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A loaded question is a form of complex question that contains a controversial Tacit assumption, assumption (e.g., a presumption of guilt). Such questions may be used as a rhetorical tool: the question attempts to limit direct replies to be those that serve the questioner's agenda. The traditional example is the question "Have you stopped beating your wife?" Whether the respondent answers yes or no, they will admit to having a wife and having beaten her at some time in the past. Thus, these facts are ''presupposed'' by the question, and in this case an entrapment, because it narrows the respondent to a single answer, and the fallacy of many questions has been committed. The fallacy relies upon context for its effect: the fact that a question presupposes something does not in itself make the question fallacious. Only when some of these presuppositions are not necessarily agreed to by the person who is asked the question does the argument containing them become fallacious. Hence, the same question may be loaded in one context, but not in the other. For example, the previous question would not be loaded if it were asked during a trial in which the defendant had already admitted to beating his wife.Douglas N. Walton, ''Informal logic: a handbook for critical argumentation'', Cambridge University Press, 1989,
pp. 36–37
/ref> This informal fallacy should be distinguished from that of begging the question, which offers a premise whose plausibility depends on the truth of the proposition asked about, and which is often an implicit restatement of the proposition.


Defense

A common way out of this argument is not to answer the question (e.g. with a simple 'yes' or 'no'), but to challenge the assumption behind the question. To use an earlier example, a good response to the question "Have you stopped beating your wife?" would be "I have ''never'' beaten my wife". This removes the ambiguity of the expected response, therefore nullifying the tactic. However, the asker is likely to respond by accusing the one who answers of question dodging, dodging the question.


Historical examples

Diogenes Laërtius wrote a brief biography of the philosopher Menedemus in which he relates that: For another example, the New Zealand corporal punishment referendum, 2009, 2009 referendum on corporal punishment in New Zealand asked: "Should a smack as part of good parental correction be a criminal offence in New Zealand?" Murray Edridge, of Barnardos New Zealand, criticized the question as "loaded and ambiguous" and claimed "the question presupposes that smacking is a part of good parental correction".


See also

* Barber paradox * Complex question * Entailment (pragmatics) * False dilemma * Gotcha journalism * Implicature * Leading question * Mu (negative) * Presupposition * Suggestive question * List of fallacies


References


External links


Fallacy: Loaded Questions and Complex Claims
Critical Thinking exercises. San Jose State University.

The Fallacy Files
What Is The Loaded Question Fallacy? Definition and Examples
Fallacy in Logic {{DEFAULTSORT:Loaded Question Informal fallacies