music Store
Krause Music Store
, Chicago (final commission 1922; front façade only)


Banks

By the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, Sullivan's star was well on the descent and, for the remainder of his life, his output consisted primarily of a series of small bank and commercial buildings in the
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four Census Bureau Region, census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of ...
. Yet a look at these buildings clearly reveals that Sullivan's muse had not abandoned him. When the director of a bank that was considering hiring him asked Sullivan why they should engage him at a cost higher than the bids received for a conventional Neo-Classic styled building from other architects, Sullivan is reported to have replied, "A thousand architects could design those buildings. Only I can design this one." He got the job. Today these commissions are collectively referred to as Sullivan's "Jewel Boxes". All still stand. * National Farmer's Bank, Owatonna, Minnesota (1908) * Peoples Savings Bank,
Cedar Rapids Cedar Rapids () is the second-largest city in Iowa Iowa () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux R ...
, Iowa (1912) * Henry Adams Building,
Algona, Iowa Algona is the county seat of Kossuth County, Iowa, Kossuth County, Iowa, United States. The population was 5,560 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. Ambrose A. Call State Park is located two miles southwest of the city. History Algona wa ...
(1913) * Merchants' National Bank,
Grinnell, Iowa in GrinnellArchitect: Louis Sullivan Grinnell is a city in Poweshiek County, Iowa, Poweshiek County, Iowa, United States. The population was 9,218 at the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census. History Grinnell was founded as a "Yankee" town, ...
(1914) * Home Building Association Company, Newark, Ohio (1914) * Purdue State Bank,
West Lafayette West Lafayette () is a city in Wabash Township, Tippecanoe County, Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or Amer ...
, Indiana (1914) *
People's Federal Savings and Loan Association The People's Federal Savings and Loan Association is a historic bank building at 101 East Court Street in Sidney, Ohio, designed by Chicago architect Louis Sullivan Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an Americ ...
,
Sidney, Ohio Sidney is a city in Shelby County, Ohio, Shelby County, Ohio, located approximately 36 mi (58 km) north of Dayton, Ohio, Dayton and 100 mi (161 km) south of Toledo, Ohio, Toledo. The population was 21,229 at the time of the 2010 ...
(1918) * Farmers and Merchants Bank,
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
, Wisconsin (1919) * First National Bank,
Manistique, Michigan Manistique, formerly Monistique, is the only city and county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, R ...
(1919–1920), a remodeling of an existing bank building


Lost buildings

* Grand Opera House, Chicago, 1880, demolished 1927 * Washington Elementary School, Marengo, Illinois, Adler & Sullivan, (year?), demolished 1993 (needs citation) * Pueblo Opera House, Pueblo, Colorado, 1890, destroyed by fire 1922 * New Orleans Union Station, 1892, demolished 1954 * Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1891, demolished 1965 * Chicago Stock Exchange Building, Adler & Sullivan, 1893, demolished 1972 ::The
trading room A trading room gathers traders operating on financial market A financial market is a market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island sh ...
from the Stock Exchange was removed intact prior to the building being demolished and subsequently, was restored in the
Art Institute of Chicago The Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdiv ...

Art Institute of Chicago
in 1977; the entryway arch (seen at right) stands outside on the northeast corner of the AIC site * Zion Temple, Chicago, 1884, demolished 1954 * Troescher Building, Chicago, 1884, demolished 1978 * Transportation Building,
World's Columbian Exposition The World's Columbian Exposition (the official shortened name for the World's Fair: Columbian Exposition, also known as the Chicago World's Fair) was a world's fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columb ...
, Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1893–94, an exposition building built to last a year * Louis Sullivan and Charnley Cottages, Ocean Springs, Mississippi, destroyed in
Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was a large and destructive List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes, Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that caused over 1,800 fatalities and $125 billion in damage in late August 2005, especially in the city of New Orleans and ...
;
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and th ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
also claimed credit for the design *
Schiller Building
Schiller Building
(later Garrick Theater), Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1891, demolished 1961 * Third McVickers Theater, Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1883? demolished 1922 * Thirty-Ninth Street Passenger Station, Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1886, demolished 1934 * Standard Club, Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1887–88, demolished 1931 *
Pilgrim Baptist Church Pilgrim Baptist Church is a historic church located on the south side of Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates ...

Pilgrim Baptist Church
, Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1891, destroyed by fire January 6, 2006 * Wirt Dexter Building, Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1887, destroyed by fire October 24, 2006 * George Harvey House, Chicago, Adler & Sullivan, 1888 destroyed by fire November 4, 2006


Gallery

File:2010-07-04 1800x2700 stlouis 705 olive street building.jpg, Union Trust Building File:Wainwright building st louis USA.jpg,
Wainwright Building The Wainwright Building (also known as the Wainwright State Office Building) is a 10-story, terra cotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ...
File:Louis Sullivan - cornice detail - Wainwright Building, Seventh + Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, St. Louis City County, MO.jpg, Wainwright Building cornice File:Auditorium Building Chicago.jpg,
Auditorium Building The Auditorium Building in Chicago is one of the best-known designs of Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler. Completed in 1889, the building is located at the northwest corner of South Michigan Avenue (Chicago), Michigan Avenue and Congress Street ...
File:Oldchicagostockexchange.jpg,
Chicago Stock Exchange NYSE Chicago, formerly known as the Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX), is a stock exchange in Chicago, Illinois, US. The exchange is a national securities exchange and self-regulatory organization, which operates under the oversight of the U.S. Securi ...
Building File:Getty tomb chicago louis sullivan.jpg, Getty Tomb File:Bayard-condict bldg crop.jpg, Bayard-Condict Building File:Carsons Pirie Scott & Co.jpg, Carson Pirie Scott store File:Van Allen July 18, 2005 249.JPG, The Van Allen Building File:Gage Buildings - Chicago, Illinois.jpg, Gage Building (on right) File:Louis Sullivan - exterior - Holy Trinity Russian & Greek Orthodox Church, 1121 North Leavitt Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL.jpg, Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Cathedral, exterior File:Louis Sullivan - interior - Holy Trinity Russian & Greek Orthodox Church, 1121 North Leavitt Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL.jpg, Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Cathedral, interior File:Sidney-ohio-pfsl.jpg,
People's Federal Savings and Loan Association The People's Federal Savings and Loan Association is a historic bank building at 101 East Court Street in Sidney, Ohio, designed by Chicago architect Louis Sullivan Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an Americ ...
File:LSCedarRapids1.jpg, Peoples Savings Bank File:OwatonnaBank.JPG, National Farmer's Bank of Owatonna File:Harold-c-bradley-house.jpg, , Wisconsin File:Louis Sullivan Jewel Box, Grinnell, Iowa.jpg, Merchants' National Bank,
Grinnell, Iowa in GrinnellArchitect: Louis Sullivan Grinnell is a city in Poweshiek County, Iowa, Poweshiek County, Iowa, United States. The population was 9,218 at the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census. History Grinnell was founded as a "Yankee" town, ...
File:2005-03-15 1860x2480 chicago krause.jpg, Krause Music Store File:Farmers and Merchants Union Bank by Louis Sullivan, James Street, Columbus, Wisconsin LCCN2017706198.tif, Farmers and Merchants Union Bank,
Columbus, Wisconsin Image:ColumbusWisconsinCityHall.jpg, City Hall Columbus is a city in Columbia County, Wisconsin, Columbia (mostly) and Dodge County, Wisconsin, Dodge Counties in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 4,991 at the ...


See also

* American Prize for Architecture *
Richard Bock Richard W. Bock (July 16, 1865 – 1949) was an American sculptor and associate of Frank Lloyd Wright. He was particularly known for his sculptural decorations for architecture and military memorials,Lorado Taft''The History of American Sculpture'' ...
* '' Tall: The American Skyscraper and Louis Sullivan''


References

Notes Bibliography * ''Columbian Gallery – A Portfolio of Photographs of the World's Fair'', The Werner Company, Chicago, IL, 1894. * Condit, Carl W., ''The Chicago School of Architecture'',
University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to t ...
, Chicago, IL, 1964. * Connely, Willard, ''Louis Sullivan as He Lived'', Horizon Press, Inc., NY, 1960. * Engelbrecht, Lloyd C., "Adler and Sullivan's Pueblo Opera House: City Status for a New Town in the Rockies", ''The Art Bulletin'', College Art Association of America, June 1985. * * * Morrison, Hugh, ''Louis Sullivan – Prophet of Modern Architecture'', W.W. Norton & Co., Inc. New York City, 1963. * Nickel, Richard; Siskind, Aaron; Vinci, John; and Miller, Ward. ''The Complete Architecture of Adler & Sullivan'', Richard Nickel Committee, Chicago, Illinois, 2010. * Sullivan, Louis, ''The Autobiography of an Idea'', Press of the American institute of Architects, Inc., New York City, 1924. * Sullivan, Louis, ''Kindergarten Chats and Other Writings'',
Dover Publications Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term ...
, Inc., New York City, 1979. * Sullivan, Louis, ''Louis Sullivan: The Public Papers'' Ed. Robert Twombly, Chicago University Press, Chicago & London, 1988 * Thomas, George E.; Cohen, Jeffrey A.; and Lewis, Michael J.; ''Frank Furness – The Complete Works'', Princeton Architectural Press, New York City, 1991. * Twombly, Robert, ''Louis Sullivan – His Life and Work'', Elizabeth Sifton Books, New York City, 1986. * Vinci, John, ''The Art Institute of Chicago: The Stock Exchange Trading Room,'' The Art Institute of Chicago, 1977. * Weingarden, Lauren S. ''Louis H. Sullivan: A System of Architectural Ornament''
924 __NOTOC__ Year 924 ( CMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday A leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday Thursday is the day of the week between Wednesday Wednesd ...
Art Institute of Chicago The Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdiv ...

Art Institute of Chicago
and Ernst Wasmuth Verlag (Germany); distributed by Rizzoli International (U.S.), Wasmuth (Germany), Mardaga (France), 1990. * Weingarden, Lauren S. ''Louis H. Sullivan: The Banks''. Cambridge, Mass.:
MIT Press The MIT Press is a university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the ...
, 1987.


External links


Book: "The Complete Architecture of Adler & Sullivan" by Richard Nickel, Aaron Siskind, John Vinci and Ward Miller

Atlantic.com slideshow, "The Architecture of Louis Sullivan," with photographs by Richard Nickel and others


* ttp://www.pym.de/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=144&Itemid=70 "Sullivan's Banks" documentary by Heinz Emigholz*
Louis H. Sullivan Ornaments
– digital photographs of ornaments with historic photographs of the original buildings
Louis Sullivan "The tall office building artistically considered"
– Transcribed from Lippincott's Magazine (March 1896) * {{DEFAULTSORT:Sullivan, Louis 1856 births 1924 deaths American alumni of the École des Beaux-Arts American people of Irish descent American people of Swiss descent Art Nouveau architects Architects from Chicago Burials at Graceland Cemetery (Chicago) Chicago school architects Fellows of the American Institute of Architects Modernist architects Organic architecture Architects from Boston Western Association of Architects Skyscraper architects English High School of Boston alumni Recipients of the AIA Gold Medal