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Jousting is a martial game or ''
hastilude Hastilude is a generic term used in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the R ...
'' between two horseriders wielding
lance A lance is a pole weapon A pole weapon or pole arm is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft, typically of wood, thereby extending the user's effective range and striking pow ...

lance
s with blunted tips, often as part of a
tournament A tournament is a competition Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. The relationship ...
. The primary aim was to replicate a clash of
heavy cavalry 300px, Spanish Heavy Cavalry - Royal Armoury of Madrid, Spain ">Spain.html" ;"title="Royal Armoury of Madrid, Spain">Royal Armoury of Madrid, Spain Heavy cavalry was a class of cavalry Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself ...
, with each participant trying hard to strike the opponent while riding towards him at high speed, breaking the lance on the opponent's shield or
jousting armour Jousting is a martial game or ''hastilude'' between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament (medieval), tournament. The primary aim was to replicate a clash of heavy cavalry, with each participant trying ha ...
if possible, or unhorsing him. The joust became an iconic characteristic of the
knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state (including the pope) or representative for service to the monarch, the christian denomination, church or the country, especially in a military capacity. Knighthoo ...
in Romantic
medievalism Medievalism is a system of belief and practice inspired by the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post- ...
. The participants experience close to three and a quarter times their body weight in G-forces when the lances collide with their armour. The term is derived from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
, ultimately from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
"to approach, to meet". The word was loaned into
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent distinct variations and developments following ...
around 1300, when jousting was a very popular sport among the
Anglo-NormanAnglo-Norman may refer to: *Anglo-Normans The Anglo-Normans ( nrf, Anglo-Normaunds, ang, Engel-Norðmandisca) were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Bretons, Flemish people, F ...
knighthood. The synonym tilt (as in
tilting at windmills ''The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha'' (Modern Spanish: (in Part 2, '' caballero'') , ), or just (, ;Oxford English Dictionary,Don Quixote , ), is a Spanish novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, ...
) dates . Jousting is based on the military use of the lance by heavy cavalry. It transformed into a specialised sport during the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
, and remained popular with the
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...
and other parts of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
throughout the whole of the 16th century (while in France, it was discontinued after the death of King Henry II in an accident in 1559). In England, jousting was the highlight of the
Accession Day tilt attired as the Knight of Pendragon Castle for the Tilt of 1590, by Nicholas Hilliard. His pageant shield leans against the tree. The Queen's "favour", a glove, is attached to his hat. The Accession Day tilts were a series of elaborate festivities he ...
s of
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Elizabeth I
and of
James VI and I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

James VI and I
, and also was part of the festivities at the marriage of
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
. From 10 July to 9 August 1434, the Leonese
Knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In so ...

Knight
Suero de Quiñones Suero de Quiñones (c. 1409 – 11 July 1456), called ''El del Passo'' ("he of the pass"), was a knight and author born in the Kingdom of León The Kingdom of León (, ; ; Astur-Leonese: ''Reinu de Llïón''; es, Reino de León; gl, Reino ...
and ten of his companions encamped in a field beside a bridge and challenged each knight who wished to cross it to a joust. This road was used by pilgrims all over Europe on the way to a shrine at Santiago de Compostela, and at this time of the summer, many thousands would cross the bridge. Suero and his men swore to "break 300 lances" before moving on. The men fought for over a month, and after 166 battles Suero and his men were so injured they could not continue and declared the mission complete. Jousting was discontinued in favor of other
equestrian sports Equestrian sports are sports that use horses as a main part of the sport. This usually takes the form of the rider being on the horse's back, or the horses pulling some sort of horse-drawn vehicle. General *4-H *Ban'ei, Ban'ei racing *Camargue eq ...
in the 17th century, although non-contact forms of " equestrian skill-at-arms" disciplines survived. There has been a limited revival of
theatrical jousting Coined in the late 20th century by American stunt performer Kent Shelton, the term theatrical jousting refers to a form of live entertainment in which a medieval jousting tournament is recreated Sports entertainment, in conjunction with a scripted ...
re-enactment since the 1970s.


Medieval joust

The medieval joust has its origins in the military tactics of
heavy cavalry 300px, Spanish Heavy Cavalry - Royal Armoury of Madrid, Spain ">Spain.html" ;"title="Royal Armoury of Madrid, Spain">Royal Armoury of Madrid, Spain Heavy cavalry was a class of cavalry Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself ...
during the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
. By the 14th century, many members of the nobility, including kings, had taken up jousting to showcase their own courage, skill and talents, and the sport proved just as dangerous for a king as a knight, and from the 15th century on, jousting became a sport (''
hastilude Hastilude is a generic term used in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the R ...
'') without direct relevance to warfare.


High Middle Ages

From the 11th to 14th centuries when medieval jousting was still practised in connection to the use of the lance in warfare, armour evolved from
mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Non-rectangular s ...
(with a solid, heavy helmet, called a "
great helm The great helm or heaume, also called pot helm, bucket helm and barrel helm, is a helmet of the High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time ...
", and shield) to plate armour. By 1400, knights wore full suits of
plate armour Plate armour is a historical type of personal body armour Body armor, also known as body armour, personal armor/armour, or a suit/coat of armour, is protective clothing designed to absorb or deflect physical attacks. Historically used to p ...
, called a "harness" (Clephan 28-29). In this early period, a ''joust'' was still a (martial) "meeting", i.e. a
duel A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activit ...

duel
in general and not limited to the lance. Combatants would begin riding on one another with the lance, but might continue with shorter range weapons after the distance was closed or after one or both parties had been unhorsed. Tournaments in the High Medieval period were much rougher and less "gentlemanly" affairs than in the late medieval era of
chivalry Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal and varying code of conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised ...
. The rival parties would fight in groups, with the aim of incapacitating their adversaries for the sake of gaining their horses, arms and ransoms.


Late Middle Ages

With the development of the courtly ideals of
chivalry Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal and varying code of conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised ...
in the late medieval period, the joust became more regulated. This tendency is also reflected in the pas d'armes in general. It was now considered dishonourable to exploit an opponent's disadvantage, and knights would pay close attention to avoid being in a position of advantage, seeking to gain honour by fighting against the odds. This romanticised "chivalric revival" was based on the
chivalric romance As a literary genre of high culture, heroic romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose Prose is a form of written (or spoken) language that usually exhibits a natural speech, natural flow of speech and Syntax, grammatical structure—an ...
s of the high medieval period, which noblemen tried to "reenact" in real life, sometimes blurring the lines of reality and fiction. The development of the term ''
knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In so ...

knight
'' (''chevalier'') dates to this period. Before the 12th century, ''cniht'' was a term for a servant. In the 12th century, it became used of a military follower in particular. Also in the 12th century, a special class of noblemen serving in cavalry developed, known as ''milites nobiles''. By the end of the 13th century, ''chivalry'' (''chyualerye'') was used not just in the technical sense of "cavalry" but for martial virtue in general. It was only after 1300 that ''knighthood'' (''kniȝthod'', originally a term for "boyhood, youth") came to be used as a junior rank of nobility. By the later 14th century, the term became romanticised for the ideal of the young nobleman seeking to prove himself in honourable exploits, the
knight-errant A knight-errant (or knight errant) is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature. The adjective ''errant A knight-errant (or knight errant) is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature. The adjective '' errant'' (meaning "wander ...

knight-errant
, which among other things encompassed the pas d'armes, including the joust. By the 15th century, "knightly" virtues were sought by the noble classes even of ranks much senior than "knight". The iconic association of the "knight" stock-character with the joust is thus historical, but develops only at the end of the Middle Ages. The ''lists'', or ''list field'', was the arena where a jousting event was held. More precisely, it was the roped-off enclosure where tournament fighting took place. In the late medieval period, castles and palaces were augmented by purpose-built ''
tiltyard A tiltyard (or tilt yard or tilt-yard) was an enclosed courtyard for jousting. Tiltyards were a common feature of Tudor era castles and palaces. The Horse Guards Parade Horse Guards Parade is a large parade ground off Whitehall in central Lond ...
s'' as a venue for "jousting tournaments". Training for such activities included the use of special equipment, of which the best-known was the quintain. The ''
Chronicles of Froissart , a miniature from Froissart of Louis of Gruuthuse (BnF Fr 2643-6), one of the better-known manuscripts of the ''Chronicles''. attacks his companions in a fit of insanity Froissart's ''Chronicles'' (or ''Chroniques'') are a prose history of the H ...
'', written during the 1390s, and covering the period of 1327 to 1400, contain many details concerning jousting in this era. The combat was now expected to be non-lethal, and it was not necessary to incapacitate the opponent, who was expected to honourably yield to the dominant fighter. The combat was divided into rounds of three encounters with various weapons, of which the joust proper was one. During this time, the joust detached itself from the reality on the battlefield and became a chivalric sport. Knights would seek opportunities to duel opponents from the hostile camp for honour off the battlefield. As an example, Froissart records that, during a campaign in Beauce in the year 1380, a squire of the garrison of
Toury Toury () is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically hold a ...

Toury
castle named Gauvain Micaille (Michaille)—also mentioned in the ''Chronique du bon duc Loys de Bourbon'' as wounded in 1382 at
Roosebeke
Roosebeke
, and again in 1386; in 1399 was in the service of the duke of Bourbon—yelled out to the English, The challenge was answered by a squire named Joachim Cator, who said "I will deliver him from his vow: let him make haste and come out of the castle." Micaille came to meet his opponent with attendants carrying three lances, three battle-axes, three swords and three daggers. The duel began with a joust, described as follows: The meeting was then adjourned, and continued on the next day. In spite of the French squire's injury, the duel was continued with three thrusts with the sword. After this, the encounter was stopped because of the Micaille's loss of blood. He was given leave to rejoin his garrison with a reward of a hundred francs by the earl of Buckingham, who stated that he had acquitted himself much to his satisfaction. Froissart describes a tournament at Cambray in 1385, held on the marriage of the Count d'Ostrevant to the daughter of Duke Philip of Burgundy. The tournament was held in the market-place of the town, and forty knights took part. The king jousted with a knight of Hainault, Sir John Destrenne, for the prize of a clasp of precious stones, taken off from the bosom of the Duchess of Burgundy; it was won by Sir Destrenne, and formally presented by the
Admiral of France Admiral of France (french: Amiral de France) is a French title of honour A title of honor or honorary title is a title bestowed upon individuals or organizations as an award in recognition of their merits. Sometimes the title bears the same o ...
and Sir Guy de la Trimouille. A knightly duel in this period usually consisted in three courses of jousting, and three blows and strokes exchanged with battle-axes, swords, and daggers. This number tended to be extended towards the end of the century, until the most common number was five, as in the duel between Sir Thomas Harpenden and Messire Jean des Barres, at Montereau sur Yonne in 1387 (''cinq lances a cheval, cinq coups d'épée, cinq coups de dague et cinq coups de hache''). Later could be as high as ten or even twelve. In the 1387 encounter, the first four courses of the joust were run without decisive outcome, but in the fifth Sir Thomas was unhorsed and lost consciousness. He was revived, however, and all the strokes and blows could be duly exchanged, without any further injury. On another instance, a meeting with sharp lances was arranged to take place near
Nantes Nantes (, , ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Naunnt'' or ''Nantt'' ; ) is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast. The city is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, sixth largest in F ...

Nantes
, under the auspices of the
Constable of France The Grand Constable of France (french: Grand Connétable de France, from Latin for 'count of the stables'), was the First Officer of the Crown, one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with Seneschal#In_France, senesc ...
and the Earl of Buckingham. The first encounter was a combat on foot, with sharp spears, in which one of the cavaliers was slightly wounded; the pair then ran three courses with the lance without further mishap. Next Sir John Ambreticourt of Hainault and Sir Tristram de la Jaille of
Poitou Poitou (, , ; Poitevin: ''Poetou'') was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first ...

Poitou
advanced from the ranks and jousted three courses, without hurt. A duel followed between Edward Beauchamp, son of Sir Robert Beauchamp, and the bastard Clarius de Savoye. Clarius was much the stronger man of the two, and Beauchamp was unhorsed. The bastard then offered to fight another English champion, and an esquire named Jannequin Finchly came forward in answer to the call; the combat with swords and lances was very violent, but neither of the parties was hurt. Another encounter took place between John de Chatelmorant and Jannequin Clinton, in which the Englishman was unhorsed. Finally Chatelmorant fought with Sir William Farrington, the former receiving a dangerous wound in the thigh, for which the Englishman was greatly blamed, as being an infraction of the rules of the tourney, but an accident was pleaded just as in the case of the 1380 duel between Gauvain Micaille and Joachim Cator.


Renaissance-era joust

The medieval joust took place on an open field. Indeed, the term ''joust'' meant "a meeting" and referred to arranged combat in general, not just the jousting with lances. At some point in the 14th century, a cloth barrier was introduced as an option to separate the contestants. This barrier was presumably known as ''tilt'' in Middle English (a term with an original meaning of "a cloth covering"). It became a wooden barrier or fence in the 15th century, now known as "tilt barrier", and "tilt" came to be used as a term for the joust itself by . The purpose of the tilt barrier was to prevent collisions and to keep the combatants at an optimal angle for breaking the lance. This greatly facilitated the control of the horse and allowed the rider to concentrate on aiming the lance. The introduction of the barrier seems to have originated in the south, as it only became a standard feature of jousting in Germany in the 16th century, and was there called the Italian or "" mode. Dedicated tilt-yards with such barriers were built in England from the time of
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...

Henry VIII
. Specialised jousting armour was produced in the late 15th to 16th century. It was heavier than suits of
plate armour Plate armour is a historical type of personal body armour Body armor, also known as body armour, personal armor/armour, or a suit/coat of armour, is protective clothing designed to absorb or deflect physical attacks. Historically used to p ...
intended for combat, and could weigh as much as 50 kg (110 lb), compared to some 25 kg (55 lb) for field armour; as it did not need to permit free movement of the wearer, the only limiting factor was the maximum weight that could be carried by a
warhorse The first evidence of horses in warfare dates from Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it is bordered by ...

warhorse
of the period. During the 1490s, emperor
Maximilian IMaximilian I may refer to: *Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, reigned 1486/93–1519 *Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, reigned 1597–1651 *Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1636-1689) *Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, reigned 1795– ...

Maximilian I
invested a lot of effort into perfecting the sport, for which he received his nickname of "The Last Knight". ' and ' were two sportive forms of the joust developed during the 15th century and practised throughout the 16th century. The armours used for these two respective styles of the joust were known as ' and ', respectively. The ' in particular developed into extremely heavy armour which completely inhibited the movement of the rider, in its latest forms resembling an armour-shaped cabin integrated into the horse armour more than a functional suit of armour. Such forms of sportive equipment during the final phase of the joust in
16th-century Germany The German-speaking states of the early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics ...
gave rise to modern misconceptions about the heaviness or clumsiness of "medieval armour", as notably popularised by
Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or ...

Mark Twain
's '' A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court''. The extremely heavy helmets of the ' are explained by the fact that the aim was to detach the
crest Crest or CREST may refer to: Buildings *The Crest (Huntington, New York) The Crest is a historic house on Eatons Neck in Suffolk County, New York. Although on the land mass of Eatons Neck, the house today is within the jurisdiction of the Incor ...
of the opponent's helmet, resulting in frequent full impact of the lance to the helmet. By contrast the ' was a type of joust with lighter contact. Here, the aim was to hit the opponent's shield. The specialised ' was developed on the request of Maximilian, who desired a return to a more agile form of joust compared to the heavily armoured "full contact" '. In the ', the shield was attached to the armour with a mechanism of springs and would detach itself upon contact. In France, the death of King
Henry II Henry II may refer to: Kings *Henry II of England (1133–89), reigned from 1154 *Henry II of Jerusalem and Cyprus (1271–1324), reigned from 1285; king of Jerusalem in name only from 1291 *Henry II of Castile (1334–79), reigned 1366–67 and ...
in 1559 from wounds suffered in a tournament led to the end of jousting as a sport. The tilt continued through Henry VIII and onto the reign of Elizabeth I. Under her rule, tournaments were seen as more of a parade or show than an actual martial exercise. The last Elizabethan
Accession Day tilt attired as the Knight of Pendragon Castle for the Tilt of 1590, by Nicholas Hilliard. His pageant shield leans against the tree. The Queen's "favour", a glove, is attached to his hat. The Accession Day tilts were a series of elaborate festivities he ...
was held in November 1602; Elizabeth died the following spring. Tilts continued as part of festivities marking the Accession Day of
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
, 24 March, until 1624, the year before his death. In the early 17th century, the joust was replaced as the equine highlight of court festivities by large "horse-ballet" displays called
carousel A carousel (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. C ...

carousel
s, although non-combat competitions such as the ring-tilt lasted until the 18th century. One attempt to revive the joust was the
Eglinton Tournament of 1839 The Eglinton Tournament of 1839 was a reenactment of a medieval joust and revel held in North Ayrshire, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Coveri ...
. File:Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I (1503–1564) MET DT773.jpg, Armor of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1549 File:Armor of Henry II, King of France (reigned 1547–59) MET DP256960.jpg, Parade Armour of Henry II of France, c. 1553-55 File:Field Armor of King Henry VIII of England (reigned 1509–47) MET DT205963.jpg, Armour for King Henry VIII by Matthew Bisanz, 1544 File:Tower of london 812.jpg, Armour worn by King Henry VIII


Horses

The two most common kinds of horse used for jousting were
warmblood Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse types and breeds primarily originating in Europe and registered with organizations that are characterized by open studbook policy, studbook selectionStudbook selection is a process used in certain ...
''
charger Charger or Chargers may refer to: * NATO code name for the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic transport * Convair Charger prototype light attack and observation aircraft * Charger (table setting), decorative plates used to fancify a place setting * Battery ...
s'' and larger ''
destrier The destrier is the best-known war horse The first evidence of horses in warfare dates from Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, Norther ...
s''. Chargers were medium-weight horses bred and trained for agility and stamina. Destriers were heavier, similar to today's
Andalusian horse The Andalusian, also known as the Pure Spanish Horse or PRE (Spanish language literally translates to “Spanish pure breed”. This name is sometimes capitalized when used in English-language publications, but is all lower-case in Spanish, wh ...

Andalusian horse
, but not as large as the modern
draft horse A draft horse (US), draught horse (UK) or dray horse (from the Old English ''dragan'' meaning "to draw or haul"; compare Dutch language, Dutch ''dragen'' and German language, German ''tragen'' meaning "to carry" and Danish language, Danish ''d ...

draft horse
. During a jousting tournament, the horses were cared for by their
groom A bridegroom (often shortened to groom) is a man who is about to be married in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union between people, called spouses, that establishes rights and obligatio ...
s in their respective tents. They wore
caparison A caparison is a cloth covering laid over a horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated odd-toed ungulate mammal. It belongs to the taxonomic family Equidae and is one of two Extant taxon, extant subspecies of wild horse, ' ...
s, a type of ornamental cloth featuring the owner's heraldic signs. Competing horses had their heads protected by a chanfron, an iron shield for protection from otherwise lethal lance hits (Clayton 22-56). Other forms of equipment on the horse included long-necked
spur A spur is a metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boot A riding boot is a boot A boot, plural boots, is a type of specific footwear Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which typically serves the purpo ...

spur
s which enabled the rider to control the horse with extended legs, a
saddle The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider of an animal, fastened to Mammal#Anatomy, an animal's back by a girth (tack), girth. The most common type is the equestrian saddle designed for a Back (horse), horse. However, specialized sad ...

saddle
with a high back to provide leverage during the charge or when hit, as well as
stirrup A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider of an animal, fastened to Mammal#Anatomy, an animal's back by a girth (tack), girth. The most com ...

stirrup
s for the necessary leverage to deliver blows with the lance (Tkačenko).


Modern revivals


Modern-day jousting

Jousting re-enactors have been active since the 1970s. A jousting show took place in 1972 at the Principality of Gwrych in
North Wales , area_land_km2 = 6,172 , postal_code_type = Postcode A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or nume ...

North Wales
near
Abergele Abergele (; ; ) is a market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market right), which distinguished it from ...
. The Company of Knights Limited, founded in early 1974, organised jousting shows including from five to as many as fifty actors. Between 1980 and 1982, the Little England theme park in
Orlando, Florida Orlando () is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due ...
, was planned as a jousting stadium. Although the first phase of the project was constructed, high interest rates cancelled the project. The medieval dinner re-enactment company
Medieval Times Medieval Times Dinner and Tournament is a family dinner theater featuring staged medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation an ...

Medieval Times
includes the sport in its dinner show. Jousting shows are also offered seasonally at
Warwick Castle Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from a wooden fort, originally built by William I of England, William the Conqueror during 1068. Warwick is the county town of Warwickshire, England, situated on a meander of the River Avon, Warwicksh ...

Warwick Castle
and
Hever Castle Hever Castle ( ) is located in the village of Hever, Kent, near Edenbridge, Kent, Edenbridge, south-east of London, England. It began as a country house, built in the 13th century. From 1462 to 1539, it was the seat of the Boleyn (originally 'Bul ...

Hever Castle
in the United Kingdom. And groups like the Knights of Royal England travel around Britain and Europe staging medieval Jousting Tournaments; at the Danish museum
Middelaldercentret Middelaldercentret () is an experimental living history Living history is an activity that incorporates historical tools, activities and dress into an interactive presentation that seeks to give observers and participants a sense of stepping ...

Middelaldercentret
there are daily tournaments during the season.


Competitive jousting

''The Knights of Valour'' was a theatrical jousting group formed by Shane Adams in 1993. Members of this group began to practice jousting competitively, and their first tournament was held in 1997. Adams founded the World Championship Jousting Association (WCJA) as a body dedicated to jousting as a
combat sport A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Combat sports share a long p ...
, which held its inaugural tournament in
Port Elgin, Ontario Port Elgin is a community in Bruce County, Ontario, Bruce County, Ontario, Canada. Its location is in the traditional territory of the Saugeen Ojibway Nation. Originally named Normanton the town was renamed Port Elgin when it was incorporated in 1 ...
on 24 July 1999. The sport is presented in the 2012 television show ''
Full Metal Jousting ''Full Metal Jousting'' was an American Reality television, reality game show that debuted on the History (U.S. TV channel), History Channel on February 12, 2012. The show featured 16 contestants, split into two teams of eight, competing in full-c ...
'', hosted by Adams. The rules are inspired by ''Realgestech'' (also ''Plankengestech''), one of the forms of ''stechen'' practised in 16th-century Germany, where reinforcing pieces were added to the
jousting armour Jousting is a martial game or ''hastilude'' between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament (medieval), tournament. The primary aim was to replicate a clash of heavy cavalry, with each participant trying ha ...
to serve as designated target areas. Instead of using a shield, the jousters aim for such a reinforcing piece added to the armour's left shoulder known as '' Brechschild'' (also ''Stechtartsche''). A number of Jousting events are held regularly in Europe, some organised by Arne Koets, including The Grand Tournament of Sankt Wendel and The Grand Tournament at
Schaffhausen Schaffhausen (; gsw, Schafuuse; french: Schaffhouse; it, Sciaffusa; rm, Schaffusa; en, Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division ...

Schaffhausen
."An Interview with Arne Koets, jouster" The Jousting Life, December 2014 Koets is one of a number of Jousters that travels internationally to events.


See also

*
Bem cavalgar ''Bem cavalgar'', fully ''Livro da ensinança de bem cavalgar toda sela'' ("Book on the instruction of riding well on every saddle"), is a book written by Edward of Portugal, left incomplete as Edward died of a plague in 1438. It is one of the olde ...
* Warwick International School of Riding * Water jousting


References

* . * . * . * * Clayton, Eric, Justin Fyles, Erik DeVolder, Jonathan E.H. Hayden. "Arms and Armor of the Medieval Knight." ''Arms and Armor of the Medieval Knight'' (2008): 1–115. Web. 8 Mar. 2016. *Clephan, R. Coltman. ''The Mediaeval Tournament''. New York: Dover Publications, 1995. Print.


External links


The Chronicles of Froissart
excerpts from 1849 edition of the Thomas Johnes translation (1805).

excerpts from 1849 edition of the Thomas Johnes translation (1805).

(myArmoury.com article) *
Giostra Del Saracino, Arezzo
(middle-ages.org.uk)
Sport jousting in the U.S.A.
* {{Equestrian Sports Heraldry