EtymologyAccording to early Spanish articles, the Lima area was once called ''Itchyma'', after its original inhabitants. However, even before the occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as ''Limaq'' (Limaq, pronounced , which means "talker" or "speaker" in the coastal Quechua that was the area's primary language before the Spanish arrival). This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area. Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory, as spoken Spanish consistently rejects s in word-final position. The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of (), because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the . This name quickly fell into disuse, and ''Lima'' became the city's name of choice; on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both ''Lima'' and ''Ciudad de los Reyes'' can be seen together. The river that feeds Lima is called ''Rímac'', and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua, in which the word for "talker" was pronounced ). However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. Later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.
FlagHistorically, the has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is made from a golden-colored silk canvas and embroidered in the center is its coat of arms.
AnthemLima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President , and other authorities. The anthem was created by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).
HistoryIn the , what is now Lima was inhabited by under the Ichma polity, which was incorporated into the in the 15th century. In 1532, a group of Spanish '' s'', led by , defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire. Since the had appointed Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the and site of a '' '' in 1543. During the next century, it flourished as the center of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas, Europe and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the presence of pirates and s in the Pacific Ocean lead to the building of the Walls of Lima between 1684 and 1687. The 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings; the earthquake marked a turning point in the city's history, as it coincided with a trade recession and growing economic competition with cities such as . In 1746, another powerful earthquake severely damaged Lima and destroyed , forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de Velasco. In the later half of the 18th century, ideas on public health and social control shaped development. During this period, Lima was adversely affected by the , as it lost its monopoly on overseas trade and its control over the mining region of . The city's economic decline left its elite dependent on royal and ecclesiastical appointment and thus, reluctant to advocate independence. A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General landed south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on land, Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital in July 1821 to save the Royalist army. Fearing a popular uprising and lacking any means to impose order, the city council invited San Martín to enter Lima and signed a Declaration of Independence at his request. However, the war was not over; in the next two years, the city changed hands several times. After independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru, but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased public and private revenues from exports led to a rapid development of the city. The export-led expansion also widened the gap between rich and poor, fostering social unrest. During the 1879–1883 , Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting public museums, libraries and educational institutions. At the same time, angry mobs attacked wealthy citizens and the Asian population, sacking their properties and businesses. The city underwent renewal and expansion from the 1890s to the 1920s. During this period, the urban layout was modified by the construction of broad avenues that crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring towns. On 24 May 1940, a 1940 Lima earthquake destroyed most of the city, which at that time was mostly built of and '' ''. In the 1940s, Lima started a period of rapid growth spurred by migration from the Andean region, as rural people sought opportunities for work and education. The population, estimated at 600,000 in 1940, reached 1.9 million by 1960 and 4.8 million by 1980. At the start of this period, the urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by the city's , and Chorrillos; in the following decades settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to the east, along the Central Highway and to the south. The new migrants, at first confined to s in downtown Lima, led this expansion through large-scale land invasions, which evolved into shanty towns, known as '' pueblos jóvenes''.
GeographyThe urban area covers about . It is located on mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as above sea level. Within the city are isolated hills that are not connected to the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rímac District, which lies directly north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth. Metropolitan Lima covers , of which (31%) comprise the actual city and (69%) the city outskirts. The urban area extends around from north to south and around from west to east. The city center is located inland at the shore of the Rímac River, a vital resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectric dams that provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be composed of the central 30 of 43 districts of , corresponding to an urban area centered around the historic district. The city is the core of the Lima Metro Area, one of the ten largest metro areas in the Americas. Lima is the world's third largest desert city, after , Pakistan, and , Egypt.
ClimateLima has a mild climate, despite its location in the tropics and in a . Lima's proximity to the waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to intense maritime moderation of the temperatures, thereby making the climate much milder than those to be expected for a tropical desert, and thus Lima can be classified as a ( Köppen: ''BWh'') with temperature ranges. Temperatures rarely fall below or rise above . Two distinct seasons can be identified: summer, December through April, and winter from June through September/October. May and October/November are generally transition months, with a more dramatic warm-to-cool weather transition in later May or/and earlier June. The summers, December through April, are sunny, hot, and muggy. Daily temperatures oscillate between lows of and highs of . Coastal fogs occur in some mornings and high clouds in some afternoons and evenings. Summer sunsets are colorful, known by locals as "cielo de brujas" (Spanish for "sky of witches"), since the sky commonly turns shades of orange, pink, and red around 7 pm. During winter, June through October, the weather is dramatically different. Grey skies, breezy conditions, higher humidity, and cooler temperatures prevail. Long 10 to 15-day stretches of dark overcast skies are not uncommon. Persistent morning drizzle occasionally occurs from June through September, coating the streets with a thin layer of water that generally dries up by early afternoon. Winter temperatures vary little between day and night. They range from lows of and highs of , rarely exceeding except in the easternmost districts. is always very high, particularly in the mornings. High humidity produces brief morning fog in the early summer and a usually persistent low cloud deck during the winter (generally develops in late May and persists until mid-November or even early December). The predominantly onshore flow makes the Lima area one of the cloudiest among the entire Peruvian coast. Lima has only 1284 hours of sunshine a year, 28.6 hours in July and 184 hours in April, which is exceptionally little for its latitude. By comparison, London has an average of 1653 hours of sunshine per year, and Moscow 1731 hours of sunshine per year. Winter cloudiness prompts locals to seek sunshine in Andean valleys located at elevations generally above . While relative humidity is high, rainfall is very low due to strong atmospheric stability. The severely low rainfall impacts the city's water supply, which originates from wells and from rivers that flow from the . Inland districts receive anywhere between of rainfall per year, which accumulates mainly during the winter months. Coastal districts receive only . As previously mentioned, winter precipitation occurs in the form of persistent morning drizzle events. These are locally called 'garúa', 'llovizna' or ' s'. On the other hand, summer rain is infrequent and occurs in the form of isolated light and brief showers. These generally occur during afternoons and evenings when leftovers from Andean storms arrive from the east. The lack of heavy rainfall arises from high atmospheric stability caused, in turn, by the combination of cool waters from semi-permanent coastal upwelling and the presence of the cold and warm air aloft associated with the South Pacific anticyclone. Lima's climate (like most of coastal Peru) gets severely disrupted in events. Coastal waters usually average around , but get much warmer (as in 1998 when the water reached ). Air temperatures rise accordingly.
DemographicsWith a municipal population of 8,852,000 and 9,752,000 for the and a population density of ,Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática
EconomyLima is the country's industrial and financial center and one of Latin America's most important financial centers, home to many national companies and hotels. It accounts for more than two-thirds of Peru's industrial production and most of its . The Metropolitan area, with around 7,000 factories, is the main location of industry. Products include textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil derivatives are manufactured and processed. The financial district is in , while much of the industrial activity takes place in the west of the city, extending to the airport in . Lima has the largest export industry in South America and is a regional center for the cargo industry. Industrialization began in the 1930s and by 1950, through policies, manufacturing made up 14% of . In the late 1950s, up to 70% of consumer goods were manufactured in factories located in Lima. The Callao is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in South America, covering over and shipping 20.7 million metric tons of cargo in 2007. The main export goods are commodities: oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee. , Lima generated 53% of GDP. Most foreign companies in Peru settled in Lima. In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the largest growth rate in South America. The rose 185.24% in 2006 and in 2007 by another 168.3%, making it then one of the fastest growing stock exchanges in the world. In 2006, the was the world's most profitable. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit 2008 and the were held there. Lima is the headquarters for banks such as Banco de Crédito del Perú, Perú, , Bank of the Nation, Banco Continental, MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Financiero, Banco de Comercio and CrediScotia. It is a regional headquarters for . Insurance companies based in Lima include Rimac Seguros, Mapfre Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta and La Positiva.
NationalLima is the capital city of the and . As such, it is home to the three branches of the . The is headquartered in the Government Palace, located in the Plaza Mayor. All ministries are located in the city. The is headquartered in the Legislative Palace and is home to the . The is headquartered in the Palace of Justice and is home to the . The Palace of Justice in Lima is seat of the Supreme Court of Justice the highest judicial court in Peru with jurisdiction over the entire territory of Peru. Lima is seat of two of the 28-second highest or Superior Courts of Justice. The first and oldest Superior Court in Lima is the ''Superior Court of Justice,'' belonging to the Judicial District and. Due to the judicial organization of Peru, the highest concentration of courts is located in Lima despite the fact that its judicial district has jurisdiction over only 35 of the 43 districts. The ''Superior Court of the Cono Norte'' is the second Superior Court located in Lima and is part of the Judicial District of North Lima. This judicial district has jurisdiction over the remaining eight districts, all located in northern Lima.
LocalThe city is roughly equivalent to the , which is subdivided into 43 districts. The has authority over the entire city, while each district has its own local government. Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality, although a provincial municipality, acts as and has functions similar to a , as it does not belong to any of the 25 regions of Peru. Each of the 43 districts has their own distrital municipality that is in charge of its own district and coordinate with the metropolitan municipality.
Political systemUnlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality has functions of regional government and is not part of any administrative region, according to Article 65. 27867 of the Law of Regional Governments enacted on 16 November 2002, 87 The previous political organization remains in the sense that a Governor is the political authority for the department and the city. The functions of this authority are mostly police and military. The same city administration covers the local municipal authority.
International organizationsLima is home to the headquarters of the that is a comprising the South American countries of , , , and . Along with other regional and international organizations.
CityscapeLima's architecture offers a mix of styles. Examples of early colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the and the . These constructions are generally influenced by Spanish Baroque architecture, Spanish Baroque, Spanish Neoclassicism, Neoclassical and Spanish Colonial architecture, Spanish Colonial styles. After independence, preferences gradually shifted toward neoclassical architecture, neoclassical and Art Nouveau styles. Many of these works were influenced by French architecture, French architectural styles. Many government buildings and major cultural institutions were constructed in this period. During the 1960s, the brutalist architecture, brutalist style began appearing in Lima due to the military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado. Examples of this architecture include the Museum of the Nation and the Ministry of Defense (Peru), Ministry of Defense. The early 21st century added skyscraper, glass skyscrapers, particularly around the financial district. The largest parks are in the center area, including the Park of the Reserve, Park of the Exposition, El Campo de Marte, Campo de Marte and University Park. The Park of the Reserve is home to the largest fountain complex in the world known as the Magical Circuit of Water. Many large parks lie outside the city center, including Reducto Park, Pantanos de Villa Wildlife Refuge, El Golf (San Isidro), Parque de las Leyendas (Lima Zoo), El Malecon de Miraflores and the Golf Los Incas. The street grid is laid out with a system of plazas that are similar to roundabouts or Junction (road), junctions. In addition to this practical purpose, plazas serve as principal green spaces and contain monuments, statues and water fountains.
Society and cultureStrongly influenced by Culture of Europe, European, Andes, Andean, Culture of Africa, African and Culture of Asia, Asian culture, Lima is a melting pot, due to colonization, immigration and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous influences. The Historic Centre of Lima, Historic Centre was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. The city is known as the ''Gastronomical Capital of the Americas,'' mixing Spanish cuisine, Spanish, Andes, Andean and Asian cuisine, Asian culinary traditions. Lima's beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the city, are heavily visited during the summer. Restaurants, clubs and hotels serve the beachgoers. Lima has a vibrant and active theater scene, including classic theater, cultural presentations, modern theater, experimental theater, dramas, dance performances and theater for children. Lima is home to the Teatro Municipal (Lima), Municipal Theater, Segura Theater, Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British theater, Theater of the PUCP Cultural Center and the Yuyachkani Theater.
LanguageKnown as Peruvian Coast Spanish, Lima's Spanish is characterized by the lack of strong intonations as found in many other Spanish-speaking regions. It is heavily influenced by Castile (historical region), Castilian Spanish. Throughout the Viceroyalty era, most of the Spanish nobility based in Lima were originally from Castile. Limean Castillian is also characterized by the lack of ''voseo'', unlike many other Spanish language in the Americas, Hispanic American countries. This is because ''voseo'' was primarily used by Spain's lower socioeconomic classes, a social group that did not begin to appear in Lima until the late colonial era. Limean Spanish is distinguished by its clarity in comparison to other Latin American accents and has been influenced by immigrant groups including Italians, Andalusian people, Andalusians, West Africans, Chinese and Japanese. It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of globalization, as well as by Andean Spanish and Quechuan languages, Quechua, due to migration from the Andean highlands.
MuseumsLima is home to the country's highest concentration of museums, most notably the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú, Museum of Art, the Museo Pedro de Osma, the Museum of Natural History, Lima, Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the Nation, The Sala Museo Oro del Perú Larcomar, the Museum of Italian Art, the Museum of Gold and the Larco Museum. These museums focus on art, Pre-Columbian era, pre-Columbian cultures, natural history, science and religion. The Museum of Italian Art shows European art.
TourismThe Historic Centre of Lima, Historic Centre, made up of the districts of Lima District, Lima and Rímac District, Rímac, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988. Some examples of colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the , Convent of Santo Domingo and the Torre Tagle Palace, Palace of Torre Tagle. A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit. A trip through the central district visits churches dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral and the Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by catacombs. Both contain paintings, Sevilian tile and sculpted wood furnishings. Also notable is the Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas, the point of origin for the Lord of Miracles, whose festivities in the month of October constitute the city's most important religious event. Some sections of the Walls of Lima, Walls remain and are frequented by tourists. These examples of medieval Spanish fortifications were built to defend the city from attacks by pirates and s. Beaches are visited during the summer months, located along the Pan-American Highway, to the south of the city in districts such as Lurín District, Lurín, Punta Hermosa, Santa María del Mar (Peru), San Bartolo District, San Bartolo, Miraflores beach and Asia District, Peru, Asia. The archeological site Huaca Pucllana is a great and clay pyramid located in the Miraflores District, Lima, Miraflores district, built from seven staggered platforms. It served as an important ceremonial and administrative center for the advancement of the Lima culture. The suburban districts of Cieneguilla, Pachacamac District, Pachacamac and the city of Lurigancho-Chosica, Chosica, are tourist attractions among locals. Because they are located at a higher elevation than Lima, they receive more sunshine in winter months, something that the city frequently lacks under seasonal fog. According to Mastercard's Global Destination Cities Index 2019, Lima is the top destination in South America, with 2.63 million international visitors in 2018 and a growth forecast of 10.00% percent for 2019.
FoodLima is known as the ''Gastronomical Capital of the Americas''. A center of immigration and the center of the Spanish Viceroyalty, chefs incorporated dishes brought by the conquistadors and waves of immigrants: African, European, Chinese and Japanese. Since the second half of the 20th century, international immigrants were joined by internal migrants from rural areas. Lima cuisines include Creole peoples, Creole food, s, Ceviche, Cebicherias and Pollo a la Brasa, Pollerias. In the 21st century, its restaurants became recognized internationally. In 2007, the Peruvian Society for Gastronomy was born with the objective of uniting Peruvian gastronomy to put together activities that would promote Peruvian food and reinforce the Peruvian national identity. The society, called APEGA, gathered chefs, nutritionists, institutes for gastronomical training, restaurant owners, chefs and cooks, researchers and journalists. They worked with universities, food producers, artisanal fishermen and sellers in food markets. One of their first projects (2008) was to create the largest food festival in Latin America, called Mistura ("mixture" in Portuguese). The fair takes place in September every year. The number of attendees has grown from 30,000 to 600,000 in 2014. The fair congregates restaurants, food producers, bakers, chefs, street vendors and cooking institutes from for ten days to celebrate excellent food. Since 2011, several Lima restaurants have been recognized as among The World's 50 Best Restaurants. In 2016, Central was awarded No. 4 (chefs Virgilio Martínez Véliz, Virgilio Martinez and Pia Leon), Maido was awarded No. 13 (chef Mitsuharu Tsumura) and Astrid & Gaston was awarded No. 30 (chef Diego Muñoz and owned by chef Gaston Acurio). In addition, Central was named No. 1 restaurant in the list of Latin America's 50 Best Restaurants 2015. Out of the 50 best restaurants in Latin America, we find: Central #1, Astrid & Gaston #3, Maido #5, La Mar #12, Malabar #20, Fiesta #31, Osso Carnicería y Salumería #34, La Picanteria #36 and Rafael #50. These restaurants fuse ideas from across the country and the world. Peruvian coffee and chocolate have also won international awards. Lima is the Peruvian city with the greatest variety and where different dishes representing South American cuisine can be found. Ceviche is Peru's national dish and it's made from salt, garlic, onions, hot Peruvian peppers, and raw fish that's all marinated in lime. In Northern Peru, one can find black-oyster ceviche, mixed seafood ceviche, crab and lobster ceviche. In the Andes one can also find trout ceviche and chicken ceviche.
SportsThe city and has sports venues for association football, football, golf, volleyball and basketball, many within private clubs. A popular sport among Limenos is ''Paleta Frontón, fronton'', a racquet sport similar to ''Squash (sport), squash'' invented in Lima. The city is home to seven international-class golf links. Equestrianism is popular in Lima with private clubs as well as the Hipódromo de Monterrico horse racing track. The most popular sport in Lima is Association football, football with professional club teams operating in the city.
SubdivisionsLima is made up of thirty-one densely populated districts, each headed by a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to these and the twelve outer districts of the Lima province. The city's is located in the district, locally known as simply Lima, or as "El Centro" ("Center"). It is home to most of the vestiges the colonial past, the Presidential Palace ( es, Palacio de Gobierno, links=no), the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima, Metropolitan Municipality and ( es, Consejo municipal metropolitano de Lima, links=no), Barrio Chino (Lima), Chinatown and dozens of hotels, some operating and some defunct, that cater to the national and international elite. The upscale San Isidro District, Lima, San Isidro District is the city's financial center. It is home to politicians and celebrities. San Isidro has parks, including Parque El Olivar, which is home to olive trees imported from Spain during the seventeenth century. The Lima Golf Club, a prominent country club, golf club, is located within the district. Another upscale district is Miraflores District, Lima, Miraflores, which has luxury hotels, shops and restaurants. Miraflores has parks and green areas, more than most other districts. Larcomar, a shopping mall and entertainment center built on cliffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean, featuring bars, dance clubs, movie theaters, cafes, shops, boutiques and galleries, is also located in this district. Nightlife, shopping and entertainment center around Parque Kennedy, a park in the heart of Miraflores. La Molina District, La Molina, San Borja District, San Borja, Santiago de Surco -home to the American Embassy and the exclusive Club Polo Lima – are the other three wealthy districts. The middle class districts in Lima are Jesús María District, Lima, Jesús María, Lince District, Lince, Magdalena del Mar, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel District, Lima, San Miguel and Barranco District, Barranco. The most densely populated districts lie in Northern and Southern Lima, where the suburbs of the city begin (Spanish: Cono Norte and Cono Sur (Lima), Cono Sur, respectively) and they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived during the mid- and late- 20th century looking for a better life and economic opportunity, or as refugees of the country's internal conflict with the Shining Path during the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the case of Cono Norte (now called Cono Norte, Lima Norte), shopping malls such as Megaplaza and Royal Plaza were built in the Independencia District, Lima, Independencia district, on the border with the Los Olivos District (the most residential neighborhood in the northern part). Most inhabitants are middle class, middle or lower middle class. Barranco District, Barranco, which borders Miraflores District, Lima, Miraflores by the Pacific Ocean, is the city's bohemian district, home or once home of writers and intellectuals including Mario Vargas Llosa, Chabuca Granda and Alfredo Bryce Echenique. This district has restaurants, music venues called "peñas" featuring the traditional folk music of coastal Peru (in Spanish, "música criolla") and Victorian-style chalets. Along with Miraflores it serves as the home to the foreign nightlife scene.
EducationHome to universities, institutions and schools, Lima has the highest concentration of institutions of higher learning on the continent. Lima is home to the oldest continuously operating higher learning institution in the New World, , founded in 1551. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI) was founded in 1876 by Polish engineer Edward Habich and is the country's most important engineering school. Other public universities offer teaching and research, such as the Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (the second largest), the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (where ex-president Alberto Fujimori once taught) and the National University of Callao. The Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, established in 1917, is the oldest private university. Other private institutions include University of the Pacific (Peru), Universidad del Pacifico, Universidad ESAN, Universidad de Lima, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Universidad Cientifica del Sur, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista and Universidad Ricardo Palma. The city and has a total of 8,047 elementary and high schools, both public and private, which educate more than one and a half million students. The number of private schools is much greater than public schools (6,242 vs 1,805) while the average size of private schools is 100 for elementary and 130 for high school. Public schools average 400 students in elementary and 500 in high school. Lima has one of the country's highest levels of enrollment in high school and preschool. 86.1% of high school-age students are in school, vs the national average of 80.7%. In early childhood, the enrollment level in Lima is 84.7%, while the national average is 74.5%. Early childhood enrollment has improved by 12.1% since 2005. In elementary school, the enrollment in Lima is 90.7%, while the national average for this level is 92.9%. The dropout rate for Lima is lower than the national average, except for elementary school, which is higher. In Lima, the dropout rate in elementary is 1.3% and 5.7% in high school, while the national average is 1.2% in elementary and 8.3% in high school. In Peru, students grade second and fourth students take a test called "Evaluacion Censal de Estudiantes" (ECE). The test assesses skills in reading comprehension and math. Scores are grouped in three levels: Below level 1 means that students were not able to respond to even the most simple questions; level 1 means the students did not achieve the expected level in skills but could respond to simple questions; and level 2 means they achieved/exceeded the expected skills for their grade level. In 2012, 48.7% of students in Lima achieved level 2 in reading comprehension compared to 45.3% in 2011. In math, only 19.3% students achieved level 2, with 46.4% at level 1 and 34.2% less than level 1. Even though the results for Math are lower than for reading, in both subject areas performance increased in 2012 over 2011. The city performs much better than the national average in both disciplines. The educational system in Lima is organized under the authority of the "Direccion Regional de Educacion (DRE) de Lima Metropolitana", which is in turn divided into 7 sub-directions or "UGEL" (Unidad de Gestion Educativa Local): UGEL 01 (San Juan de Miraflores, Villa Maria del Triunfo, Villa El Salvador, Lurin, Pachacamac, San Bartolo, Punta Negra, Punta Hermosa, Pucusana, Santa Maria and Chilca), UGEL 02 (Rimac, Los Olivos, Independencia, Rimac and San Martin de Porres), UGEL 03 (Cercado, Lince, Breña, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel, Magdalena, Jesus Maria, La Victoria and San Isidro), UGEL 04 (Comas, Carabayllo, Puente Piedra, Santa Rosa and Ancon), UGEL 05 (San Juan de Lurigancho and El Agustino), UGEL 06 (Santa Anita, Lurigancho-Chosica, Vitarte, La Molina, Cieneguilla and Chaclacayo) and UGEL 07 (San Borja, San Luis, Surco, Surquillo, Miraflores, Barranco and Chorrillos). The UGELes with highest results on the ECE 2012 are UGEL 07 and 03 in both reading comprehension and math. UGEL 07 had 60.8% students achieving level 2 in reading comprehension and 28.6% students achieving level 2 in Math. UGEL 03 had 58.5% students achieve level 2 in reading comprehension and 24.9% students achieving level 2 in math. The lowest achieving UGELs are UGEL 01, 04 and 05. 23% of men have completed university education in Lima, compared to 20% of women. Additionally, 16.2% of men have completed non-university higher education along with 17% of women. The average years of schooling in the city is 11.1 years (11.4 for men and 10.9 for women).
AirLima is served by Jorge Chávez International Airport, located in (LIM). It is the country's largest airport hosting the largest number of domestic and international passengers. It serves as the fourth-largest hub in the Latin American air network. Lima possesses five other airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport and runways in Santa María del Mar (Peru), Santa María del Mar, San Bartolo District, San Bartolo and Chilca.
RoadLima is a major stop on the Pan-American Highway. Because of its location on the country's central coast, Lima is an important junction in Peru's highway system. Three major highways originate in Lima. *The Peru Highway 1, Northern Panamerican Highway extends more than to the border with Ecuador connecting the northern districts and with many major cities along the northern Peruvian coast. *The Central Highway ( es, Carretera Central, links=no) connects the eastern districts and with cities in central Peru. The highway extends with its terminus at the city of Pucallpa near Brazil. *The Peru Highway 1, Southern Panamerican Highway connects the southern districts and to cities on the southern coast. The highway extends to the border with Chile. The city has one big bus terminal next to the mall Plaza Norte. This bus station is the point of departure and arrival point for national and international destinations. Other bus stations serve private bus companies around the city. In addition, informal bus stations are located in the south, center and north of the city.
MaritimeLima's proximity to the port of allows Callao to act as the metropolitan area's major port and one of Latin America's largest. Callao hosts nearly all maritime transport for the metropolitan area. A small port in Lurín District, Lurín serves oil tankers due to a nearby refinery. Maritime transport inside Lima city limits is relatively insignificant compared to that of Callao.
RailLima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril Central Andino which runs from Lima through the departments of Junín Region, Junín, Huancavelica Region, Huancavelica, Pasco Region, Pasco and Huánuco Region, Huánuco. Major cities along this line include Huancayo, La Oroya, Huancavelica and Cerro de Pasco. Another inactive line runs from Lima northwards to the city of Huacho. Commuter rail services for Lima are planned as part of the larger Tren de la Costa (Peru), Tren de la Costa project.
PublicLima's road network is based mostly on large Dual carriageway, divided avenues rather than Controlled-access highway, freeways. Lima operates a network of nine freeways – the Via Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier Prado, Via Expresa Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur, Carretera Central, Via Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche and the Autopista Ramiro Priale. According to a 2012 survey, the majority of the population uses public or collective transportation (75.6%), while 12.3% uses a car, taxi or motorcycle. The urban transport system is composed of over 300 transit routes that are served by buses, microbuses and combis. Taxis are mostly informal and unmetered; they are cheap but feature poor driving habits. Fares are agreed upon before the passenger enters the taxi. Taxis vary in size from small four-door compacts to large vans. They account for a large part of the car stock. In many cases they are just a private car with a taxi sticker on the windshield. Additionally, several companies provide on-call taxi service.
Corredores Complementarios Bus SystemThe Sistema Integrado de Transporte (which means Integrated Transport System), is a bus system developed by the local government to reorganize the current system of routes that has become chaotic. One of the main goals of the SIT is to reduce the number of urban routes, renew the bus fleet currently operating by many private companies and to reduce (and eventually replace) most "combis" from the city. As of July 2020, SIT currently operates 16 routes: San Martín de Porres District, San Martin de Porres – Santiago de Surco, Surco (107) Ate District, Ate – San Miguel District, Lima, San Miguel (201, 202,204,206 and 209), Rímac District, Rimac – Santiago de Surco, Surco (301,302,303 and 306), San Juan de Lurigancho – Magdalena del Mar District, Magdalena (404,405,409,412), and Lima District, Downtown Lima – San Miguel District, Lima, San Miguel(508)
ColectivosColectivos render express service on some major roads. The colectivos signal their specific destination with a sign on their windshield. Their routes are not generally publicitized but are understood by frequent users. The cost is generally higher than public transport; however, they cover greater distances at greater speeds due to the lack of stops. This service is informal and is illegal. Some people in the periphery use so-called "mototaxis" for short distances.
Metropolitan Transport SystemThe Metropolitan Transport System or El Metropolitano is a new, integrated system, consisting of a network of buses that run in exclusive corridors under the Bus Rapid Transit system (BST). The goal is to reduce passengers' commute times, protect the environment, provide improved security and overall quality of service. Metropolitano was executed with funds from the City of Lima and financing from the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. Metropolitana is the first BRT system to operate with natural gas, seeking to reduce air pollution. This system links the principal points of the Lima Metropolitan Area. The first phase of this project has of line (north) to Chorrillos (south). It began commercial operations on 28 July 2010. Since 2014, Lima Council operates the "Sistema Integrado de Transporte Urbano" (Urban integrated transport system), which comprises buses over Avenida Arequipa. By the end of 2012, the Metropolitano system counted 244 buses in its central routes and 179 buses in its feeding routes. Weekday use averages 437,148 passengers. Usage increased since 2011 by 28.2% for weekdays, 29.1% for Saturdays and 33.3% for Sundays.
MetroThe Lima Metro has twenty six passenger stations, with an average separation of . It begins in the Industrial Park of Villa El Salvador, south of the city, continuing on to Av. Pachacútec in Villa María del Triunfo and then to Av. Los Héroes in San Juan de Miraflores. Afterwards, it continues through Av. Tomás Marsano in Surco to reach Ov. Los Cabitos, to Av. Aviación and then cross the river Rimac to finish, after almost , in the east of the capital in San Juan de Lurigancho. The system operates 24 trains, each with six wagons. Each wagon has the capacity to transport 233 people. The metro system began operating in December 2012 and transported 78,224 people on average on a daily basis.
Other transportation issuesLima has high traffic congestion, especially at peak hours. 1.397 million vehicles were in use by the end of 2012. The region operates 65.3% of the cars in the country. The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) offered economic incentives for municipalities to implement bicycle routes in their districts. Recreational bike lanes can be found in 39 districts. The Proyecto Especial Metropolitano de Transporte No Motorizado (PEMTNM) estimates that more than a million and a half people used the bike lanes in 2012. The bike lanes ran for . They estimate that the use of the bike lanes prevented the emission of 526 tons of carbon dioxide in 2012. San Borja district was the first to implement a bike-share program called San Borja en Bici. It supplied 200 bicycles and six stations across the district (two of them connecting with the Metro). By December 2012, the program had 2,776 subscribers.
AirLima suffers most from air pollution. The sedimentary dust has solid particles that settle as dust on different surfaces or float through the air. The fine particles are the most dangerous given that they are able to damage human respiratory systems. The recommended limit of these particles by the World Health Organization is 5 tons/km2/month. In February 2014, Lima recorded an average of 15.2 tons/km2. The two districts with the highest concentration of sedimentary dust are El Agustino (46.1 tons/km2) and Independencia (25.5 tons/km2) in February 2014. Lima has built billboards which serve as air purifiers.
WaterThe permissible limit of lead in the water supply is 0.05 milligrams per liter, according to the Norm ITINTEC. In January 2014, the concentration of minerals in water treatment facilities of SEDAPAL was 0.051 iron, 0.005 lead, 0.0012 cadmium and 0.0810 aluminum. These values increased 15.9% and 33.3% in iron and cadmium with respect to January 2013 and a decrease of 16.7% and 12.4% in lead and aluminum. The values are within the recommended limits.
Solid wasteThe amount of solid waste produced per capita in Lima is about per day. In 2012, each resident produced of solid waste. The district municipalities only collect about 67% of the solid waste they generate. The rest ends up in informal landfills, rivers, or the ocean. Three municipalities recycle 20% or more of their waste. COVID-19 Lima has a population of about 10 million people. This equates to one-third of the overall population of the nation. Lima was subjected to a lengthy period of confinement or quarantine that lasted more than four months. However, in May 2020, the process of restoring activities began as part of the national government's economic reactivation strategy. Lima's green recovery is centred on bringing services closer to the most vulnerable people, with the goal of creating a green, wealthy, and equitable city for all. The municipality has an aim of implementing sustainable infrastructure to limit the development of COVID-19 through the execution of 46 km of rising bike routes. Lima is one of over 10,000 cities from all around the world that make up the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy, Global Covenant of Mayors.
Access to basic servicesIn Lima, 93% of households have access to water supply in their homes. In addition, 92% of homes connect with sewage systems. 99.6% of homes have grid electric service. Although most households have water and sewage systems, some are available for only a few hours a day.
SecurityThe perception of security varies by district. For example, San Isidro has the lowest perception of insecurity (21.4%), while Rimac has the highest perception of insecurity (85%), according to a 2012 survey. The five districts with the lowest perception of insecurity are San Isidro, San Borja, Miraflores, La Molina and Jesus Maria. The districts with the highest perception of insecurity are Rimac, San Juan de Miraflores, La Victoria, Comas and Ate. Overall, 40% of the population in Lima above 15 years old has been a crime victim. The younger population (ages 15 to 29 years old) has the highest victimization rate (47.9%). In 2012, citizens reported thefts (47.9%): in homes or establishments (19.4%), robbery or attack (14.9%), gang aggression (5.7%), among others in lesser frequency. The districts with the highest level of victimization are Rimac, El Agustino, Villa El Salvador, San Juan de Lurigancho and Los Olivos. The safest districts by level of victimization are Lurin, Lurigancho-Chosica, San Borja, Magdalena and Surquillo. These districts do not necessarily correspond to the districts with highest or lowest perception of insecurity. While the police force is nationally controlled and funded, each district in Lima has a community policing structure called Serenazgo. The quantity of Serenazgos officials and resources varies by district. For example, Villa Maria del Triunfo has 5,785 citizens per official. Twenty-two districts in Lima have a ratio above 1000 citizens per Serenazgo official, while 14 districts have ratios below 200 citizens per official, including Miraflores with 119 and San Isidro with 57. The satisfaction with the Serenazgos also varies greatly by district. The highest satisfaction rates can be found in San Isidro (88.3%), Miraflores (81.6%), San Borja (77%) and Surco (75%). The lowest satisfaction rates can be found in Villa Maria del Triunfo (11%), San Juan de Miraflores (14.8%), Rimac (16.3%) and La Victoria (20%).
Twin towns – sister citiesLima is Sister city, twinned with: * Akhisar, Turkey * Asunción, Paraguay * Austin, Texas, Austin, United States * Beijing, China * Bogotá, Colombia * Bordeaux, France * , Argentina * Cleveland, United States * Dhaka, Bangladesh * Guadalajara, Mexico * Karaçoban, Turkey * Kyiv, Ukraine * Madrid, Spain * Manila, Philippines * Miami, United States * Oruro, Bolivia, Oruro, Bolivia * Pescara, Italy * Quito, Ecuador * San Salvador, El Salvador * Santa Ana, Costa Rica, Santa Ana, Costa Rica *
See also*Largest cities in the Americas *List of people from Lima *List of sites of interest in the Lima Metropolitan area
Works cited* * * * * * * * *
General*''Nota etimológica: El topónimo Lima'', Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú *''Lima Monumento Histórico'', Margarita Cubillas Soriano, Lima, 1996
History*Higgins, James (editor). ''The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts'', 2014. Online at https://sites.google.com/site/jhemanperu *Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. ''Lima Metropolitana perfil socio-demográfico''. Lima: INEI, 1996.
Demographics*Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, ''Perfil Sociodemográfico del Perú''. Lima: INEI, 2008. *United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, ''Urban Agglomerations 2007''. New York (June 2008).