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A multimedia franchise (or a transmedia franchise) is a media franchise for which installments exist in multiple forms of media, such as books, comics, films, television series, and video games. Multimedia franchises usually develop due to the popularization of an original creative work, and then its expansion to other media through licensing agreements, with respect to intellectual property in the franchise's characters and settings,See, e.g., Barry Langford, ''Post-classical Hollywood: Film Industry, Style and Ideology Since 1945'', p. 207, : "For the studios, a home-run is a film from which a multimedia 'franchise' can be generated; the colossally expensive creation of cross-media conglomerates predicated on synergistic rewards provides an obvious imperative to develop such products". although the trend later developed wherein franchises would be launched in multiple forms of media simultaneously.Harry J. Brown, ''Videogames and Education'' (2008), p. 41, : In order to qualify for this list, a franchise must have works in at least three forms of media, and must have two or more separate works in at least two of those forms of media (a television series or comic book series is considered a single work for purposes of this list; multiple spin-off series or reboots of a previously ended series are considered multiple works). For example, a television series that spawned one film and one novelization would not qualify; a television series that had a spin-off series, or was remade as a new series, and which spawned two films and one novelization does qualify. This list does not include public domain works from which adaptations have been made in multiple media, but which do not involve licensing or other means by which an author or owner controls the franchise. A franchise may be included if it obtained multimedia franchise status prior to works within the collection entering the public domain. Note: In the following table, the initial media through which the franchise characters or settings became known is shown in boldface. Only works of fiction are only considered part of the series; a book or a documentary film ''about'' the franchise is not itself an installment in the franchise.

Franchises originating in literary works

These franchises began as novels, short stories, and other forms of purely literary works.

Franchises originating in comics and printed cartoons



Franchises originating in television series



Franchises originating in animated television series



Franchises originating in live-action television series



Franchises originating in films



Franchises originating in animated films



Franchises originating in live-action films



Franchises originating in video games



Including film and/or television works



Not including film and/or television works



Franchises originating in board games, card games, table-top games, and role-playing games



Franchises originating in toys, attractions and other media



See also

* List of fictional shared universes in film and television – many multimedia franchises are based in fictional universes * List of public domain works with multimedia adaptations * List of highest-grossing media franchises * Media mix

References

{{Media series * Media franchises