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A lime (from
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
''lime'', from
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
''līma'', from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
''līmū'', "lemon") is a
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

citrus
fruit, which is typically round,
green Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 495570 Nanometre, nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by ...
in color, in
diameter In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...

diameter
, and contains
acid An acid is a or capable of donating a (hydrogen ion H+) (a ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a with an (a ). The first category of acids are the proton donors, or s. In the special case of , proton donors form the H3O+ and are ...
ic
juice vesiclesThe juice vesicles, also known as citrus kernels, (in aggregate, pulp) of a citrus fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are th ...
. There are several species of citrus trees whose fruits are called limes, including the
Key lime The Key lime (''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia'') is a citrus hybrid Citrus taxonomy refers to the botanical classification of the species, variety (botany), varieties, cultivars, and Graft-chimaera, graft hybrids within the genus ''Citrus'' and r ...

Key lime
(''Citrus aurantiifolia''),
Persian lime Persian lime (''Citrus'' × ''latifolia''), also known by other common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public pa ...
, Makrut lime, and
desert lime ''Citrus glauca'', commonly known as the desert lime, is a thorny shrub or small tree native to Queensland, New South Wales, and South Australia.Burkill, Isaac Henry. 1932. Gardens' Bulletin, Straits Settlements 5 (Index): 3. ''Citrus glauca''. ...
. Limes are a rich source of
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain ca ...

vitamin C
, are sour, and are often used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages. They are grown year-round. Plants with fruit called "limes" have diverse genetic origins; limes do not form a
monophyletic In cladistics for a group of organisms, monophyly is the condition of being a clade—that is, a group of taxa composed only of a common ancestor (or more precisely an ancestral population) and all of its lineal descendants. Monophyletic grou ...

monophyletic
group.


Plants known as "lime"

The difficulty in identifying exactly which species of fruit are called lime in different parts of the English-speaking world (and the same problem applies to synonyms in other European languages) is increased by the botanical complexity of the
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

citrus
genus itself, to which the majority of limes belong. Species of this genus hybridise readily, and it is only recently that genetic studies have started to shed light on the structure of the genus. The majority of cultivated species are in reality hybrids, produced from the
citron The citron (''Citrus medica'') is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick Peel (fruit), rind. It is one of the original citrus fruits from which all other citrus types developed through natural hybrid speciation or artificial Hybrid (biolog ...

citron
(''Citrus medica''), the
mandarin orange The mandarin orange (''Citrus reticulata''), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus ''Citrus'' is a of trees and s in the family, . Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as , , s, s, ...
(''Citrus reticulata''), the
pomelo The pomelo (), pummelo (), or in scientific terms ''Citrus maxima'' or ''Citrus grandis'', is the largest citrus fruit from the family Rutaceae and the principal ancestor An ancestor, also known as a forefather, fore-elder or a forebear ...

pomelo
(''Citrus maxima'') and in particular with many lime varieties, the micrantha (''Citrus hystrix'' var. micrantha). *
Australian lime Australian limes are species of the plant genus ''Citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific stu ...
s (former ''Microcitrus'' and ''Eremocitrus'') ** Australian desert lime (''Citrus glauca'') ** (''Citrus australasica'') **
Australian lime Australian limes are species of the plant genus ''Citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific stu ...

Australian lime
(''Citrus australis'') **
Blood lime Blood limes (or 'Australian Blood Lime') are a Hybrid (biology), hybrid citrus, citrus fruit developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, CSIRO project to investigate salt-resistant crops. While the lime (fruit ...
(red finger lime × (sweet orange × mandarin)) * Makrut lime (''Citrus hystrix''); a papeda relative, is one of the three most widely produced limes globally. *
Key lime The Key lime (''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia'') is a citrus hybrid Citrus taxonomy refers to the botanical classification of the species, variety (botany), varieties, cultivars, and Graft-chimaera, graft hybrids within the genus ''Citrus'' and r ...

Key lime
(''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia''=''
Citrus micrantha ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...
'' × ''
Citrus medica The citron (''Citrus medica'') is a large fragrant citrus ''Citrus'' is a of trees and s in the family, . Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as , , s, s, and . The genus ''Citrus'' is native to , ...
'') is also one of the three most widely produced limes globally. *
Philippine lime Calamansi (''Citrus'' × ''microcarpa''), also known as calamondin, Philippine lime, or Philippine lemon, is an economically important citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic ra ...
(''Citrus'' × ''microcarpa''), a kumquat × mandarin hybrid *
Persian lime Persian lime (''Citrus'' × ''latifolia''), also known by other common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public pa ...
(''Citrus'' × ''latifolia'') a key lime × lemon hybrid, is the single most widely produced lime globally, with Mexico being the largest producer. * Rangpur lime (Mandarin lime, lemandarin, ''Citrus limonia''), a mandarin orange × citron hybrid * Spanish lime (''Melicoccus bijugatus''); not a citrus * Sweet lime etc. (''Citrus limetta'', etc.); several distinct
citrus hybrids Citrus taxonomy refers to the botanical classification of the species, variety (botany), varieties, cultivars, and Graft-chimaera, graft hybrids within the genus ''Citrus'' and related genera, found in cultivation and in the wild. Citrus taxonom ...

citrus hybrids
* Wild lime (''
Adelia ricinella ''Adelia'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...
''); not a citrus *
Wild lime ''Zanthoxylum fagara'' or wild lime, is a species of flowering plant that—despite its name—is not part of the genus ''Citrus'' with real Lime (fruit), limes and other fruit, but is a close cousin in the larger citrus family, Rutaceae. It is n ...
(''Zanthoxylum fagara''); not a citrus *
Limequat The limequat is a citrus hybrid, citrofortunella hybrid that is the result of a cross between the Key lime and the kumquat, Hybrid (biology), hybridized by Walter Tennyson Swingle in 1909. Description It is a small tree that grows into a containe ...

Limequat
(lime × kumquat) Note that the tree species known in Britain as lime trees (''
Tilia ''Tilia'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscr ...
'' sp.), called ''linden'' in other dialects of English, are broadleaf temperate plants unrelated to the citrus fruits.


History

Most species and hybrids of
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

citrus
plants called "limes" have varying origins within tropical
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
and
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
. They were spread throughout the world via migration and trade. The makrut lime, in particular, was one of the earliest citrus fruits introduced to other parts of the world by humans. They were spread into
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is ...

Micronesia
and
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a ...

Polynesia
via the
Austronesian expansion The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eas ...
(c. 3000–1500 BCE). They were also later spread into Middle East, and the Mediterranean region via the
spice trade The spice trade involved historical civilizations in Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified b ...
and the
incense trade route The Incense Trade Route was an ancient network of major land and sea trading routes linking the Mediterranean world with eastern and southern sources of incense, spices and other luxury goods, stretching from Mediterranean ports across the Levant ...
s from as early as ~1200 BCE. To prevent
scurvy Scurvy is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of ...
during the 19th century,
British sailors British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
were issued a daily allowance of citrus, such as
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
, and later switched to lime. The use of citrus was initially a closely guarded
military secret Secrecy is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals. That which is kept hidden is known as the secret. Secrecy is often controve ...
, as scurvy was a common scourge of various national navies, and the ability to remain at sea for lengthy periods without contracting the disorder was a huge benefit for the military. British sailors thus acquired the nickname "
Limey "Limey" (from lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer ...
" because of their use of limes.


Production

In 2018, world production of limes (combined with
lemons The lemon (''Citrus limon'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the la ...
for reporting) was 19.4 million
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s. The top producers – India, Mexico, China, Argentina, Brazil, and Turkey – collectively accounted for 65% of global production (table).


Uses

Limes have higher contents of sugars and acids than lemons do. Lime juice may be squeezed from fresh limes, or purchased in bottles in both unsweetened and sweetened varieties. Lime juice is used to make
limeade Limeade is a lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer to ...
, and as an ingredient (typically as
sour mix Sour mix (also known as sweet and sour mix) is a Drink mixer, mixer that is yellow-green in color and is used in many cocktails. It is made from approximately equal parts Lemon juice, lemon and/or lime juice and syrup#Simple_syrup, simple syrup an ...
) in many
cocktail A cocktail is an alcoholic Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol (drug), alcohol that results in significant Mental health, mental or physical health problems. Alcoholism is not a recognized diagnostic entity. Predominant diagno ...

cocktail
s.
Lime pickle Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit) A lime (from French ''lime'', from Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East ...
s are an integral part of
Indian cuisine Indian cuisine consists of a variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the diversity in soil, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially and use locally avai ...
, especially in
South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

South India
. In
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
, the
Onam Onam ( ml, ഓണം, Ōṇaṁ, ) is an annual Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, ...

Onam
Sadhya Sadya ( ml, സദ്യ) is a feast of Kerala origin and of importance to all Malayalis, consisting of a variety of traditional vegetarian dishes usually served on a banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit In botany, ...

Sadhya
usually includes either
lemon pickle Preserved lemon or lemon pickle is a condiment that is common in the cuisines of cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, Indian subcontinent and North African cuisine, North Africa. It's also found in 18th-century English cuisine. It is also known ...

lemon pickle
or lime pickle. Other Indian preparations of limes include sweetened lime pickle, salted pickle, and lime chutney. In
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
, lime is valued both for the acidity of its juice and the floral aroma of its zest. It is a common ingredient in authentic
Mexican Mexican may refer to: Mexico and its culture *Being related to, from, or connected to the country of Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A ...
,
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
and
Thai Thai or THAI may refer to: * Of or from Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia ** Thai people, the dominant ethnic group of Thailand ** Thai language, a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in and around Thailand *** Thai script *** Thai (Unicode block) ...
dishes. Lime soup is a traditional dish from the Mexican state of . It is also used for its
pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains ess ...
properties in
ceviche Ceviche, also cebiche, seviche, or sebiche () is a South American seafood dish that originated in Peru, typically made from fresh raw fish Curing (food preservation), cured in fresh citrus juices, most commonly lemon or Lime (fruit), lime, but ...

ceviche
. Some
guacamole Guacamole (; (informally shortened to ''guac'' in the United States since the 1980s) is an avocado The avocado (''Persea americana''), a likely originating from southcentral , is as a member of the family . The fruit of the plant, also c ...

guacamole
recipes call for lime juice. The use of dried limes (called
black lime Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
or ''limoo'') as a flavouring is typical of
Persian cuisine Iranian cuisine () refers to the culinary practices of Iran. Due to the historically common usage of the term "Name of Iran, Persia" to refer to Iran in the Western world,Yarshater, EhsaPersia or Iran, Persian or Farsi, ''Iranian Studies'', vol ...
,
Iraqi cuisine Iraqi cuisine (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, ...
, as well as in Eastern Arabian cuisine ''
baharat ''Bahārāt'' ( ar, بَهَارَات) is a spice mix 250px, A container of pumpkin pie spice Spice mixes are blended spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock ba ...

baharat
'' (a
spice mix Spice mixes are blended spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's ...
ture that is also called ''kabsa'' or ''kebsa''). Key lime gives the character flavoring to the American dessert known as
Key lime pie Key lime pie is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United Sta ...
. In Australia, desert lime is used for making
marmalade Marmalade is a fruit preserve Fruit preserves are preparations of fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytol ...

marmalade
. Lime is an ingredient in several
highball A highball is a mixed alcoholic drink composed of an alcoholic base spirit Spirit may refer to: *Spirit (animating force) In folk belief, spirit is the vitalism , vital principle or animating force within all life , living things. As rec ...
cocktail A cocktail is an alcoholic Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol (drug), alcohol that results in significant Mental health, mental or physical health problems. Alcoholism is not a recognized diagnostic entity. Predominant diagno ...

cocktail
s, often based on
gin Gin is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of juniper Junipers are coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus ''Junipe ...
, such as
gin and tonic A gin and tonic is a highball 250px, Sheet music cover for a 1915 song by William J. McKenna celebrating the drink A highball is a mixed drink, mixed alcoholic drink composed of an alcoholic base Distilled beverage, spirit and a larger proport ...

gin and tonic
, the
gimlet Gimlet may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Gimlet Media, a media network that produces journalistic and narrative podcasts * Gimlet (Transformers), a fictional character * Captain Lorrington "Gimlet" King, a fictional character in a ser ...
and
the Rickey The rickey is a highball made from gin or bourbon whiskey, bourbon, lime (fruit), lime juice, and carbonated water. Little or no sugar is added to the rickey. It was originally created with bourbon in Washington, D.C. at Shoomaker's Saloon, Shoom ...
. Freshly squeezed lime juice is also considered a key ingredient in
margarita A margarita is a cocktail consisting of tequila, orange liqueur, and lime juice often served with salt on the rim of the glass. The drink is served shaken with ice (on the rocks), blended with ice (frozen margarita), or without ice (straight up ...

margarita
s, although sometimes
lemon juice The lemon (''Citrus limon'') is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia, primarily Northeast India (Assam), Northern Myanmar or China. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow hesperidium, fruit is used ...

lemon juice
is substituted. It is also found in many
rum Rum is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a flu ...
cocktails such as the
Daiquiri Daiquiri (; es, daiquirí ) is a family of cocktails whose main ingredients are rum, citrus juice (typically lime juice), and sugar or other sweetener. The daiquiri is one of the The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks#Six basic drinks, six basic drin ...

Daiquiri
, and other tropical drinks. Lime extracts and lime
essential oils An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or ...
are frequently used in
perfume Perfume (, ; french: parfum) is a mixture of fragrance, fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds (fragrances), Fixative (perfumery), fixatives and solvents, usually in liquid form, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and livin ...

perfume
s, cleaning products, and
aromatherapy Aromatherapy is a pseudoscience Pseudoscience consists of statements, belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of ...

aromatherapy
.


Nutrition and phytochemicals

Raw limes are 88% water, 10%
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s and less than 1% each of
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
and
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
(table). Only
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain ca ...

vitamin C
content at 35% of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in ...
(DV) per 100 g serving is significant for nutrition, with other
nutrients A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ta ...
present in low DV amounts (table). Lime juice contains slightly less
citric acid Citric acid is an organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, ...

citric acid
than
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
juice (about 47 g/l), nearly twice the citric acid of
grapefruit The grapefruit (''Citrus'' × ''paradisi'') is a subtropical citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil ...

grapefruit
juice, and about five times the amount of citric acid found in
orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour) Orange is the colour Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception, visual perceptual Physical property, property corresponding in humans to the cate ...
juice. Lime pulp and peel contain diverse
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by c ...
s, including
polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their com ...

polyphenol
s and
terpene Terpenes () are a class of natural product A natural product is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than ...
s, many of which are under
basic research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science s ...
for their potential properties in humans.


Toxicity

Contact with lime peel or lime juice followed by exposure to
ultraviolet Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, ...

ultraviolet
light may lead to
phytophotodermatitis Phytophotodermatitis, also known as berloque dermatitis or margarita photodermatitis, is a cutaneous Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal ...

phytophotodermatitis
, which is sometimes called margarita
photodermatitis Photodermatitis, sometimes referred to as sun poisoning or photoallergy, is a form of allergic contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by conta ...

photodermatitis
or lime disease (not to be confused with
Lyme disease Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is a vector-borne disease caused by the ''Borrelia ''Borrelia'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of thing ...
). Bartenders handling limes and other citrus fruits while preparing cocktails may develop phytophotodermatitis. A class of organic chemical compounds called
furanocoumarin The furanocoumarins, or furocoumarins, are a class of organic chemical compounds produced by a variety of plants. Most of the plant species found to contain furanocoumarins belong to a handful of plant families. The families Apiaceae Apiacea ...
s are reported to cause phytophotodermatitis in humans. Limes contain numerous furanocoumarin compounds, including limettin (also called citropten), bergapten, isopimpinellin, xanthotoxin (also called methoxsalen), and psoralen. Bergapten appears to be the primary furanocoumarin compound responsible for lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Lime peel contains higher concentrations of furanocoumarins than lime pulp (by one or two orders of magnitude), and so lime peels are considerably more phototoxicity, phototoxic than lime pulp.
Persian lime Persian lime (''Citrus'' × ''latifolia''), also known by other common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public pa ...
s appear to be more phototoxic than
Key lime The Key lime (''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia'') is a citrus hybrid Citrus taxonomy refers to the botanical classification of the species, variety (botany), varieties, cultivars, and Graft-chimaera, graft hybrids within the genus ''Citrus'' and r ...

Key lime
s.


See also

* Lime production in Mexico * List of citrus fruits * List of culinary fruits varieties


References


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Lime (Fruit) Limes (fruit), * Citrus Citrus hybrids Cocktail garnishes Crops Sour fruits