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The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usuall ...
in
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London
to which
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialis ...

barrister
s of
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
belong and where they are
called to the Bar The call to the bar (rarely, call to bar) is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to ...
. (The other three are
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of ...

Middle Temple
,
Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four (professional associations for s and judges) in London. To be and practise as a barrister in , a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is ...

Inner Temple
and
Gray's Inn The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wale ...
.) Lincoln's Inn, along with the three other Inns of Court, is recognised as being one of the world's most prestigious professional bodies of judges and lawyers. Lincoln's Inn is situated in
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
, in the
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the l ...
, just on the border with the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
and the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
, and across the road from
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,
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Royal Courts of Justice
and
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's
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. The nearest tube station is
Holborn tube station Holborn ( ) is a London Underground station in Holborn, Central London, located at the junction of High Holborn and Kingsway, London, Kingsway. It is served by the Central line (London Underground), Central and Piccadilly line, Piccadilly lines ...

Holborn tube station
or
Chancery Lane Chancery Lane is a one-way street One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction. A one-way street is a street either facilitating only one-way traffic, or designed to direct vehicles to move in o ...
. Lincoln's Inn is the largest Inn, covering . It is believed to be named after
Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln (c. 1251February 1311), Baron of Pontefract, Lord of Bowland, Baron of Halton and hereditary Constable of Chester, was an Kingdom of England, English nobleman and confidant of King Edward I of England, Edward I. He se ...
.


History

During the 12th and early 13th centuries, the law was taught in the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
, primarily by the clergy. Then two events happened which ended this form of legal education: firstly, a
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
in 1218 that prohibited the clergy from teaching the
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
, rather than
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
; and secondly, a decree by
Henry III of England Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272. The son of John, King of England, King John and Isabella o ...

Henry III of England
on 2 December 1234 that no institutes of legal education could exist in the City of London. The secular lawyers migrated to the hamlet of
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
, near to the law courts at
Westminster Hall The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In the UK and Canada, the Common ...
and outside the City. As with the other Inns of Court, the precise date of founding of Lincoln's Inn is unknown. The Inn can claim the oldest records – its "black books" documenting the minutes of the governing council go back to 1422, and the earliest entries show that the inn was at that point an organised and disciplined body. The third Earl of Lincoln had encouraged lawyers to move to Holborn, and they moved to
Thavie's Inn Thavie's Inn was a former Inn of Chancery , the only Inn of Chancery building to survive largely intact The Inns of Chancery or ''Hospida Cancellarie'' were a group of buildings and legal institutions in London initially attached to the Inns of C ...
, one of the
Inns of Chancery The Inns of Chancery or ''Hospida Cancellarie'' were a group of buildings and legal institutions in London initially attached to the Inns of Court and used as offices for the clerks of court of equity, chancery, from which they drew their name. ...
, later expanding into
Furnival's Inn Furnival's Inn was an Inn of Chancery which formerly stood on the site of the present Holborn Bars building (the former Prudential plc, Prudential Assurance Company building) in Holborn, London, England. History Furnival's Inn was founded abou ...
as well. It is felt that Lincoln's Inn became a formally organised inn of court soon after the earl's death in 1310. At some point before 1422, the greater part of "Lincoln's Inn", as they had become known, after the Earl, moved to the estate of
Ralph Neville Ralph Neville (or Ralf NevillClanchy ''From Memory to Written Record'' p. 90 or Ralph de Neville; died 1244) was a medieval clergyman and politician who served as Bishop of Chichester The Bishop of Chichester is the ordinary of the Church o ...

Ralph Neville
, the
Bishop of Chichester The Bishop of Chichester is the ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * Ordinary (EP), ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * Ordinary (Every Little Thing album), ''Ordinary'' (Every Little Thing album) (2011) ...
, near
Chancery Lane Chancery Lane is a one-way street One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction. A one-way street is a street either facilitating only one-way traffic, or designed to direct vehicles to move in o ...
. They retained Thavie's and Furnival's Inn, using them as "training houses" for young lawyers, and fully purchased the properties in 1550 and 1547 respectively. In 1537, the land Lincoln's Inn sat on was sold by Bishop
Richard Sampson Richard Sampson (died 25 September 1554) was an English clergyman and composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spo ...

Richard Sampson
to a
Bencher A bencher or Master of the Bench is a senior member of an Inn of Court Image:London-Inns-of-Court.JPG, 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Temple. The Inns of ...
named William Suliard, and his son sold the land to Lincoln's Inn in 1580. The Inn became formally organised as a place of legal education thanks to a decree in 1464, which required a Reader to give lectures to the law students there. During the 15th century, the Inn was not a particularly prosperous one, and the Benchers, particularly John Fortescue, are credited with fixing this situation.


Structure and governance

Lincoln's Inn had no constitution or fundamental form of governance, and legislation was divided into two types; statutes, passed by the Governors (see below) and ordinances issued by the Society (all the Fellows of the Inn). A third method used was to have individual Fellows promise to fulfill a certain duty; the first known example is from 1435, and starts "Here folowen certaynes covenantes and promyses made to the felloweshippe of Lyncoll' Yne". The increase of the size of the Inn led to a loss of its partially democratic nature, first in 1494 when it was decided that only Benchers and Governors should have a voice in calling people to the Bar and, by the end of the sixteenth century, Benchers were almost entirely in control. Admissions were recorded in the black books and divided into two categories: Clerks (''Clerici'') who were admitted to Clerks' Commons; and Fellows ''Socii'' who were admitted to Fellows' Commons. All entrants swore the same oath regardless of category, and some Fellows were permitted to dine in Clerks' Commons as it cost less, making it difficult for academics to sometimes distinguish between the two – Walker, the editor of the Black Books, maintains that the two categories were one and the same. During the 15th century, the Fellows began to be called Masters, and the gap between Masters and Clerks gradually grew, with an order in 1505 that no Master was to be found in Clerks' Commons unless studying a point of law there. By 1466, the Fellows were divided into Benchers, those " at the Bar" (''ad barram'', also known as "utter barristers" or simply "barristers"), and those "not at the Bar" (''extra barram''). By 1502, the ''extra barram'' Fellows were being referred to as "inner barristers", in contrast to the "utter" or "outer" barristers. In
Lord Mansfield William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL (2 March 170520 March 1793) was a British barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A b ...

Lord Mansfield
's time, there was no formal legal education, and the only requirement for a person to be
called to the Bar The call to the bar (rarely, call to bar) is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to ...
was for him to have eaten five dinners a term at Lincoln's Inn, and to have read the first sentence of a paper prepared for him by the steward.Lord Mansfield: A Biography of William Murray 1st Earl of Mansfield 1705–1793 Lord Chief Justice for 32 years. Heward, Edmund (1979), Chichester: Barry Rose (publishers) Ltd., , p. 13


Benchers

A
Bencher A bencher or Master of the Bench is a senior member of an Inn of Court Image:London-Inns-of-Court.JPG, 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Temple. The Inns of ...
, Benchsitter or (formally) Master of the Bench is a member of the Council, the governing body of the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn. The term originally referred to one who sat on the benches in the main hall of the Inn, which were used for dining and during
moots
moots
, and the term originally had no significance. In Lincoln's Inn, the idea of a Bencher was believed to have begun far earlier than elsewhere; there are records of four Benchers being sworn in 1440.
William Holdsworth Sir William Searle Holdsworth Sir William Searle Holdsworth (7 May 1871 – 2 January 1944) was an English legal historian and Vinerian Professor of English Law The Vinerian Professorship of English Law, formerly Vinerian Professorship of Comm ...
and the editor of the Black Books both concluded that Benchers were, from the earliest times, the governors of the Inn, unlike other Inns who started with Readers. A. W. B. Simpson, writing at a later date, decided based on the Black Books that the Benchers were not the original governing body, and that the Inn was instead ruled by Governors (or ''gubernatores''), sometimes called Rulers, who led the Inn. The Governors were elected to serve a year-long term, with between four and six sitting at any one time. The first record of Benchers comes from 1478, when John Glynne was expelled from the Society for using "presumptious and unsuitable words" in front of the governors and "other fellows of the Bench", and a piece of legislation passed in 1489 was "ordained by the governors and other the worshipfuls of the Bench". By the late 15th century, the ruling group were the Governors (who were always Benchers) with assistance and advice from the other "masters of the Bench", and occasional votes from the entire Society. The Benchers were still subordinate to the Governors, however; a note from 1505 shows the admission of two Benchers "to aid and advice for the good governing of the Inn, but not to vote". The practice of using Governors died out in 1572 and, from 1584, the term was applied to Benchers, with the power of a Governor and a new Bencher being synonymous. There are approximately 296 Benchers as of November 2013, with the body consisting of those members of the Inn elected to high judicial office, those who have sat as
Queen's Counsel In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some pr ...
for six or seven years and some of the more distinguished "junior" barristers (those barristers who are not Queen's Counsel). There are also "additional benchers"—members of the Inn who have been successful in a profession other than the law, who have the rights of a normal bencher except that they cannot hold an office, such as Treasurer. In addition there are "honorary benchers", who hold all the rights of a Bencher except the right to vote and the right to hold an office. These are people of "sufficient distinction" who have been elected by the Inn, and includes people such as
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
, former
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
. In common with the other Inns, Lincoln's Inn also has a "Royal Bencher"—a member or members of the Royal Family who have been elected Benchers. The present Royal Bencher is
Duke of Kent The title of Duke of Kent has been created several times in the peerages of peerage of Great Britain, Great Britain and the peerage of the United Kingdom, United Kingdom, most recently as a Royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom, royal dukedom for ...
who was elected after the death of the previous incumbent
Princess Margaret Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, (Margaret Rose; 21 August 1930 – 9 February 2002) was the younger daughter of King George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of th ...
. In 1943, when she was elected as Royal Bencher, Queen Mary became the first female Bencher in any Inn. His Royal Highness Prince Andrew Duke of York was elected a Royal Bencher in December 2012.


Buildings and architectural points of note

The Inn is situated between
Chancery Lane Chancery Lane is a one-way street One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction. A one-way street is a street either facilitating only one-way traffic, or designed to direct vehicles to move in o ...
and Lincoln's Inn Fields, north of
Inner
Inner
and
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of ...

Middle Temple
s and south of
Gray's Inn The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wale ...
. Lincoln's Inn is surrounded by a brick wall separating it from the neighbourhood; this was first erected in 1562, and it is said that
Ben Jonson Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – c. 16 August 1637) was an English playwright and poet. Jonson's artistry exerted a lasting influence upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours The comedy of humours is a ge ...
did some of the brickwork.Edward (1860) p.96 The only surviving part is that on the western side between the North Lawn and the Fields. As well as the major buildings discussed below, the Inn consists of: Old Square, Old Buildings,
Stone Buildings Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United ...
and Hardwicke buildings. First built in 1683, New Square, sometimes known as Serle Court, finished in about 1697. New Square was originally named Serle's Court because it was built as a compromise between the Inn and Henry Serle over ownership of the land. A compromise was made in 1682, and Serle built 11 brick sets of chambers on three sides of the square between 1682 and 1693. Alterations were made in 1843, when the open area in the middle was replaced by gardens and lawns. Because of its difficult history of ownership, some parts of the Square are still freehold, with individuals owning floors or sections of floors within the buildings. The Lincoln's Inn Act 1860 was passed directly to allow the Inn to charge the various freeholders in the Square fees. Stone Buildings was built between 1775 and 1780 using the designs of Robert Taylor, with the exception of No. 7, which was completed the range in the same style in 1845. The design was originally meant to be part of a massive rebuilding of the entire Inn, but this was never completed. Stone Buildings were seriously damaged during
The Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the . The term was first used by the British press and originated from the term , the German word for 'lightning war'. The Germans conducted mass ai ...
, but their external appearance remains much the same. From "within" it appears as a cul de sac rather than a square, the two ranges closed to the north with a third which originally contained the library. The eastern side along Chancery Lane and the western backing onto the North Lawn. These provide the standard layout of "staircases" of working chambers. From the North Lawn there is no access but the west range provides a fine institutional range of some distinction. No. 10 was originally provided by the Inn to strengthen its ties with
Chancery Chancery may refer to: * Chancery (diplomacy), the building that houses a diplomatic mission, such as an embassy * Chancery (medieval office), a medieval writing office * Chancery (Scotland) (also called The office of Director of Chancery, or Chan ...

Chancery
(which used to be held in the Old Hall) as the office of the
Six Clerks The Six Clerks' Office was a public legal office that served the equitable jurisdiction In jurisdictions following the English common law system, equity is the body of law which was developed in the English Court of Chancery The Court of ...
of the
Court of Chancery The Court of Chancery was a court of equity A court of equity, equity court or chancery court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal dispu ...

Court of Chancery
, with the Inn taking it back when the Clerks were abolished and the Court moved to the
Royal Courts of Justice The Royal Courts of Justice, commonly called the Law Courts, is a court building in Westminster which houses the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, High Court and Court of Appeal of England and Wales. The High Court also sits on circui ...

Royal Courts of Justice
in 1882. It is currently used as the headquarters of the Inns of Court & City Yeomanry, part of the
Territorial Army Territorial Army may refer to: * Territorial Army (India) * Territorial Army (United Kingdom) * Territorial Army (Ethiopia), part of the Ethiopian National Defense Force * Territorial Army (Germany) part of the West German Army during the Cold War ...
. The Officers Mess facilities make use of the principal rooms. Lincoln's Inn has maintained a corps of volunteers in times of war since 1585, when 95 members of the Inn made a pledge to protect against Spain.
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
gave the then-temporary unit the epithet "The Devil's Own", which remains attached to the Regiment to this day. There is a large War Memorial between New Square and the North lawn containing the names of the members of the Inn killed in the First World War and World War 2. Old Square and Old Buildings were built between 1525 and 1609, initially running between numbers 1 and 26. Although 1 exists near the Gatehouse, the others now only run from 16 to 24, with some buildings having been merged to the point where the entrances for 25 and 26 now frame windows, not doorways. Hardwicke Buildings was built in the 1960s, was originally named "Hale Court", between the east range of New Square name changed in the 1990s. The buildings of Lincoln's Inn in Old Square, New Square and Stone Buildings are normally divided into four or five floors of
barristers' chambers In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by ...
, with residential flats on the top floor. The buildings are used both by
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialis ...

barrister
s and
solicitor A solicitor is a legal practitioner A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. ...
s and other professional bodies.


Old Hall

The Old Hall dates from at least 1489, when it replaced the smaller "bishops hall". The Old Hall is 71 feet long and 32 feet wide, although little remains of the original size and shape; it was significantly altered in 1625, 1652, 1706 and 1819.Barton (1928) p.261 A former librarian reported that it was "extensively remodelled" by
Francis Bernasconi Francis Bernasconi (1762 – 1 January 1841), aka Francisco Bernasconi, was an England, English ornamental carver and plasterer of Italy, Italian descent. He became one of the most successful ornamental carvers and plasterers in Georgian Britain ...
in 1800. This remodelling led to the covering of the oak beams with a curved plaster ceiling, "a most barbarous innovation". The weight of the plaster created the risk that the roof would collapse, and between 1924 and 1927 Sir John Simpson dismantled the entire hall, straightening warped timbers, removing the plaster, replacing any unserviceable sections and then putting the entire hall back together. It was reopened on 22 November 1928 by Queen Mary. As well as its use for revels, and feasts, the Old Hall was also used as a court. The
Master of the Rolls The Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls, is the President of the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales The Court of Appeal (formally "Her Majesty's Cou ...
sat there between 1717 and 1724 while the Rolls Court was being rebuilt, and Lord Talbot used it as a court in 1733. From 1737 onward it was used to house the
Court of Chancery The Court of Chancery was a court of equity A court of equity, equity court or chancery court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal dispu ...

Court of Chancery
, a practice that ended with the opening of the
Royal Courts of Justice The Royal Courts of Justice, commonly called the Law Courts, is a court building in Westminster which houses the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, High Court and Court of Appeal of England and Wales. The High Court also sits on circui ...

Royal Courts of Justice
. The Hall's most famous use as a court is in the start of
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
' ''
Bleak House ''Bleak House'' is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published as a 20-episode Serial (literature), serial between March 1852 and September 1853. The novel has many characters and several sub-plots, and is told partly by the novel's heroine, E ...
'', which opens with "London. Michaelmas Term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in Lincoln's Inn Hall". It is now used for examinations, lectures, social functions and can be hired for private events. In 2010 the Hall was refurbished and its Crypt was improved and made more accessible by the installation of a stairs from the outside.


Chapel

The first mention of a chapel in Lincoln's Inn comes from 1428. By the 17th century, this had become too small, and discussions started about building a new one in 1608. The current chapel was built between 1620 and 1623 by
Inigo Jones Inigo Jones (; 15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant Architecture of England, architect in England in the Early modern Europe, early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvius, Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry ...
, and was extensively rebuilt in 1797 and again in 1883. Other repairs took place in 1685, after the consultation of
Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Fa ...

Christopher Wren
, and again in 1915. The chapel is built on a fan-vaulted, open
undercroft An undercroft is traditionally a cellar or storage room, often brick-lined and vaulted, and used for storage in buildings since medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and colle ...
and has acted (sometimes simultaneously) as a crypt, meeting place and place of recreation. For many years only
Bencher A bencher or Master of the Bench is a senior member of an Inn of Court Image:London-Inns-of-Court.JPG, 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Temple. The Inns of ...
s were allowed to be buried in the Crypt, with the last one being interred on 15 May 1852. Before that, however, it was open to any member or servant of the society; in 1829 a former Preacher was interred, and in 1780 William Turner, described as "Hatch-keeper and Washpot to this Honble. Society", was buried. The chapel has a bell said to date from 1596, although this is not considered likely. Traditionally, the bell would chime a curfew at 9 pm, with a stroke for each year of the current
Treasurer A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury A treasury is either *A government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level executi ...
's age. The bell would also chime between 12:30 and 1:00 pm when a Bencher had died. Inside the chapel are six stained glass windows, three on each side, designed by the Van Linge family. The chapel's first
pipe organ #REDIRECT Pipe organ #REDIRECT Pipe organ #REDIRECT Pipe organ The pipe organ is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be consid ...

pipe organ
was a Flight & Robson model installed in 1820. A substantial William Hill organ replaced it in 1856; a model designed at the peak of his skill, with thick lead and tin pipes, a set of pedals, and three manuals. During its service years it was rebuilt nine times, the final overhaul carried out in 1969. In the 2000s the organ, increasingly unreliable, was seen to have little unaltered initial material, with little hope of returning it to original condition, and it was replaced with a Kenneth Tickell model, the new organ installed during 2009–2010. The chapel is used for concerts throughout the year.


Great Hall

The Great Hall, or New Hall, was constructed during the 19th century. The Inn's membership had grown to the point where the Old Hall was too small for meetings, and so the Benchers decided to construct a new hall, also containing sizable rooms for their use, and a library. The new building was designed by
Philip Hardwick Philip Hardwick (15 June 1792 in London – 28 December 1870) was an English architect, particularly associated with railway stations and warehouses in London and elsewhere. Hardwick is probably best known for London's demolished Euston Arch ...

Philip Hardwick
, with the foundation stone laid on 20 April 1843 by
James Lewis Knight-Bruce Sir James Lewis Knight-Bruce, (born James Lewis Knight; 15 February 1791 – 7 November 1866) was an English barrister, judge and politician. Life He was the youngest son of John Knight of Braunton, Fairlinch, Devon, by Margaret, daughter and ...

James Lewis Knight-Bruce
, the Treasurer. The building was completed by 1845, and opened by
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
on 30 October. The Hall is long, wide, and high, much larger than the Old Hall. The Great Hall is used for the
call to the Bar The call to the bar (rarely, call to bar) is a legal term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such t ...
, as a dining place and for concerts arranged through the Bar Musical Society. The lower ground floor was divided by a mezzanine in 2007 and the upper part became the Members Common Room for informal dining and with a lounge. It replaced the Junior Common Room, Barristers Members Room and Benchers Room as a social facility. In effect it is a club providing bar and restaurant facilities for all "entitled" persons, meaning members of the Inn and its ''bona fide'' tenants.


Library

The Library was first mentioned in 1471, and originally existed in a building next to the Old Hall before being moved to a set of chambers at No. 2 Stone Buildings in 1787. A bequest by John Nethersale in 1497 is recorded as an early acquisition. The current Library was built as part of the complex containing the Great Hall, to the designs of Hardwick and was finished in 1845 being formally opened by Queen Victoria. At this point it was 80 feet long, 40 feet wide and 44 feet high. It was extended, almost doubled, in 1872 by
George Gilbert Scott Sir George Gilbert Scott (13 July 1811 – 27 March 1878), known as Sir Gilbert Scott, was a prolific English Gothic revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architect ...

George Gilbert Scott
in the same style. The ground floor contained a Court room which became part of the Library facilities when the Court of Chancery moved out of the Inn in the 1880s. It has since 2010 been utilised as a lecture room and during the developments of 2016 to 2018 became the 'interim' Members Common Room. The Library contains a large collection of rare books, including the Hale Manuscripts, the complete collection of
Sir Matthew Hale Sir Matthew Hale (1 November 1609 – 25 December 1676) was an influential English barrister, judge and jurist most noted for his treatise ''Historia Placitorum Coronæ'', or ''The History of the Pleas of the Crown''. Born to a barrister and hi ...
, which he left to the Inn on his death in 1676. The Library also contains over 1,000 other rare manuscripts, and approximately 2,000 pamphlets. The total collection of the Library, including textbooks and practitioners works, is approximately 150,000 volumes. The collection also includes a complete set of Parliamentary records. The Library is open to all students and barristers of Lincoln's Inn, as well as outside scholars and solicitors by application. The Library is primarily a reference library, so borrowing is restricted. The only other lending service available is offered by Middle Temple Library, which permits barristers and students of any Inn, on production of suitable ID, to borrow current editions of textbooks that are not loose-leaf – but not any other material – half an hour before closing for return by half an hour after opening the following day.


Gatehouse

The Gatehouse from Chancery Lane is the oldest existing part of the Inn, and was built between 1518 and 1521. The Gatehouse was mainly built thanks to the efforts of
Sir Thomas Lovell Sir Thomas Lovell, Order of the Garter, KG (died 1524) was an English soldier and administrator, Speaker of the House of Commons (United Kingdom), Speaker of the House of Commons, Secretary to the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Early ...
, the Treasurer at the time, who provided at least a third of the funds and oversaw the construction itself—as a result, his coat of arms hang on the gate, along with those of the Earl of Lincoln and
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
(the king at the time). The Gatehouse is a large tower four stories high and features diagonal rows of darker bricks, along with a set of oak gates that date from 1564. The Gatehouse was restored in 1695 and again between 1967 and 1969—the arms of the Treasurers for those years (
Lord Upjohn Gerald Ritchie Upjohn, Baron Upjohn, Order of the British Empire, CBE, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, PC, Deputy Lieutenant, DL (25 February 1903 – 27 January 1971) was a British soldier and judge. Biography The younger son of Will ...
, John Hawles and
Princess Margaret Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, (Margaret Rose; 21 August 1930 – 9 February 2002) was the younger daughter of King George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of th ...
) were added to the inwards side of the Gatehouse itself. Minor repairs also took place in 1815, when the three Coats of Arms were repaired and cleaned.


New Square Lawn

The New Square Lawn is surrounded by the block of New Square. It is bordered by the Lincoln Inn chambers, and is visible from the western Gatehouse. Centred on the New Square Lawn is Jubilee Fountain. After the original fountain from 1970 was removed, William Pye installed the new Jubilee fountain in 2003, to celebrate Queen Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee. The construction of the fountain was funded by David Shirley. The Jubilee fountain is a two tier fountain centered in New Square. The top level of the fountain creates arches in the air with the water, and the lower level has complementary tiny fountains. A photo of the fountain can be found on the designer's website


East Terrace Underground development, New Library and New Teaching Facilities

The Inn has self-funded a major improvement and extension of its facilities from 2016 to 2018. The Inn being a
conservation area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...

conservation area
and consisting of
listed buildings A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, in Wales and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency ...
could not simply add modern structures within the precincts without considerable difficulty of their impact on the current layout and planning objections by interest groups, as well indeed from members of the Inn. The improvement requirements for the Library and teaching activities were partly addressed by demolition of the Under Treasurer's House on the north side of the Library, which was a post-WW2 building, replacing it with an extension to the Reading Rooms and Book Stack. The solution of providing a 150-seat Lecture Theatre and Tutorial Rooms was to exploit the space under the large east terrace of the Great Hall. The Inn decided to name the new education suite the Ashworth Centre after Mercy Ashworth, one of the first women to be called to the bar from Lincoln's Inn. On 13 December 2018, The Queen along with the Duke of York (Royal Bencher of the Inn) officially opened the Ashworth Centre and re-opened the Great Hall after its renovation (originally opened by Queen Victoria in 1845).


Coat of arms

For many years, the Inn used the arms of the 3rd Earl of Lincoln as their own; in
blazon In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal and noble rank ...

blazon
, a "lion
rampant In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology Vexillology () is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of ...

rampant
purpure In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal and noble ranks, ra ...
in a field or", which is a purple lion on a gold field. Around 1699, Sir Richard Holford discovered the Inn's own coat of arms on a manuscript, granted to them in 1516. The arms are "azure seme de fer moline or, on a dexter canton or a lion rampant purpure". Following validation using some heraldry books, the arms were placed first in the council chamber and then in the library. Since then, they have been used continuously in Lincoln's Inn.


Notable members

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Muhammad Iqbal Sir Muhammad Iqbal ( ur, ; 9 November 187721 April 1938), was a South Asian Muslim writer, philosopher, Quote: "In Persian, ... he published six volumes of mainly long poems between 1915 and 1936, ... more or less complete works on philosop ...
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Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Ali Jinnah (born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a barrister, politician and the founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly ...

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
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Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto ( sd, ذوالفقار علي ڀٽو; ur, ; 5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney ...
File:Herbert Henry Asquith.jpg,
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
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William Ewart Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an ...

William Ewart Gladstone
File:Tony Blair 2010 (cropped).jpg,
Tony Blair Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. On his resig ...

Tony Blair
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Ali Jinnah (born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a barrister, politician and the founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly ...

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
, (1876) founder and first Governor General of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
;
Sir Muhammad Iqbal Sir Muhammad Iqbal ( ur, ; 9 November 187721 April 1938), was a South Asian South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent ...
, (1877) Muslim poet, philosopher and politician and National poet of Pakistan;
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
, (1852) Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith;
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto ( sd, ذوالفقار علي ڀٽو; ur, ; 5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney ...
, former President and the Prime Minister of Pakistan;
William Ewart Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an ...

William Ewart Gladstone
, (1809) four times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; Chaim Herzog, (1918) sixth President of Israel; William Pitt the Younger, twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1759); Gnanendramohan Tagore, first Asian to be called at the bar;
Shankar Dayal Sharma Shankar Dayal Sharma (; 19 August 1918 – 26 December 1999) was the ninth president of India The president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lo ...
, (1918) 9th President of the Republic of India; Azlan Shah of Perak, former Lord President of Malaysia, Sultan of Perak Darul Ridzuan;
Tony Blair Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. On his resig ...

Tony Blair
, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Lincoln Inn Barrister Ijaz Hussain Batalvi who served as a bridge of justice in the judicial history of Pakistan and played a vital role to make a landmark judicial precedents of Pakistan and set a tower milestone to follow.


Preachers of Lincoln's Inn

The office of Preacher of Lincoln's Inn or Preacher to Lincoln's Inn is a clerical office in the Church of England. Past incumbents include: *John Donne (1616–1622) *Reginald Heber (1822–?) *Edward Maltby (1824–1833) *William Van Mildert (1812–1819) *Henry Wace (Anglican priest), Henry Wace *William Warburton (1746–?) *Derek Watson (priest), Derek Watson *Hastings Rashdall


Other organisations based in the Inn

*The volunteer militia, later formalised (1908) within the Territorial Army, and today forming the headquarters of 68 Signal Squadron.


See also

*Lincoln's Inn Fields


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * *


External links

* {{Authority control Lincoln's Inn, Legal buildings in London Professional education in London English law Bar of England and Wales Grade I listed buildings in the London Borough of Camden Grade I listed law buildings Legal organisations based in England and Wales Inns of Court