HOME

TheInfoList




, mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type =
Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ...
, endowment = £198.4 million (2020) , budget = £415.1 million (2019–20) , chairman = Dame Shirley Pearce , chancellor =
The Princess Royal Princess Royal is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashion, a p ...

The Princess Royal

(as Chancellor of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
) , director = The Baroness Shafik , head_label =
Visitor A visitor, in English and Welsh "English and Welsh" is J. R. R. Tolkien's inaugural O'Donnell Memorial Lecture of October 21, 1955. The lecture sheds light on Tolkien's conceptions of the connections of race, ethnicity, and language A ...
, head =
Jacob Rees-Mogg Jacob William Rees-Mogg (born 24 May 1969) is a British politician serving as Leader of the House of Commons and Lord President of the Council since 2019, and who has served as Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) f ...

(as
Lord President of the Council The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State (United Kingdom), Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. ...
''
ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) ...
'') , students = () , undergrad = () , postgrad = () , city = London , country = United Kingdom , coor = , campus =
Urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
, free_label = Newspaper , free = '' The Beaver'' , free_label2 = Printing house , free2 = LSE Press , colours = Purple, black and gold , mascot =
Beaver Beavers are large, semiaquatic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interaction ...

Beaver
, website = , logo = , academic_staff = 1,780 (2020) , administrative_staff = 2,515 (2018/19) , affiliations = ACU
CEMS
EUA
G5
Russell Group The Russell Group is a self-selected association of twenty-four public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, ...

University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...

Universities UK Universities UK (UUK) is an advocacy organisation Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and ultimately policy. They play an important role in the development of ...

Golden Triangle Golden Triangle may refer to: Places Asia * Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), named for its opium production * Golden Triangle (Yangtze), China, named for its rapid economic development * Golden Triangle (India), comprising the popular tourist spo ...
The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE or the LSE) is a
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ...
located in
London, England London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London, England
, and a
constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in ...
of the federal
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
. Founded in 1895 by
Fabian Society The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that supports political democracy within a socially owned economy, wi ...
members
Sidney Webb Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, who co-founded the London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 189 ...
,
Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943), was an English sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian and social reformer. It was Webb who coined the term ''collective bargaining Colle ...
,
Graham Wallas Graham Wallas (31 May 1858 – 9 August 1932) was an English socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other for ...

Graham Wallas
, and
George Bernard Shaw George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range ...

George Bernard Shaw
, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the university in 1901. LSE began awarding its degrees in its own name in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located in the
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the l ...
and
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
,
Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the ...
, near the boundary between
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
and
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
. The area is historically known as
Clare MarketClare may refer to: Places Antarctica * Clare RangeClare Range () is the range extending west-southwest from Sperm Bluff to the Willett Range on the south side of Mackay Glacier, in Victoria Land. It was circumnavigated in 1957 by the New Zealand N ...
. LSE has more than 11,000 students, just under seventy percent of whom come from outside the UK, and 3,300 staff. It had an income of £415.1 million in 2019/20, of which £31.8 million was from research grants. One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst the LSE's student body and the school had the second highest percentage of
international student International students, or foreign students, according to the OECD are "those who received their prior education in another country and are not residents of their current country of study." In 2020, there were over 5.6 million international stude ...
s (70%) of the 800 institutions in the 2015–16
Times Higher Education ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a British magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from ...
World University Ranking. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of pure and applied social sciences. LSE is a member of the
Russell Group The Russell Group is a self-selected association of twenty-four public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, ...
,
Association of Commonwealth Universities The Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) was established in 1913, and has over 500 member institutions in over 50 countries across the Commonwealth. It is the world’s oldest international network of universities and its mission is ...
,
European University Association The European University Association (EUA) represents more than 800 institutions of higher education in 48 countries, providing them with a forum for cooperation and exchange of information on higher education and research policies. Members of the ...
and is often considered a part of the "
Golden Triangle Golden Triangle may refer to: Places Asia * Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), named for its opium production * Golden Triangle (Yangtze), China, named for its rapid economic development * Golden Triangle (India), comprising the popular tourist spo ...
" of universities in
South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of the counties of england, ...
. The LSE also forms part of ''CIVICA - The European University of Social Sciences'', a network of eight European universities focused on research in the social sciences. In the 2014
Research Excellence FrameworkThe Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a research impact evaluation of British higher education institutions. It is the successor to the Research Assessment Exercise and it was first used in 2014 to assess the period 2008–2013. REF is underta ...
, the school had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. LSE Alumni and faculty include 55 past or present
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
or
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
and 18 Nobel laureates. As of 2017, 27% (or 13 out of 49) of all Nobel Memorial Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff, or former staff, who consequently comprise 16% (13 out of 79) of all
Nobel Memorial Prize The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics prize administered b ...
laureates. LSE alumni and faculty have also won 3
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
s and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all
European universities This is a list of lists of universities and colleges by country, sorted by continent and region. The lists represent education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), v ...
, LSE has educated the most billionaires (11) according to a 2014 global census of .


History


Origins

The London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and
Sidney Webb Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, who co-founded the London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 189 ...
, initially funded by a bequest of £20,000 from the
estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the
Fabian Society The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that supports political democracy within a socially owned economy, wi ...
, left the money in trust, to be put "towards advancing its he Fabian Society'sobjects in any way they he_trustees.html"_;"title="trustee.html"_;"title="he_trustee">he_trustees">trustee.html"_;"title="he_trustee">he_trusteesdeem_advisable"._The_five_trustees_were_Sidney_Webb,_Edward_R._Pease.html" ;"title="trustee">he_trustees.html" ;"title="trustee.html" ;"title="he trustee">he trustees">trustee.html" ;"title="he trustee">he trusteesdeem advisable". The five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward R. Pease">Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, W. S. de Mattos and William Clark. LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and
George Bernard Shaw George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range ...

George Bernard Shaw
. The proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
.


20th century

The school joined the federal
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
in 1900, and was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university. The University of London degrees of
BSc BSC may refer to: * Bachelor of Science A Bachelor of Science (BS, BSc, SB, or ScB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
(Econ) and
DSc DSC may refer to: Academia * D.Sc., Doctor of Science Doctor of Science ( la, links=no, Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In ...
(Econ) were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding rapidly over the following years, the school moved initially to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace, then to Clare Market and Houghton Street. The foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by
King George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom There have been 12 British monarchs There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union A political union is a typ ...

King George V
in 1920; the building was opened in 1922. The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academic opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school's roots when LSE's
Edwin Cannan Edwin Cannan (3 February 1861, Funchal, Madeira – 8 April 1935, Bournemouth), the son of David Cannan and artist Jane Cannan, was a British economist and historian of economic thought. He was a professor at the London School of Economics from 189 ...

Edwin Cannan
(1861–1935), Professor of Economics, and Cambridge's Professor of Political Economy,
Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was an English economist, who was one of the most influential economists of his time. His book, '' Principles of Economics'' (1890), was the dominant economic textbook in England for many years. ...

Alfred Marshall
(1842–1924), the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock matter of economics and whether the subject should be considered as an organic whole. (Marshall disapproved of LSE's separate listing of pure theory and its insistence on economic history.) The dispute also concerned the question of the economist's role, and whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. Despite the traditional view that the LSE and Cambridge were fierce rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service. However, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
. The main figures in this debate were
John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a ...

John Maynard Keynes
from Cambridge and the LSE's
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
. The LSE Economist
Lionel Robbins Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devot ...

Lionel Robbins
was also heavily involved. Starting off as a disagreement over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the time, it eventually embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forward the theories now known as
Keynesian economics Keynesian economics ( ; sometimes Keynesianism, named after British economist John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the t ...
, involving the active participation of the state and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the
Austrian School The Austrian School is a heterodox In religion, heterodoxy (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
, which emphasised free trade and opposed state involvement. During World War II, the school decamped from London to the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
, occupying buildings belonging to
Peterhouse Peterhouse is the oldest Colleges of the University of Cambridge, constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England, founded in 1284 by Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. Today, Peterhouse has 254 undergraduates, 116 full-time graduate ...
. The school's arms, including its motto and beaver mascot, were adopted in February 1922, on the recommendation of a committee of twelve, including eight students, which was established to research the matter. The Latin motto, , is taken from
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
's
Georgics The ''Georgics'' (; ) is a poem by Latin poet Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan li ...
. Its English translation is "to Know the Causes of Things" and it was suggested by Professor
Edwin Cannan Edwin Cannan (3 February 1861, Funchal, Madeira – 8 April 1935, Bournemouth), the son of David Cannan and artist Jane Cannan, was a British economist and historian of economic thought. He was a professor at the London School of Economics from 189 ...

Edwin Cannan
. The beaver mascot was selected for its associations with "foresight, constructiveness and industrious behaviour".


21st century

LSE continues to have a wide impact within British society, through its relationships and influence in politics, business and law. ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' described such influence in 2005 when it stated:
Once again the political clout of the school, which seems to be closely wired into parliament, Whitehall and the Bank of England, is being felt by ministers.... The strength of LSE is that it is close to the political process:
Mervyn KingMervyn King may refer to: *Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury (born 1948), British economist, former governor of the Bank of England *Mervyn King (judge) (born 1937), former judge of the Supreme Court of South Africa and chairman of the King Commit ...
, was a former LSE professor. The former chairman of the House of Commons education committee,
Barry Sheerman Barry John Sheerman (born 17 August 1940) is a British Labour Co-op politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other ...
, sits on its board of governors, along with Labour peer Lord (Frank) Judd. Also on the board are Tory MPs
Virginia Bottomley Virginia Hilda Brunette Maxwell Bottomley, Baroness Bottomley of Nettlestone, PC, DL (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname, the given name or to the entire name. ...

Virginia Bottomley
and
Richard Shepherd Sir Richard Charles Scrimgeour Shepherd (born 6 December 1942) is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom. He was Member of Parliament for the constituency of Aldridge-Brownhills from 1979 to 2015. A Eurosceptic Euroscepticism, ...
, as well as Lord Saatchi and Lady Howe.
Commenting in 2001 on the rising status of the LSE, the British magazine ''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'' stated that "two decades ago the LSE was still the poor relation of the University of London's other colleges. Now... it regularly follows Oxford and Cambridge in league tables of research output and teaching quality and is at least as well-known abroad as Oxbridge". According to the magazine, the school "owes its success to the single-minded, American-style exploitation of its brand name and political connections by the recent directors, particularly Mr
GiddensGiddens is both a surname and a given name. Notable people with the name include: Surname * Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born 1938), British sociologist * George Giddens (disambiguation), multiple people *J. R. Giddens (born 1985), American baske ...
and his predecessor, John Ashworth" and raises money from foreign students' high fees, which are attracted by academic stars such as
Richard Sennett Richard Sennett (born 1 January 1943) is the Centennial Professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary educat ...
. As of 2006, the school was active in opposing British government proposals to introduce compulsory ID cards, researching into the associated costs of the scheme, and shifting public and government opinion on the issue. The institution is also popular with politicians and
MPs A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
to launch new policy, legislation and manifesto pledges, prominently with the launch of the Liberal Democrats Manifesto Conference under
Nick Clegg Sir Nicholas William Peter Clegg (born 7 January 1967) is a British media executive and former politician who has been VicePresident for Global Affairs and Communications at Meta Platforms since 2018, having previously served as Deputy Prime ...

Nick Clegg
on 12 January 2008.


2010 to present

In the early 2010s, its academics have been at the forefront of both national and international government consultations, reviews and policy, including representation on the UK Airports Commission, Independent Police Commission, Migration Advisory Committee, UN Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation, London Finance Commission, HS2 Limited, the UK government's Infrastructure Commission and advising on Architecture and Urbanism for the London 2012 Olympics
Craig Calhoun Craig Jackson Calhoun (born 1952) is an American sociologist, currently University Professor of Social science, Social Sciences at Arizona State University. An advocate of using social science to address issues of public concern, he was the Dir ...
took up the post of director in September 2012. Its previous director, , is also chair of the school's Grantham Institute on Climate Change, an adviser to the World Bank as well as sitting on the UN Secretary General's advisory board on water and sanitation and the International Scientific Advisory Council (ISAC). She is also a former convenor of the department of geography and environment and served as deputy director from 1998 to 2004. In February 2016, Calhoun announced his intention to step down at the end of the academic year, in order to become president of the
Berggruen Institute The Berggruen Institute is an independent think tank aimed at reshaping political and social institutions in the face of the great transformations of the 21st century. The Berggruen Institute works across cultures, disciplines and political bounda ...
. In September 2016,
Bank of England The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the Kingdom of England, English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for t ...

Bank of England
Deputy Governor Dame Nemat (Minouche) Shafik was announced to replace Professor Julia Black as the school's director. Shafik began to lead the LSE in September 2017.


Controversies

In February 2011, LSE had to face the consequences of matriculating one of
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics L ...
's sons while accepting a £1.5m donation to the university from his family. LSE director Howard Davies resigned over allegations about the institution's links to the Libyan regime. The LSE announced in a statement that it had accepted his resignation with "great regret" and that it had set up an external inquiry into the school's relationship with the Libyan regime and Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, to be conducted by the former lord chief justice Harry Woolf. In 2013, the LSE was featured in a
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
''
Panorama A panorama (formed from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population i ...
'' documentary on North Korea, filmed inside the repressive regime by undercover journalists attached to a trip by the LSE's Grimshaw Club, a
student society A student society, student association, university society or student organization is a society or an organization, operated by students at a university or a college institution, whose membership typically consists only of students or alumni. Earl ...
of the international relations department. The trip had been sanctioned by high-level North Korean officials. The trip caused international media attention as a BBC journalist was posing as a part of LSE. There was debate as to whether this put the student's lives in jeopardy in the repressive regime if a reporter had been exposed. The North Korea government made hostile threats towards the students and LSE after the publicity, which forced an apology from the BBC. In August 2015, it was revealed that the university was paid approximately £40,000 for a "glowing report" for Camila Batmanghelidjh's charity, Kids Company. The study was used by Batmanghelidjh to prove that the charity provided good value for money and was well managed. The university did not disclose that the study was funded by the charity. In the summer of 2017, dozens of campus cleaners contracted via Noonan Services went on weekly strikes, protesting outside key buildings and causing significant disruption during end-of-year examinations. The dispute organised by the UVW union was originally over unfair dismissals of cleaners, but had escalated into a broad demand for decent employment rights matching those of LSE's in-house employees.
Owen Jones Owen Peter Jones (born 8 August 1984) is a British left-wing newspaper columnist, political commentator, journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a ...
did not cross the picket line after arriving for a debate on grammar schools with
Peter Hitchens Peter Jonathan Hitchens (born 28 October 1951) is an English journalist and author. Hitchens writes for ''The Mail on Sunday ''The Mail on Sunday'' is a British Conservatism, conservative newspaper, published in a tabloid (newspaper format ...
. It was announced in June 2018 that some 200 outsourced workers at the LSE would be offered in-house contracts.


''The World Turned Upside Down''

A sculpture by
Mark Wallinger Mark Wallinger (born 1959) is a British artist, best known for his sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving ...
, ''
The World Turned Upside Down "The World Turned Upside Down" is an England, English ballad. It was first published on a Broadside (printing), broadside in the middle of the 1640s as a protest against the policies of Parliament of England, Parliament relating to the celebra ...
'', which features a globe resting on its north pole, was installed in Sheffield Street on the LSE campus on 26 March 2019. The artwork attracted controversy for showing the island of Taiwan as a sovereign entity rather than as part of Greater China, Lhasa being denoted as a full capital, and depicting Sino-Indian border dispute, boundaries between India and China as recognised internationally. The sculpture also failed to recognise the State of Palestine as a separate country from Israel. After protests and reactions from both sides, the school made the decision to alter the work of art over the objections of the Taiwanese students. The university decided later that year that it would retain the original design which chromatically displayed the PRC and Taiwan as different entities consistent with the status quo, but with the addition of an asterisk beside the name of Taiwan and a corresponding placard that clarified the institution's position regarding the controversy.


Campus and estate

Since 1902, LSE has been based at
Clare MarketClare may refer to: Places Antarctica * Clare RangeClare Range () is the range extending west-southwest from Sperm Bluff to the Willett Range on the south side of Mackay Glacier, in Victoria Land. It was circumnavigated in 1957 by the New Zealand N ...
and Houghton Street in
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
. It is surrounded by a number of important institutions including the Royal Courts of Justice, all four Inns of Courts, Royal College of Surgeons, Sir John Soane's Museum, and the West End of London, West End is immediately across Kingsway, London, Kingsway from campus, which also borders the City of London and is within walking distance to Trafalgar Square and the Houses of Parliament. In 1920,
King George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom There have been 12 British monarchs There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union A political union is a typ ...

King George V
laid the foundation of the Old Building. The campus now occupies an almost continuous group of around 30 buildings between Kingsway, London, Kingsway and the Aldwych. Alongside teaching and academic space, the institution also owns 11 student halls of residence across London, a West End theatre (the Peacock Theatre, Peacock), early years centre, National Health Service, NHS medical centre and extensive sports ground in Berrylands, south London. LSE operates the George IV public house and the students' union operates the Three Tuns bar. The school's campus is noted for its numerous public art installations which include Richard Wilson (sculptor), Richard Wilson's ''Square the Block'', Michael Brown's ''Blue Rain'', Christopher Le Brun's ''Desert Window''. Since the early 2000s, the entire campus has undergone an extensive refurbishment project and a major fund-raising "Campaign for LSE" raised over £100 million in what was one of the largest university fund-raising exercises outside North America. This process was begun with the £35 million renovation of the Lionel Robbins Building by Norman Foster, Sir Norman Foster to house the British Library of Political and Economic Science (BLPES), the world's largest social science library and the second largest single entity library in Britain, after the British Library at King's Cross. In 2003, LSE purchased the former Public Trustee building at 24 Kingsway, and engaged Nicholas Grimshaw, Sir Nicholas Grimshaw to redesign it into an ultra-modern educational facility at a total cost of over £45 million – increasing the size of the campus by . The New Academic Building opened for teaching in October 2008, with an official opening by Elizabeth II, Her Majesty the Queen and the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Duke of Edinburgh on 5 November 2008. In November 2009 the school purchased the adjacent Sardinia House to house three academic departments and the nearby Old White Horse public house, before acquiring the freehold of the grade-II listed HM Land Registry, Land Registry Building at 32 Lincoln's Inn Fields in October 2010, which was reopened in March 2013 by The Princess Royal as the new home for the department of economics, International Growth Centre and its associated economic research centres.


Saw Swee Hock Student Centre

The first new building on the site for more than 40 years, the Saw Swee Hock Student Centre opened in January 2014 following an architectural design competition managed by RIBA Competitions. The building provides new accommodation for the LSE Students' Union, LSE accommodation office and LSE careers service as well as a bar, events space, gymnasium, rooftop terrace, learning café, dance studio and media centre. The building, designed as a showpiece for the City of Westminster and Midtown, was recognised as having a low environmental impact, receiving an 'Outstanding' status under BREEAM, and in 2012 was one of three winners of the New London Award in the Education category. In May 2014 the Saw Swee Hock Student Centre won the RIBA London Building of the Year Award.


Centre Building

The new Centre Building, situated opposite the British Library of Political and Economic Science, opened in June 2019. Designed as both a teaching and an academic space, the new 13-storey Centre Building includes 14 seminar rooms seating between 20 and 60, 234 study spaces, a 200-seater auditorium, as well as three lecture theatres. The building hosts the Department of Government on Levels 3 and 4, the International Inequalities Institute on Levels 4 and 5, and the department of international relations on Levels 7 through 10, and the Directorate on Level 1. The roof terraces on levels 2, 6 and 12 are also accessible to the public.


Expansion

It is currently embarking on redevelopment and expansion with the development of a £120 million new facility designed by Richard Rogers, Rogers Stirk Harbour & Partners following the completion of a global design competition managed by RIBA Competitions. Completed in 2018, the Global Centre for the Social Sciences houses the Departments of Government, International Relations and the European Institute and feature a new square at the centre of the campus. In September 2013, LSE purchased the freehold of 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, previously the home of the Francis Crick Institute's laboratories until 2016. The building will be demolished in 2017 to make way for the new Paul Marshall (investor), Paul Marshall Building which will house academic departments (Management, Accounting and Finance), sports facilities and the new Marshall Institute for Philanthropy and Social Entrepreneurship. In 2015, LSE brought its ownership of buildings on Lincoln's Inn Fields to six with the purchase of 5 Lincoln's Inn Fields on the north side of the square, which has since been converted into faculty accommodation. On 15 November 2017, LSE announced that it has achieved contract completion on the purchase to acquire the Nuffield Building, which is adjacent to the Lincoln's Inn Fields, from the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Surgeons. According to the contract the building will be transferred to LSE after renovations in 2020.


Sustainability

As of the 2021–2 academic year, LSE Carbon offset, offsets the emissions it measures by funding rainforest trees. According to the university, it is the first in the UK to do this. The offset is performed by the Finnish Osakeyhtiö, Oy (limited company) Compensate and does not include all emissions. While LSE measures and offsets its heating, electricity and faculty plane travel, it does not do this for construction, other travel-related emissions, or food served on campus, for example. The school plans to offset the remaining emissions (Carbon accounting, scope 1 through 3) by 2050.


Organisation and administration


Governance

Although LSE is a constituent college of the federal University of London, it is in many ways comparable with free-standing, self-governing and independently funded universities, and it awards its own degrees. LSE is incorporated under the Companies Act as a company limited by guarantee and is an exempt charity within the meaning of Schedule Two of the Charities Act 1993. The principal governance bodies of the LSE are: the LSE Council; the Court of Governors; the academic board; and the director and director's management team. The LSE Council is responsible for strategy and its members are company directors of the school. It has specific responsibilities in relation to areas including: the monitoring of institutional performance; finance and financial sustainability; audit arrangements; estate strategy; human resource and employment policy; health and safety; "educational character and mission", and student experience. The council is supported in carrying out its role by a number of committees that report directly to it. The Court of Governors deals with certain constitutional matters and has pre-decision discussions on key policy issues and the involvement of individual governors in the school's activities. The court has the following formal powers: the appointment of members of court, its subcommittees and of the council; election of the chair and vice chairs of the court and council and honorary fellows of the school; the amendment of the memorandum and articles of association; and the appointment of external auditors. The academic board is LSE's principal academic body, and considers all major issues of general policy affecting the academic life of the school and its development. It is chaired by the director, with staff and student membership, and is supported by its own structure of committees. The vice chair of the academic board serves as a non-director member of the council and makes a termly report to the council.


Director

The director is the head of LSE and its chief executive officer, responsible for executive management and leadership on academic issues. The director reports to and is accountable to the council. The director is also the accountable officer for the purposes of the Higher Education Funding Council for England Financial Memorandum. The LSE's current director is Minouche Shafik, Dame Nemat Shafik, who replaced interim director, Professor Julia Black, on 1 September 2017. The director is supported by a deputy director and provost who oversees the heads of academic departments and institutes, three pro-directors each with designated portfolios (teaching and learning, research and planning and resources) and the school secretary who acts as company secretary. Titled as director and president


Academic departments and institutes

LSE's research and teaching is organised into a network of independent academic departments established by the LSE Council, the school's governing body, on the advice of the academic board, the school's senior academic authority. There are currently 27 academic departments or institutes. * Department of Accounting * Department of Anthropology * Department of Economic History * Department of Economics * Department of Finance * Department of Geography and Environment * Department of Gender Studies * Department of Health Policy * Department of Government * Department of International Development * Department of International History * Department of International Relations * Department of Law * Department of Management * Department of Mathematics * Department of Media and Communications * Department of Methodology * Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method * Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science * Department of Social Policy * Department of Sociology * Department of Statistics * European Institute * International Inequalities Institute * Institute of Public Affairs * Language Centre * Marshall Institute for Philanthropy and Social Entrepreneurship * School of Public Policy


Finances

The LSE group has an endowment (as of 31 July 2016) of £119M and had a total income for 2015–16 (excluding donations and endowments) of £311M (£293M in 2014–15) with expenditure of £307M (2014–15 £302M). Key sources of income included £177M from tuition fees and education contacts (2014–15 £167M), £25M from funding council grants (2014–15 £22M), £32M from research grants (2014–15 – £27M) and £5.3M from investment income (2014–15 £4.7M). The
Times Higher Education ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a British magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from ...
Pay Survey 2017 revealed that, among larger, non-specialist institutions, LSE professors and academics were the highest paid in the UK, with average incomes of £103,886 and £65,177 respectively.


Endowment

The London School of Economics (LSE) is aiming to increase the size of its endowment fund to more than £1bn, which would make it one of the best resourced institutions in the UK and the world. The effort was initiated in 2016 by Lord Myners, then chairman of the LSE's Council and Court of Governors. The plan includes working with wealthy alumni of LSE to make large contributions, increasing the annual budget surplus, and launching a new, widescale alumni donor campaign. The plan to grow LSE's endowment to more than £1bn has been continued by Lord Myners' successors at the LSE. The LSE has stated that currently "limited endowment funding constrains our ability to offer 'needs blind' admission to students".


Academic year

LSE continues to adopt a three-term structure and has not moved to semesters. Michaelmas Term runs from October to mid-December, Lent Term from mid-January to late March and Summer Term from late April to mid-June. Certain departments operate reading weeks in early November and mid-February.


Logo, arms and mascot

The school's historic coat of arms is used on official documentation including degree certificates and transcripts and includes the motto – ''rerum cognoscere causas'', a line taken from
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
’s ''
Georgics The ''Georgics'' (; ) is a poem by Latin poet Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan li ...
'' meaning "to know the causes of things", together with the school's mascot – a beaver. Both these symbols, adopted in February 1922, continue to be held in high regard to this day with the beaver chosen because of its representation as "a hard working and industrious yet sociable animal", attributes that the founders hoped LSE students to both possess and aspire to. The school's weekly newspaper is still entitled ''The Beaver'', Rosebery residence hall's bar is called the Tipsy Beaver and LSE sports teams are known as the Beavers. The institution has two sets of colours – brand and academic – red being the brand colour used on signage, publications and in buildings across campus and purple, black and gold for academic purposes including presentation ceremonies and graduation dress. LSE's present 'red block' logo was adopted as part of a rebrand in the early 2000s, before which the school's coat of arms was used exclusively to represent the institution. As a trademarked brand, it is carefully protected but can be produced in various forms to reflect different requirements. In its full form it contains the full name of the institution to the right of the block with a further small empty red square at the end, but it is adapted for each academic department or professional service division to provide a cohesive brand across the institution.


Academic profile


Admissions

The LSE received 20,000 applications for 1,600 undergraduate places in 2017, or 12.5 applicants per place. All undergraduate applications, including international applications, are made through UCAS. LSE had the 15th highest average entry qualification for undergraduates of any UK university in 2018–19, with new students averaging 168 UCAS Tariff, UCAS points, equivalent to A*A*A* or ABBB in GCE Advanced Level (United Kingdom), A-level grades. The university gave offers of admission to 37.0% of its applicants in 2015, the 3rd lowest amongst the
Russell Group The Russell Group is a self-selected association of twenty-four public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, ...
. Postgraduate students at the LSE are required to have a first or upper second Class UK honours degree, or its foreign equivalent, for master's degrees, while direct entry to the MPhil/PhD programme requires a UK taught master's with merit, or foreign equivalent. Admission to the diploma requires a UK degree or equivalent plus relevant experience. The intake to applications ratio for postgraduate degree programmes is very competitive; the MSc Financial Mathematics had a ratio of just over 4% in 2016. 31.6% of LSE's undergraduates are Independent school (United Kingdom), privately educated, the ninth highest proportion amongst mainstream British universities. In the 2016–17 academic year, the university had a domicile breakdown of 33:18:50 of UK:EU:non-EU students respectively with a female-to-male ratio of 52:47.


Programmes and degrees

LSE is the only university in the United Kingdom dedicated solely to the study and research of social sciences. LSE awards a range of academic degrees spanning bachelors, masters and PhDs. The post-nominals awarded are the degree abbreviations used commonly among British universities. The school offers over 140 Master of Science, MSc programmes, 5 Master of Public Administration, MPA programmes, an Master of Laws, LLM, 30
BSc BSC may refer to: * Bachelor of Science A Bachelor of Science (BS, BSc, SB, or ScB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
programmes, an Bachelor of Laws, LLB, 4 Bachelor of Arts, BA programmes (including International History and Geography), and 35 PhD programmes. Subjects pioneered in Britain by LSE include accountancy and sociology, and the school also employed Britain's first full-time lecturer in economic history. Courses are split across more than thirty research centres and nineteen departments, plus a Language Centre. Since programmes are all within the social sciences, they closely resemble each other, and undergraduate students usually take at least one course module in a subject outside of their degree for their first and second years of study, promoting a broader education in the social sciences. At undergraduate level, some departments have as few as 90 students across the three years of study. Since September 2010, it has been compulsory for first year undergraduates to participate in LSE 100: Understanding the Causes of Things alongside normal studies. From 1902, following its absorption into the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
, until 2007, all degrees were awarded by the federal university in common with all other colleges of the university. This system was changed in 2007 to enable some colleges to award their own degrees. LSE was granted the power to begin awarding its own degrees from July 2008. All students entering from the 2007–08 academic year onwards received an LSE degree, while students who started before this date were issued University of London degrees. In conjunction with NYU Stern and HEC Paris, LSE also offers the TRIUM EMBA, TRIUM Executive MBA. This was globally ranked third among executive MBAs by the ''Financial Times'' in 2016.


Research

In the 2014
Research Excellence FrameworkThe Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a research impact evaluation of British higher education institutions. It is the successor to the Research Assessment Exercise and it was first used in 2014 to assess the period 2008–2013. REF is underta ...
, LSE had the joint highest percentage of world-leading research among research submitted of any institution that entered more than one unit of assessment and was ranked third by cumulative grade point average with a score of 3.35, beating both Oxford and Cambridge. It was ranked 23rd in the country for research power by Research Fortnight based on its REF2014 results, and 28th in research power by the
Times Higher Education ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a British magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from ...
. This followed the Research Assessment Exercise in 2008 where the school was placed second equal nationally on GPA, first for fraction of world-leading (4*) research and fourth for fraction of world-leading or internationally excellent (3* and 4*) research in LSE's analysis of the results, fourth equal for GPA and 29th for research power in Times Higher Education's analysis, and 27th in research power by Research Fortnight's analysis. According to analysis of the REF 2014 subject results by Times Higher Education, the school is the UK's top research university in terms of GPA of research submitted in business and management; area studies; and communication, cultural and media studies, library and information management, and second in law; politics and international studies; economics and econometrics; and social work and social policy.


Research centres

The school houses a number of notable centres including the Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, the Centre for Macroeconomics, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE Health and Social Care, the Financial Markets Group (founded by former
Bank of England The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the Kingdom of England, English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for t ...

Bank of England
governor Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury, Sir Mervyn King), the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment (chaired by Nicholas Stern, Lord Stern), LSE Cities, the UK Department for International Development funded International Growth Centre and one of the six the UK government-backed 'What Works Centres' – the What Works Centre for Local Economic Growth. The Greater London Group was influential research centre within LSE from the late 1950s on, before being subsumed into the LSE London research group.


LSE Institute of Global Affairs

In late 2014, LSE hired Erik Berglöf, former chief economist and special advisor to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, EBRD to establish a new Institute of Global Affairs with seven regional research centres focusing on Africa, East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, South Asia, South East Asia and the United States. It is joined by the LSE IDEAS think tank, which in a global survey conducted by the University of Pennsylvania in 2015 was jointly ranked as world's second-best university think tank for the third year running alongside the LSE Public Policy Group, after Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. In February 2015, Angelina Jolie and William Hague launched the UK's first academic Centre on Women, Peace and Security, based at the school. The centre aims to contribute to global women's rights issues, including the prosecution of war rape and women's engagement in politics, through academic research, a post-graduate teaching program, public engagement, and collaboration with international organisations. Furthermore, in May 2016 it was announced that Jolie-Pitt and Hague would join Jane Connors and Madeleine Rees as visiting professors in practice from September 2016.


Partnerships

LSE has academic partnerships in teaching and research with six universities – with Columbia University in New York City and University of California, Berkeley, in Asia with Peking University in Beijing and the National University of Singapore, in Africa with the University of Cape Town and Europe with Sciences Po Paris, Sciences Po in Paris. Together they offer a range of double or joint degree programmes including an MA in International and World History (with Columbia) and an MSc in international affairs with Peking University, with graduates earning degrees from both institutions. The school also offers joint degrees for specific departments with various other universities including Fudan University in Shanghai, University of Southern California, USC in Los Angeles and a Global Studies programme which is offered with a consortium of four European universities – University of Leipzig, Leipzig, University of Vienna, Vienna, University of Roskilde, Roskilde and University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw. It offers the TRIUM Global Executive MBA programme jointly with Stern School of Business of New York University and HEC School of Management, Paris. It is divided into six modules held in five international business locations over a 16-month period. LSE also offers a Dual Master of Public Administration (MPA) with Global Public Policy Network schools such as Sciences Po Paris, the Hertie School of Governance and National University of Singapore. The school also runs exchange programmes with a number of international business schools through the Global Master's in Management programme and an undergraduate student exchange programme with the University of California, Berkeley in Political Science. LSE is the only UK member school in the CEMS Alliance, and the LSE Global Master's in Management is the only programme in the UK to offer the CEMS Master's in International Management (CEMS MIM) as a double degree option, allowing students to study at one of 30 CEMS partner universities. It also participates in Key Action 1 of the European Union-wide Erasmus+ programme, encouraging staff and student mobility for teaching, although not the other Key Actions in the programme. The school is a member of the
Association of Commonwealth Universities The Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) was established in 1913, and has over 500 member institutions in over 50 countries across the Commonwealth. It is the world’s oldest international network of universities and its mission is ...
, the The Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, the
European University Association The European University Association (EUA) represents more than 800 institutions of higher education in 48 countries, providing them with a forum for cooperation and exchange of information on higher education and research policies. Members of the ...
, the G5, the Global Alliance in Management Education, the
Russell Group The Russell Group is a self-selected association of twenty-four public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, ...
and
Universities UK Universities UK (UUK) is an advocacy organisation Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and ultimately policy. They play an important role in the development of ...
, and is sometimes considered part of the Golden triangle (universities), 'Golden Triangle' of universities in south-east England, along with the University of Oxford, the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
, University College London, Imperial College London, and King's College London.(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, Imperial and King's but not LSE)(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, Imperial and LSE)(Names Oxford Cambridge and 'typically' LSE, King's, UCL and Imperial) (Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL and Imperial but not LSE) (Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL and Imperial but not LSE) (Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL and Imperial but not LSE)(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, Imperial, King's and LSE)


Libraries and archives

The school's main library, the British Library of Political and Economic Science is located in the
Lionel Robbins Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devot ...

Lionel Robbins
Building and contains over 4 million print volumes, 60,000 online journals and 29,000 electronic books. The Digital Library contains digitised material from LSE Library collections and also born-digital material that has been collected and preserved in digital formats. Founded in 1896, it is the world's largest social and political sciences library and the national social science library of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Its collections are recognised for their outstanding national and international status and hold 'Designation' status by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA). BLPES responds to around 7,500 visits from students and staff each day. In addition, it provides a specialist international research collection, serving over 12,000 registered external users each year. The Shaw Library, housed in LSE's Founders Room in the Old Building contains the school's collection of fiction and general readings. It also hosts a weekly series of lunchtime music concerts and press launches and is the home of the Fabian Window which was unveiled by Tony Blair in 2003. In 2014, the Women's Library, Britain's main library on women and the women's movement reopened at British Library of Political and Economic Science, LSE Library. It had previously been based at London Metropolitan University. The resources and artefacts were moved into a new purpose-built facility within the Lionel Robbins Building complete with its own reading room and exhibition space. Several subject specific libraries also exist including the Seligman Library for Anthropology, the Himmelweit Library for Social Psychology, the Leverhulme Library for Statistics, the Robert McKenzie library for Sociology, the Michael Wise Library for Geography and the Gender Institute Library. Additionally, students are permitted to use the libraries of any other University of London college, and the extensive facilities at Senate House (University of London), Senate House Library, off Russell Square.


LSE Summer School

The original LSE Summer School was established in 1989 and has since expanded to offer over 70 three-week courses in accounting, finance, economics, English language, international relations, government, law and management each July and August. It is advertised as the largest and one of the most well-established university Summer Schools of its kind in Europe. In recent years, the school has expanded its summer schools both abroad and into executive education with the LSE-PKU Summer School in Beijing (run with Peking University), the LSE-UCT July School in Cape Town (run with the University of Cape Town) and the Executive Summer School at its London campus. In 2011, it also launched a Methods Summer Programme. Together these courses welcome over 5,000 participants from over 130 countries and some of the top colleges and universities around the world, as well as professionals from several multinational institutions. Participants are housed in LSE halls of residence or their overseas equivalents, and the Summer School provides a full social programme including guest lectures and receptions.


Public lectures

Public lectures hosted by LSE Events office, are open to students, alumni and the general public. As well as leading academics and commentators, speakers frequently include prominent national and international figures such as ambassadors, CEOs, Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament, and heads of state. A number of these are broadcast live around the world via the school's website. LSE organises over 200 public events every year. Recent prominent speakers have included Kofi Annan, Ben Bernanke, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Noam Chomsky, Bill Clinton, Philip Craven, Niall Ferguson, Vicente Fox, Milton Friedman,
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics L ...
, Julia Gillard, Alan Greenspan, Tenzin Gyatso, Lee Hsien Loong, Boris Johnson, David Harvey, Jean Tirole, Angelina Jolie, Paul Krugman, Dmitri Medvedev, Mario Monti, George Osborne, Robert Peston, Sebastián Piñera, Kevin Rudd, Jeffrey Sachs, Gerhard Schroeder, Carlos Mesa, Carlos D. Mesa, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Aung San Suu Kyi, Amartya Sen, George Soros and Rowan Williams. Previously, the school has hosted figures including Nelson Mandela and Margaret Thatcher. There are also a number of annual lecture series hosted by various departments. These include but are not limited to the Malinowski Memorial Lectures hosted by the department of anthropology, the
Lionel Robbins Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devot ...

Lionel Robbins
Memorial Lectures and the Ralph Miliband programme.


Publishing

In 2018, the university launched LSE Press in partnership with Ubiquity Press. This is intended to publish open-access journals and books in the social sciences. The first journal to be published by the press was the ''Journal of Illicit Economies and Development'', edited by John Collins, executive director of LSE's International Drug Policy Unit. The press is managed through the British Library of Political and Economic Science, LSE Library.


Rankings and reputation

LSE is ranked third in the UK in the Complete University Guide 2022, fifth in the Times/Sunday Times Good University Guide 2022, and fifth in The Guardian University Guide 2021. The ''QS World University Rankings'' for 2022 rankings saw the LSE placed 49th among the world's universities. The 2022 ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' ranked LSE 27th globally. On the other hand, ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' for 2021 ranked LSE in the 151–200 range. While the 2022 US News & World Report ''Best Global Universities 2022'' ranked LSE's social science and economics programs highly, overall, it ranked LSE 230th globally. Conversely, the CWTS Leiden Ranking placed LSE 30th worldwide in 2020. In terms of specific subject areas, the ''QS World University Rankings by Subject 2020'' ranks the LSE second in the world in Economics, economics & social sciences and management and 20th for arts and humanities, while for individual subjects it is ranked second for geography, third for communication and media studies, social policy and administration, and sociology, in the top ten for accounting and finance, anthropology, business and management studies, development studies, economics and econometrics, history, law and legal studies, philosophy, and politics, and in the top 50 for psychology, and statistics and operational research. Times Higher Education's subject rankings for 2021 place LSE 7th for business and economics, 8th for social sciences, 10th for law, 17th equal for psychology, 21st for arts and humanities, and in the 251–300 range for physical sciences. US News and World Report ranked LSE 7th globally for economics, 34th for social sciences, 57th for arts and humanities, 141st equal for psychiatry/psychology, and 212th equal for public, environmental and occupational health. According to data released by the Department for Education in 2018, LSE was rated as the best university for boosting graduate earnings, with male graduates seeing a 47.2% increase in earnings and female graduates seeing a 38.2% increase in earnings compared to the average graduate. According to Wealth-X and UBS's "Billionaire Census" in 2014, LSE ranked 10th in the list of 20 schools that have produced the most billionaire alumni. The LSE was the only UK university to make the list. In the 2020 National Student Survey LSE came 64th out of 154 for overall student satisfaction. The LSE had scored well below its benchmark on this measure in previous years, coming 145th out of 148 in 2017. The increase in student satisfaction in 2020 led to a climb of 14 places to fifth in the 2021 Guardian ranking.


Student life


Student body

In the 2015–16 academic year there were 10,833 full-time students and around 700 part-time students at the university. Of these, approximately 7,500 came from outside the United Kingdom (approximately 70% of the total student body), making LSE a highly international school with over 160 countries represented. LSE had more countries represented by students than the UN. 32% of LSE's students come from Asia, 10% from North America, 2% each from South America and Africa. Combined over 100 languages are spoken at LSE. Over half of LSE's students are postgraduates, and there is approximately an equal split between genders with 51% male and 49% female students. Alumni total over 160,000, covering over 190 countries with more than 80 active alumni groups.


Students' Union

The LSE Students' Union (LSESU) is affiliated to the National Union of Students (United Kingdom), National Union of Students and is responsible for campaigning and lobbying the school on behalf of students as well providing student support and the organisation and undertaking of entertainment events and student societies. It is often regarded as the most politically active in Britain – a reputation it has held since the well documented LSE student riots in 1966–67 and 1968–69, which made international headlines. In 2015, the school was awarded the top spot for student nightlife by ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' newspaper due in part to its central location and provision of over 200 societies, 40 sports clubs, a Raising and Giving (RAG) branch and a thriving media group. In 2013, the union moved into a purpose-built new building – the Saw Swee Hock Student Centre on the Aldwych campus. A weekly student newspaper '' The Beaver'', is published each Tuesday during term time and is amongst the oldest student newspapers in the country. It sits alongside a radio station, ''PuLSEfm, Pulse!'' which has existed since 1999 and a television station ''LooSE Television'' since 2005. The ''Clare Market Review'' one of Britain's oldest student publications was revived in 2008. Over £150,000 is raised for charity each year through the RAG (Raising and Giving), the fundraising arm of the Students' Union, which was started in 1980 by then Student Union Entertainments Officer and former New Zealand MP Tim Barnett (politician), Tim Barnett. Sporting activity is coordinated by the LSE Athletics Union, which is a constituent of British Universities & Colleges Sport (BUCS).


Student housing

LSE owns or operates 10 halls of residence in and around central London and there are also two halls owned by urbanest and five intercollegiate halls (shared with other constituent colleges of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
) within a 3-mile radius of the school, for a total of over 4,000 places. Most residences take both undergraduates and postgraduates, although Carr-Saunders Hall and Passfield Hall are undergraduate only, and Butler's Wharf Residence, Grosvenor House and Lillian Knowles House are reserved for postgraduates. Sidney Webb House, managed by Unite Students, takes postgraduates and continuing students. There are also flats available on Anson and Carleton roads, which are reserved for students with children. The school guarantees accommodation for all first-year undergraduate students and many of the school's larger postgraduate population are also catered for, with some specific residences available for postgraduate living. Whilst none of the residences are located at the Aldwych campus, the closest, Grosvenor House is within a five-minute walk from the school in
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
, whilst the farthest residences (Nutford and Butler's Wharf) are approximately forty-five minutes by London Underground, Tube or London Buses, Bus. Each residence accommodates a mixture of students both home and international, male and female, and, usually, undergraduate and postgraduate. New undergraduate students (including the General Course, General Course students) occupy approximately 55% of all spaces, with postgraduates taking approximately 40% and continuing students about 5% of places. The largest LSE student residence, Bankside House, a refurbished early 1950s office block and former headquarters of the Central Electricity Generating Board, opened to students in 1996 and is fully catered, accommodating 617 students across eight floors overlooking the River Thames. It is located behind the Tate Modern art gallery on the south bank of the river. The second-largest residence, the High Holborn Residence in High Holborn, was opened in 1995 and is approximately 10 minutes walk from the main campus. It is self-catering, accommodating 447 students in flats of four our five bedrooms with shared facilities.


Notable people

File:Clement Attlee.PNG, Clement Attlee, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1945–1951) File:Jomo Kenyatta 1966-06-15.jpg, Jomo Kenyatta, President of Kenya (1964–1978) File:Romano Prodi in Nova Gorica (2c).jpg, Romano Prodi, Prime Minister of Italy (1996–1998, 2006–2008) and president of the European Commission (1999–2004) File:Young Ambedkar.gif, B. R. Ambedkar, the chairman of the drafting committee for examining the draft of the Indian constitution, polymath and human rights champion File:Pierre Elliot Trudeau-2.jpg, Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979, 1980–1984) File:Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore Making a Toast at a State Dinner Held in His Honor, 1975.jpg, Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore (1959–1990) File:Queen Magrethe sep 7 2005.png, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark (1972–present) File:Kim Campbell (cropped).jpg, Kim Campbell, Prime Minister of Canada (1993) File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1989-0630-504, Heinrich Brüning.jpg, Heinrich Brüning, Chancellor of Germany (1930–1932) File:Karl Popper2.jpg, Karl Popper, Reader (academic rank), reader in logic and scientific method at the LSE File:George Soros 47th Munich Security Conference 2011 crop.jpg, George Soros, billionaire investor, philanthropist and political activist File:Photo by Tsai Ing-wen.jpg, Tsai Ing-wen, President of the Republic of China (2016–present) File:Tony Fernandes cropped.jpg, Tony Fernandes, chief executive officer of the low-cost carrier, AirAsia File:Carlo Cottarelli Quirinale (cropped).jpg, Carlo Cottarelli, former director of the International Monetary Fund File:Kamisese Mara.jpg, Kamisese Mara, founding father and Prime Minister of Fiji File:Prime Minister of Nepal, Shri Sher Bahadur Deuba, in Glasgow, Scotland on November 02, 2021 (1).jpg, Sher Bahadur Deuba, Prime Minister of Nepal (1995–1997, 2001–2002, 2004–2005, 2017–2018, and 2021–present) File:2017-09-24 Ursula von der Leyen by Sandro Halank.jpg, Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission File:Anthony Kennedy official SCOTUS portrait crop.jpg, Anthony Kennedy, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, spent a year at the LSE LSE has a long list of notable alumni and staff, spanning the fields of scholarship provided by the school. The school has over 50 fellows of the British Academy on its staff, while other notable former staff members include Brian Barry, Maurice Cranston, Anthony Giddens, Harold Laski, Ralph Miliband, Michael Oakeshott, William Phillips (economist), A. W. Philips, Karl Popper, Lionel Robbins, Baron Robbins, Lionel Robbins, Susan Strange, Bob Ward (communications director), Bob Ward and Charles Webster (historian), Charles Webster.
Mervyn KingMervyn King may refer to: *Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury (born 1948), British economist, former governor of the Bank of England *Mervyn King (judge) (born 1937), former judge of the Supreme Court of South Africa and chairman of the King Commit ...
, the former Governor of the Bank of England, is also a former professor of economics. Of the current 9 members of the Monetary Policy Committee (United Kingdom), Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee the following 5 have affiliation to the LSE: Jonathan Haskel (alumni), Michael Saunders (economist), Michael Saunders (alumni), Gertjan Vlieghe (alumni), Silvana Tenreyro, Silvana Tenereyro (current professor of economics) and Governor Andrew Bailey (banker), Andrew Bailey (former Research Officer). In the political arena notable alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of state, 20 members of the current House of Commons of the United Kingdom, British House of Commons and 46 members of the current House of Lords. Former British Prime Minister Clement Attlee taught at the school from 1912 to 1923. In recent British politics, former LSE students include
Virginia Bottomley Virginia Hilda Brunette Maxwell Bottomley, Baroness Bottomley of Nettlestone, PC, DL (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname, the given name or to the entire name. ...

Virginia Bottomley
, Yvette Cooper, Edwina Currie, Frank Dobson, Margaret Hodge, Robert Kilroy-Silk, former UK Labour Party leader Ed Miliband and former UK Liberal Democrats leader Jo Swinson. Internationally, the current and first female president of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen, Brazilian defence minister Celso Amorim, Costa Rican President Óscar Arias, Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, architect of the Indian Constitution and eminent economist B. R. Ambedkar, President of India K. R. Narayanan, President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) Tsai Ing-wen, Italian prime minister and president of the European Commission, Romano Prodi, French Foreign Minister and president of the Constitutional Council Roland Dumas as well as Singapore's deputy prime minister and chairman of the International Monetary and Financial Committee at the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Tharman Shanmugaratnam all studied at LSE. A notable number of LSE students have also played a role in the Barack Obama administration, including Pete Rouse, Peter R. Orszag, Mona Sutphen, Paul Volcker and Jason Furman. Physician Vanessa Kerry and American journalist Susan Rasky are also alumnae of the LSE. Notable American Monica Lewinsky pursued her MSc in Social Psychology at the LSE. Business people who studied at LSE include the CEO of AirAsia Tony Fernandes, former CEO of General Motors Daniel Akerson, director of Louis Vuitton Delphine Arnault, founder of easyJet Stelios Haji-Ioannou, CEO of Abercrombie & Fitch Michael S. Jeffries, Greek business magnate Spiros Latsis, American banker David Rockefeller, CEO of Newsmax Media Christopher Ruddy, founder of advertising agency Saatchi and Saatchi Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi, Maurice Saatchi, hedge fund managers George Soros and Michael Platt (finance), Michael Platt and Andreas Utermann, former CEO of Allianz Global Investors. A survey by employment specialists Emolument, Emolument.com found that it on average took LSE graduates 11.6 years in the workforce to begin earning base salaries in excess of £500,000; the shortest timespan of any university in the United Kingdom. Convicted British terrorist, Omar Saeed Sheikh, studied statistics at LSE, but did not graduate. He served five years in an Indian prison for kidnapping British tourists in 1994. In 2002, he was arrested and convicted in the kidnapping and murder of Daniel Pearl. ''The Guardian'' reported that Sheikh came into contact with radical Islamists at the LSE.


Nobel laureates

As of 2019, 18 Nobel Prizes in economics, peace and literature are officially recognised as having been awarded to LSE alumni and staff. File:Leonid Hurwicz.jpg, Leonid Hurwicz – Nobel laureate in Economics – studied at LSE with Nicholas Kaldor and Friedrich Hayek, Hayek File:Coase_scan_10_edited.jpg, Ronald Coase – awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1991 File:Christopher Pissarides.jpg, Christopher A. Pissarides – awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2010 – currently Regius Professor of Economics at LSE File:Amartya Sen NIH.jpg, Amartya Sen, Indian economist, former professor and Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel laureate File:Juan Manuel Santos in 2018.jpg, Juan Manuel Santos, former president of Colombia and recipient of the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize


LSE in literature and other media

The LSE has been mentioned and formed the basis of setting for numerous works of fiction and in popular culture. The first notable mention of the LSE was in literature was in the epilogue to George Bernard Shaw, Bernard Shaw's 1912 play 'Pygmalion (play), 'Pygmalion', Eliza Dolittle is sent to the LSE. In around a dozen other novels, the LSE was mentioned as short-hand for a character being witty and clever but outside the establishment. This is best exhibited by Ian Fleming's CV of James Bond that included the detail that his father, Andrew, is an LSE graduate. These occurrences have continued into contemporary fiction: Lenny is the young ‘hip’ LSE graduate and criminologist in Jake Arnott’s tour of the London underworld in ''The Long Firm.'' Robert Harris’ ''Enigma (novel), Enigma'' includes Baxter, a code breaker with leftist views, who has been an LSE lecturer before the war and ''My Revolutions''  by Hari Kunzru traces the career of Chris Carver aka Michael Frame who travels from LSE student radical to terrorist and on to middle England. Former LSE alumnus Hilary Mantel in ''The Experience of Love'' never mentions LSE by name but Holborn, Houghton Street, the corridors of the LSE Old Building and Wright's Bar are immediately recognisable references to the campus of the school. A. S. Byatt, A.S Byatt’s ''The Children's Book, The Children’s Book'' returns to LSE’s Fabian roots with a plot inspired in part by the life of children’s writer E Nesbitt and Fabian Hubert Bland, and characters that choose LSE over older educational establishments (namely Oxford and Cambridge). On the small screen, the popular 1980s British sitcom Yes Minister and Yes, Prime Minister, Yes Prime Minister make a regular references to the LSE with Minister Jim Hacker (later Prime Minister) and Sir Mark Spencer (special advisor to the Prime Minister) regularly being subtly ridiculed for having attended the LSE. A slightly earlier fictional LSE graduate appears in season three episode six of the US series, ''Mad Men (season 3), Mad Men''. The popular American series ''The West Wing'' following the Democratic administration of Josiah Bartlet, Josiah (Jed) Barltet makes several references to Josiah Bartlet being an alumnus of the LSE. Other fictional LSE alumnus are present in ''Spooks (TV series), Spooks'', at least one episode of ''The Professionals (TV series), The Professionals'' and ''The Blacklist (TV series), The Blacklist'' series. In movies and motion pictures, in the 2014 action spy thriller ''Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit, Shadow Recruit'', the young Jack Ryan, based on a Tom Clancy character, proves his academic credentials by walking out of the Old Building as he graduates from the London School of Economics before injuring his spine being shot down in Afghanistan. The LSE is acknowledged in The Social Network naming the institution along with Oxford and Cambridge Universities in a reference to the rapid growth Facebook enjoyed both within and outside the United States in its early years.


Notes


References


Further reading

* * "Determined Challengers Keep Heat on the Elite", ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'', 28 October 2005 *
1969: LSE closes over student clashes
, BBC News *

, "IDEAS, University of Connecticut, Top 20% UK institutions"


External links

* *
Catalogue of the archives of LSE

Memorandum about the school by William Beveridge, 1935

Catalogue of School minute books, 1894–
{{DEFAULTSORT:London School Of Economics London School of Economics, University of London Education in the City of Westminster Russell Group Educational institutions established in 1895 1895 establishments in England 1895 in economics Political science in the United Kingdom Universities UK