Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as endotoxins, are large molecule
s consisting of a lipid
and a polysaccharide
composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond
; they are found in the outer membrane
of Gram-negative bacteria
. The term ''lipooligosaccharide'' ("LOS") is used to refer to a low-molecular-weight form of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Today, the term 'endotoxin' is mostly used synonymously with LPS,
although there are a few endotoxins that are not related to LPS, such as the so-called delta endotoxin
proteins secreted by ''Bacillus thuringiensis
The toxic activity of LPS was first discovered and termed "endotoxin" by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer
, who distinguished between exotoxins
, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the surrounding environment, and endotoxins, which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. Subsequent work showed that release of LPS from gram negative
microbes does not necessarily require the destruction of the bacterial cell wall, but rather, LPS is secreted as part of the normal physiological activity of membrane vesicle trafficking
in the form of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)
, which may also contain other virulence factor
s and proteins.
Functions in bacteria
LPS is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria
, contributing greatly to the structural integrity of the bacteria, and protecting the membrane from certain kinds of chemical attack. LPS also increases the negative charge of the cell membrane
and helps stabilize the overall membrane structure. It is of crucial importance to many Gram-negative bacteria, which die if it is mutated or removed; however, it appears that LPS is nonessential in at least some Gram-negative bacteria, such as ''Neisseria meningitidis'', ''Moraxella catarrhalis'', and ''Acinetobacter baumannii''. LPS induces a strong response from normal animal immune system
s. It has also been implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage
sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae
LPS is required for the proper conformation of omptin
activity; however, smooth LPS will sterically hinder omptins.
It comprises three parts:
# O antigen (or O polysaccharide)
# Core oligosaccharide
# Lipid A
A repetitive glycan polymer
contained within an LPS is referred to as the O antigen
, O polysaccharide
, or O side-chain of the bacteria.
The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. The composition of the O chain varies from strain to strain. For example, there are over 160 different O antigen structures produced by different ''E. coli
The presence or absence of O chains determines whether the LPS is considered rough or smooth. Full-length O-chains would render the LPS smooth, whereas the absence or reduction of O-chains would make the LPS rough. Bacteria with rough LPS usually have more penetrable cell membranes to hydrophobic antibiotics, since a rough LPS is more hydrophobic
. O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by host antibodies
The core domain always contains an oligosaccharide component that attaches directly to lipid A
and commonly contains sugar
s such as heptose
and 3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid
(also known as KDO, keto-deoxyoctulosonate). The LPS cores of many bacteria also contain non-carbohydrate components, such as phosphate, amino acids, and ethanolamine substituents.
Lipid A is, in normal circumstances, a phosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide
decorated with multiple fatty acids
. These hydrophobic fatty acid chains anchor the LPS into the bacterial membrane, and the rest of the LPS projects from the cell surface. The lipid A domain is responsible for much of the toxicity of Gram-negative bacteria
. When bacterial cells are lysed
by the immune system
, fragments of membrane containing lipid A are released into the circulation, causing fever, diarrhea, and possible fatal endotoxic shock (also called septic shock
). The Lipid A moiety is a very conserved component of the LPS.
However Lipid A structure varies among bacterial species and Lipid A structure defines an overall host immune activation.
Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) are glycolipids found in the outer membrane of some types of Gram-negative bacteria
, such as ''Neisseria
'' spp. and ''Haemophilus
'' spp. The term is synonymous with the low molecular weight form of bacterial LPS.
LOS plays a central role in maintaining the integrity and functionality of the outer membrane of the Gram negative
Lipooligosaccharides play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain bacterial infections because they are capable of acting as immunostimulators
Furthermore, LOS molecules are responsible for the ability of some bacterial strains to display molecular mimicry
and antigenic diversity
, aiding in the evasion of host immune defenses and thus contributing to the virulence
of these bacterial strains
Chemically, lipooligosaccharides lack O-antigens and possess only a lipid A-based outer membrane-anchoring moiety, and an oligosaccharide core.
In the case of ''Neisseria meningitidis
'', the lipid A
portion of the molecule has a symmetrical structure and the inner core is composed of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid
(KDO) and heptose
(Hep) moieties. The outer core oligosaccharide chain varies depending on the bacterial strain
The term lipooligosaccharide is used to refer to the low molecular weight form of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, which can be categorized into two forms: the high molecular weight (Mr, or smooth) form possesses a high molecular weight, repeating polysaccharide
O-chain, while the low molecular weight (low-Mr or rough) form, lacks the O-chain but possesses a short oligosaccharide in its place.
The making of LPS can be modified in order to present a specific sugar structure. Those can be recognised by either other LPS (which enables to inhibit LPS toxins) or glycosyltransferases that use those sugar structure to add more specific sugars. A highly conserved host enzyme may detoxify LPS when it enters, or is produced in, animal tissues. It may also convert LPS in the intestine into an LPS inhibitor. Neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells produce this lipase, acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), which inactivates LPS by removing the two secondary acyl chains from lipid A to produce tetraacyl LPS. If they are given LPS parenterally, mice that lack AOAH develop high titers of non-specific antibodies, develop prolonged hepatomegaly, and experience prolonged endotoxin tolerance. LPS inactivation may be required for animals to restore homeostasis after parenteral LPS exposure. Although mice have many other mechanisms for inhibiting LPS signaling, none is able to prevent these changes in animals that lack AOAH.
Biosynthesis and transport
left|380px|LPS transport: Completed LPS molecules are transported across the periplasm and outer membrane by the proteins LptA
, B, C, D, E, F, and G
Biological effects on hosts infected with Gram-negative bacteria
LPS acts as the prototypical endotoxin because it binds the CD14
complex in many cell types, but especially in monocytes
, dendritic cells
s and B cell
s, which promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine
s, nitric oxide
, and eicosanoids
As part of the cellular stress response
is one of the major reactive oxygen species
induced by LPS in various cell types that express TLR (toll-like receptor
LPS is also an exogenous pyrogen
Being of crucial importance to Gram-negative bacteria, these molecules make candidate targets for new antimicrobial
Some researchers doubt reports of generalized toxic effects attributed to all lipopolysaccharides, in particular, for cyanobacteria
LPS function has been under experimental research for several years due to its role in activating many transcription factor
s. LPS also produces many types of mediators involved in septic shock
. Humans are much more sensitive to LPS than other animals (e.g., mice). A dose of 1 µg/kg induces shock in humans, but mice will tolerate a dose up to a thousand times higher. This may relate to differences in the level of circulating natural antibodies between the two species.
Said et al. showed that LPS causes an IL-10
-dependent inhibition of CD4 T-cell
expansion and function by up-regulating PD-1
levels on monocytes
which leads to IL-10 production by monocytes after binding of PD-1 by PD-L1
Endotoxins are in large part responsible for the dramatic clinical manifestations of infections with pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, such as ''Neisseria meningitidis
'', the pathogens that causes meningococcal disease
, including meningococcemia
, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome
, and meningitis
. Alkaline phosphatase
prevents intestinal inflammation (and
") from bacteria by dephosphorylating the Lipid A portion of LPS.
was awarded a portion of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work demonstrating that TLR4
is the LPS receptor.
Portions of the LPS from several bacterial strains have been shown to be chemically similar to human host cell surface molecules; the ability of some bacteria to present molecules on their surface which are chemically identical or similar to the surface molecules of some types of host cells is termed molecular mimicry
For example, in ''Neisseria meningitidis
'' L2,3,5,7,9, the terminal tetrasaccharide portion of the oligosaccharide (lacto-N-neotetraose) is the same tetrasaccharide as that found in paragloboside
, a precursor for ABH glycolipid
antigens found on human erythrocyte
In another example, the terminal trisaccharide portion (lactotriaose) of the oligosaccharide from pathogenic ''Neisseria
'' spp. LOS is also found in lactoneoseries glycosphingolipid
s from human cells.
Most meningococci from groups B and C, as well as gonococci
, have been shown to have this trisaccharide as part of their LOS structure.
The presence of these human cell surface 'mimics' may, in addition to acting as a 'camouflage' from the immune system, play a role in the abolishment of immune tolerance
when infecting hosts with certain human leukocyte antigen
(HLA) genotypes, such as HLA-B35
Recently, a new study published has discovered that LPS can be sensed directly by hematopoietic stem cell
s (HSCs) through the bonding with TLR4, causing them to proliferate in reaction to a systemic infection. This response activate the TLR4-TRIF-ROS-p38 signaling within the HSCs and through a sustained TLR4 activation can cause a proliferative stress, leading to impair their competitive repopulating ability. Infection in mice using ''S. typhimurium
'' showed similar results, validating the experimental model also ''in vivo''.
Effect of variability on immune response
O-antigens (the outer carbohydrates) are the most variable portion of the LPS molecule, imparting the antigenic specificity. In contrast, lipid A is the most conserved part. However, lipid A composition also may vary (e.g., in number and nature of acyl
chains even within or between genera). Some of these variations may impart antagonistic properties to these LPS. For example, Rhodobacter sphaeroides
diphosphoryl lipid A (RsDPLA) is a potent antagonist of LPS in human cells, but is an agonist in hamster and equine cells.
It has been speculated that conical Lipid A (e.g., from ''E. coli
'') are more agonistic, less conical lipid A like those of ''Porphyromonas gingivalis'' may activate a different signal (TLR2
instead of TLR4), and completely cylindrical lipid A like that of ''Rhodobacter sphaeroides'' is antagonistic to TLRs.
LPS gene clusters are highly variable between different strains, subspecies, species of bacterial pathogens of plants and animals.
Normal human blood serum
contains anti-LOS antibodies that are bactericidal and patients that have infections caused by serotypically distinct strains possess anti-LOS antibodies that differ in their specificity compared with normal serum.
These differences in humoral immune response to different LOS types can be attributed to the structure of the LOS molecule, primarily within the structure of the oligosaccharide portion of the LOS molecule.
In ''Neisseria gonorrhoeae
'' it has been demonstrated that the antigenicity of LOS molecules can change during an infection due to the ability of these bacteria to synthesize more than one type of LOS,
a characteristic known as phase variation
. Additionally, ''Neisseria gonorrhoeae
'', as well as ''Neisseria meningitidis
'' and ''Haemophilus influenzae
are capable of further modifying their LOS ''in vitro'', for example through sialylation
(modification with sialic acid residues), and as a result are able to increase their resistance to complement
or even down-regulate complement activation
or evade the effects of bactericidal
Sialylation may also contribute to hindered neutrophil
attachment and phagocytosis
by immune system cells as well as a reduced oxidative burst.
'', a pathogen of cattle, has also been shown to display LOS phase variation, a characteristic which may help in the evasion of bovine
host immune defenses.
Taken together, these observations suggest that variations in bacterial surface molecules such as LOS can help the pathogen evade both the humoral
(antibody and complement-mediated) and the cell-mediated
(killing by neutrophils, for example) host immune defenses.
Non-canonical pathways of LPS recognition
Recently, it was shown that in addition to TLR4
mediated pathways, certain members of the family of the transient receptor potential ion channels
recognize LPS. LPS-mediated activation of TRPA1
was shown in mice and ''Drosophila melanogaster
'' flies. At higher concentrations, LPS activates other members of the sensory TRP channel
family as well, such as TRPV1
and to some extent TRPM8
LPS is recognized by TRPV4
on epithelial cells. TRPV4 activation by LPS was necessary and sufficient to induce nitric oxide production with a bactericidal effect.
The presence of endotoxins in the blood is called endotoxemia. It can lead to septic shock
, if the immune response is severely pronounced.
Moreover, endotoxemia of intestinal origin, especially, at the host-pathogen interface
, is considered to be an important factor in the development of alcoholic hepatitis, which is likely to develop on the basis of the small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
and an increased intestinal permeability
may cause uncontrolled activation of mammalian immune systems with production of inflammatory
mediators that may lead to septic shock
reaction is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4
which is responsible for immune system cell activation.
Damage to the endothelial
layer of blood vessels caused by these inflammatory
mediators can lead to capillary leak syndrome, dilation of blood vessels and a decrease in cardiac function and can lead to septic shock
Pronounced complement activation can also be observed later in the course as the bacteria multiply in the blood.
High bacterial proliferation triggering destructive endothelial damage can also lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation
(DIC) with loss of function of certain internal organs such as the kidneys, adrenal gland
s and lungs due to compromised blood supply. The skin can show the effects of vascular damage often coupled with depletion of coagulation factors in the form of petechiae
. The limbs can also be affected, sometimes with devastating consequences such as the development of gangrene
, requiring subsequent amputation
Loss of function of the adrenal glands can cause adrenal insufficiency
and additional hemorrhage
into the adrenals causes Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
, both of which can be life-threatening.
It has also been reported that gonococcal
LOS can cause damage to human fallopian tube
The molecular mimicry
of some LOS molecules is thought to cause autoimmune-based host responses, such as flareups of multiple sclerosis
Other examples of bacterial mimicry of host structures via LOS are found with the bacteria ''Helicobacter pylori
'' and ''Campylobacter jejuni
'', organisms which cause gastrointestinal disease in humans, and ''Haemophilus ducreyi
'' which causes chancroid
. Certain ''C. jejuni'' LPS serotypes (attributed to certain tetra- and pentasaccharide moieties of the core oligosaccharide) have also been implicated with Guillain–Barré syndrome
and a variant of Guillain–Barré called Miller-Fisher syndrome
Link to obesity
Epidemiological studies have shown that increased endotoxin load, which can be a result of increased populations of endotoxin-producing bacteria in the intestinal tract, is associated with certain obesity-related patient groups.
Other studies have shown that purified endotoxin from ''Escherichia coli
'' can induce obesity and insulin-resistance when injected into germ-free mouse model
A more recent study has uncovered a potentially contributing role for ''Enterobacter cloacae
'' B29 toward obesity and insulin resistance in a human patient.
The presumed mechanism for the association of endotoxin with obesity is that endotoxin induces an inflammation-mediated pathway accounting for the observed obesity and insulin resistance.
Bacterial genera associated with endotoxin-related obesity effects include ''Escherichia
'' and ''Enterobacter
Laboratory research and biotechnology production systems
Lipopolysaccharides are frequent contaminants in plasmid DNA
prepared from bacteria or proteins expressed from bacteria, and ''must'' be removed from the DNA or protein to avoid contaminating experiments and to avoid toxicity of products manufactured using industrial fermentation
is frequently contaminated with endotoxins. Ovalbumin is one of the extensively studied proteins in animal models and also an established model allergen for airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Commercially available ovalbumin that is contaminated with LPS can fully activate endothelial cells in an in-vitro assay of the first step of inflammation, and it falsifies research results, as it does not accurately reflect the effect of sole protein antigen on animal physiology.
In pharmaceutical production, it is necessary to remove all traces of endotoxin from drug product containers, as even small amounts of endotoxin will cause illness in humans. A depyrogenation
oven is used for this purpose. Temperatures in excess of 300 °C are required to break down this substance. A defined endotoxin reduction rate is a correlation between time and temperature. Based on primary packaging material as syringes or vials, a glass temperature of 250 °C and a holding time of 30 minutes is typical to achieve a reduction of endotoxin levels by a factor of 1000.
The standard assay
for detecting presence of endotoxin is the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate
(LAL) assay, utilizing blood from the Horseshoe crab
Very low levels of LPS can cause coagulation of the limulus lysate due to a powerful amplification through an enzymatic cascade. However, due to the dwindling population of horseshoe crabs, and the fact that there are factors that interfere with the LAL assay, efforts have been made to develop alternative assays, with the most promising ones being ELISA
tests using a recombinant
version of a protein in the LAL assay, Factor C.
* Host-pathogen interface
* Schwartzman reaction