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This article contains a representative list of notable databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion ...
s,
institutional repositories An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.Van de Sompel, H & Lagoze, C. (2000. ''D-lib Magazine'', 6(2). ...
, archives, or other collections of
scientific Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as w ...
and
other Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * ''The Other'' (short story), a 1972 short story ...
articles. Databases and search engines differ substantially in terms of coverage and retrieval qualities. Users need to account for qualities and limitations of databases and search engines, especially those searching systematically for records such as in systematic reviews or meta-analyses. As the distinction between a
database A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques. The database management sys ...
and a
search engine A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a textual web search query. The search resu ...
is unclear for these complex
document retrieval systemDocument retrieval is defined as the matching of some stated user query against a set of free-text records. These records could be any type of mainly unstructured text, such as newspaper articles, real estate records or paragraphs in a manual. User q ...
s, see: * the general
list of search engines This is a list of search engines, including web search engines, selection-based search engines, metasearch engines, desktop search tools, and web portals and vertical market websites that have a search facility for online databases. For a list of ...
for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes * the article about
bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, pa ...
s for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles. Note that "Free", "Subscription", "Free & Subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. Additionally, some services are partially free (often viewing the abstracts or limited number of items) while full access is restricted (login or institutional subscription required). "Size" column refers to the number of records (articles, publications, datasets, preprints) rather than number of citations or/and references. The primary source of information should be the database itself and if not available, the independent estimates published as the journal articles. Notably, Google Scholar does not provide such information, but the size of the database had been estimated.


Operating services


Services no longer operating (not updated, abandoned entirely, replaced by other, etc.)


See also

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List of academic preprint servers This is a list of preprint repositories. __NOTOC__ Notes See also * List of academic journals by preprint policy * List of copyright policies of academic publishers External links ASAPBio's list of preprint servers References {{reflist Cat ...
*
Academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal articles, books or thesis' form. The part of academic written output that is not formally ...
*
List of digital library projects This is a list of digital library projects. See also * Bibliographic database * List of academic databases and search engines * List of online databases * List of online encyclopedias * List of open-access journals * List of search engines Refe ...
* List of educational video websites *
List of neuroscience databases A number of online neuroscience databases are available which provide information regarding gene expression, neurons, macroscopic brain structure, and neurological or psychiatric disorders. Some databases contain descriptive and numerical data, some ...
*
List of online databases This is a list of online databases accessible via the Internet. A * Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields * Academic OneFile * Acronym Finder * Aeiou Encyclopedia * Airdisaster.com * Airiti Inc * Airliners.net * All Media Guide * Allgame (down) * ...
*
List of online encyclopedias This is a list of online encyclopedias—i.e., encyclopedias accessible on the Internet or formerly accessible on the Internet. The largest online encyclopedias are general reference works, though there are also many specialized ones. Some online e ...
*
List of open access journals This is a list of open-access journals by field. The list contains notable journals which have a policy of full open access. It does not include delayed open access journals, hybrid open access journals, or related collections or indexing service ...
* List of open access projects *
List of repositories See also * List of libraries * List of archives * Open-access repository (Digital Commons, DSpace, EPrints, arXiv, bioRxiv, Dryad, Figshare, Zenodo) References Ranking Web of Repositories {{Open access navbox Digital libraries C ...


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:List of Academic Databases and Search Engines
Academic publishing Publishing Publishing Scholarly communication {{CatAutoTOC ...
Scholarly databases{{cat see also, Bibliographic databases and indexes Databases by subject Academic publishing Library science Scholarly communication ...
academic databases * Bibliographic databases and indexes Databases
Academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the worldwide group composed of professors and researchers at in ...