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A Lord Justice of Appeal or Lady Justice of Appeal is a judge of the
Court of Appeal of England and Wales The Court of Appeal (formally "Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England", commonly cited as "CA", "EWCA" or "CoA") is the highest court within the Senior Courts of England and Wales The courts of England and Wales, supported administratively ...
, the court that hears appeals from the
High Court of Justice The High Court of Justice in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at th ...
, the
Crown Court The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice The High Court of Justice in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the ...

Crown Court
and other courts and tribunals. A Lord (or Lady) Justice of Appeal is the second highest level of judge in the
courts of England and Wales The courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the Civil law (common law), civil and Criminal law, criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales. ...
. Despite the title, and unlike the former
Lords of Appeal in Ordinary Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were judges appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 ( 39 & 40 Vict. c.59) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The ...
(who were judges of still higher rank), they are not peers.


Appointment

The number of Lord Justices of Appeal was fixed at five by the Supreme Court of Judicature Act, 1881, but has since been increased. Judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales are selected from the ranks of senior judges, in practice High Court judges with lengthy experience, appointed by the
Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...
on the recommendation of the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. The appointment is open to all types of civilians, including ministers of state and members of parliament.


Jurisdiction

Applications for permission to appeal a ruling of an inferior court (usually from the Crown Court in criminal matters and the
High Court of Justice The High Court of Justice in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at th ...
in civil matters but in some instances from a
County Court A county court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad as ...

County Court
) are heard by a single Lord or Lady Justice of Appeal. A full appeal is heard by three Court of Appeal judges in the Civil Division. In the Criminal Division, a single judge hears appeals against conviction with two other judges of the Court of Appeal Criminal Division (typically, two High Court judges, or one High Court judge and one senior circuit judge). Appeals against sentence may be heard by a single Court of Appeal judge with another judge, or by two High Court judges. These types of Judges are assigned to handle the court of appeals. The Lord Justices of Appeals also handle high court, circuit court and magistrate cases with approval from the Lord Chief Justice. This allows the Court of Appeal's jurisdiction to be expanded. These judges deal with unfair verdicts, convictions and cases that were deemed not dealt with properly by either parties.


Title and form of address

In court, a Lord Justice of Appeal is
referred
referred
to as My Lord or Your Lordship, and a Lady Justice of Appeal is referred to as My Lady or Your Ladyship. The
style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-cla ...

style
of "Lord Justice of Appeal" was prescribed by the
Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1877 The Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1877 (40 & 41 Vict. c. 9.) was an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom enacted to provide the structure of the ordinary judges of the Court of Appeal, the appellate division of the High ...
, but the term "Lady Justice" was used in practice by women soon after they were promoted to sit as judges of the Court of Appeal, and the term was included in the
Courts Act 2003 The Courts Act 2003 (c.39) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deli ...
. When there is already or has until recently been a judge with the same surname as a new appointee, the new judge will often use a first name as part of his or her judicial title. Many judges have done this, such as Lord Justice Lawrence Collins (Sir Lawrence Antony Collins). When referring to a Lord or Lady Justice of Appeal in a legal context, the judge is identified by use of the surname (or first name and surname if appropriate), followed by the letters "LJ". For example, Lord Justice Bloggs or Lady Justice Bloggs would be referred to as "Bloggs LJ". Where several judges are listed the double letters 'LJJ' are used; for example, "Bloggs, Smith and Jones LJJ". A
knighthood A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some ...

knighthood
is granted to a man upon appointment to the
High Court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between ...
, usually made a
Knight Bachelor The title of Knight Bachelor is the basic rank granted to a man who has been knighted by the monarch but not inducted as a member of one of the organised Chivalric order, orders of chivalry; it is a part of the British honours system. Knights ...
; by convention, a woman on appointment to the High Court becomes a
Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil service. It was established on ...
(DBE)). By convention judges of the Court of Appeal are sworn of the
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
, entitling them to the honorific "
The Right Honourable The Right Honourable (abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...
".


Court dress

Formerly, in all instances in court, a Court of Appeal judge's
apparel A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textile A textile is a flexible material made by cr ...

apparel
consisted of a black silk gown, court coat or waistcoat and a short bench wig. In cases heard by the Court of Appeal Criminal Division, this remains the court dress. In cases heard in the Civil Division, judges wear a one-piece, zip-up robe onto which are stitched vertical, gold, clerical bands and no wig. These bands are red for High Court judges, pink for High Court Masters and Insolvency and Companies Court Judges, and blue for District Judges. On ceremonial occasions more elaborate robes and wigs are worn.


See also

*
List of judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales The ordinary judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales are the Lord Justices of Appeal and Lady Justices of Appeal. These judges serve with the ''ex officio'' members of the court:Senior Courts Act 1981s 2 Retrieved 15 October 2012. * Lo ...


References


External links


Information on Lord Justices of Appeal
{{Judiciary of England and Wales, state=collapsed Judges of the Court of Appeal (England and Wales)