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This article contains a representative list of notable databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of w ...
s,
institutional repositories An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.Van de Sompel, H & Lagoze, C. (2000. ''D-lib Magazine'', 6(2). ...
, archives, or other collections of
scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...
and
other Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * ''The Other'' (short story), a 1972 short st ...
articles. Databases and search engines differ substantially in terms of coverage and retrieval qualities. Users need to account for qualities and limitations of databases and search engines, especially those searching systematically for records such as in systematic reviews or meta-analyses. As the distinction between a
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
and a
search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a n ...
is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see: * the general
list of search engines This is a list of search engines, including web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects ...
for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes * the article about
bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the that int ...
s for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles. The terms "free", "subscription", and "free & subscription" will refer to the availability of the website as well as the journal articles used. Furthermore, some programs are only partly free (for example, accessing abstracts or a small number of items), whereas complete access is prohibited (login or institutional subscription required). The "Size" column denotes the number of documents (articles, publications, datasets, preprints) rather than the number of citations or references. The database itself should be the primary source of statistics, and if it is not accessible, the independent estimates released as journal papers should be. Notably, Google Scholar does not offer such detail, but the database's size has been calculated.


Operating services


Services no longer operating (not updated, abandoned entirely, replaced by other, etc.)


See also

*
List of academic preprint servers This is a list of preprint repositories. __NOTOC__ Notes See also * List of academic journals by preprint policy * List of copyright policies of academic publishers External links ASAPBio's list of preprint servers References

{{refli ...
*
Academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal articles, books or thesis' form. The part of academic written output that is not formally ...
*
List of digital library projects This is a list of digital library projects. See also * Bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the ...
* List of educational video websites *
List of neuroscience databases A number of online neuroscience Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actio ...
*
List of online databases This is a list of online databases accessible via the Internet. A * Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields is an online database detailing information and first hand memories about airports in the United States ...
*
List of online encyclopedias This is a list of online encyclopedias—i.e., encyclopedias accessible on the Internet or formerly accessible on the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer netwo ...
*
List of open access journals This is a list of open-access journal Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. With open access strictly defined (according ...
* List of open access projects *
List of repositories See also * List of libraries * List of archives __NOTOC__ This is a list of archives from around the world. An archive An archive is an accumulation of Historical document, historical records – in any media – or the physical faci ...


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:List of Academic Databases and Search Engines Academic publishing Scholarly databases academic databases * Bibliographic databases and indexes Databases
Academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the ...
Database-related lists