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Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín Rivers, in the desert zone of the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) ...

Callao
, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the
Lima Metropolitan Area#REDIRECT Lima metropolitan area The Lima Metropolitan Area ( es, link=no, Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as ''Lima Metropolitana'') is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian provinces of Lima (the nation's capital) and Callao ...
. With a population of more than 9.7 million and more than 10.7 million in its metropolitan area, Lima is one of the largest cities in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
. Lima was named by natives in the agricultural region known by native Peruvians as Limaq. It became the capital and most important city in the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Monarchy of Spain, Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South Amer ...
. Following the
Peruvian War of Independence The Peruvian War of Independence was composed of a series of military conflicts in Peru beginning with José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy Abascal military reconquest in 1811 in the Battle of Huaqui, battle of Guaqui, continuing with t ...
, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru (República del Perú). Around one-third of the national population lives in the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
. The
National University of San Marcos The National University of San Marcos ( es, link=no, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general p ...
, founded on 12 May 1551, during the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Monarchy of Spain, Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South Amer ...
, is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. Nowadays, the city is considered to be the political, cultural, financial and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
has categorized it as a "beta" tier city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends mainly within the
province of Lima Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only Provinces of Peru, province in the country not belonging to any of the Regions of Peru, twenty-five regions. Its capital is Lima, which is also the nation's capital. Despite its ...
and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the
Constitutional Province of Callao Constitutional Province of Callao is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province by constitutional mandate with municipality and regional government, which belongs to the Regions of Peru, twenty-five regions. Its capital is Callao ...
, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez Airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the
2019 Pan American Games
2019 Pan American Games
; these games were held at venues in and around Lima, and were the largest sporting event ever hosted by the country. It also hosted the
APEC The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC; ) is an inter-governmental forum for 21 member economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offic ...
Meetings of 2008 and 2016, the
Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank GroupThe IMF and World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to inte ...
in October 2015, the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014, and the
Miss Universe 1982 Miss Universe 1982, the 31st Miss Universe pageant, was held on 26 July 1982 at the Coliseo Amauta in Lima, Peru. A total of seventy-seven contestants competed in the pageant. Karen Dianne Baldwin of Canada was crowned by Irene Saez of Venezuela. ...
contest.


Etymology

According to early Spanish articles, the Lima area was once called ''Itchyma'', after its original inhabitants. However, even before the
Inca The Inca Empire, also Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The admin ...

Inca
occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as ''Limaq'' (Limaq, pronounced , which means "talker" or "speaker" in the coastal Quechua that was the area's primary language before the Spanish arrival). This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area. Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory, as spoken Spanish consistently rejects
stop consonant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of ev ...
s in word-final position. The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of
Kings
Kings
(), because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
. This name quickly fell into disuse, and ''Lima'' became the city's name of choice; on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both ''Lima'' and ''Ciudad de los Reyes'' can be seen together. The river that feeds Lima is called ''Rímac'', and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua, in which the word for "talker" was pronounced ). However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the
Cuzco Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (; qu, Qusqu ()), is a city in southeastern Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the St ...

Cuzco
nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. Later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.


Symbols


Flag

Historically, the has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is made from a golden-colored silk canvas and embroidered in the center is its coat of arms.


Anthem

Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President
Alan García Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (; 23 May 1949 – 17 April 2019) was a Peruvian Peruvians ( es, Peruanos) are people identified with the country of Peru. There were Andean and Coastal Ancient civilizations like Caral, the oldest civili ...
, and other authorities. The anthem was created by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).


History

In the
pre-Columbian era In the history of the Americas, the pre-Columbian era spans from the original settlement of North and South America in the Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the is the third and last subdivision o ...
, what is now Lima was inhabited by
indigenous groups Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct et ...
under the Ichma polity, which was incorporated into the
Inca Empire The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...

Inca Empire
in the 15th century. In 1532, a group of Spanish ''
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and the Portuguese Empires. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to t ...

conquistador
s'', led by
Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González (; ;  – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and t ...

Francisco Pizarro
, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire. Since the
Spanish Crown , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg , incumbent = Feli ...

Spanish Crown
had appointed Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by
Manco Inca Yupanqui Manco Inca Yupanqui ( 1515 – c. 1544) (''Manqu Inka Yupanki'' in Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language famil ...
besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Monarchy of Spain, Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South Amer ...
and site of a ''
Real Audiencia A ''Real Audiencia'' (), or simply an ''Audiencia'' ( ca, Reial Audiència, Audiència Reial, or Audiència), was an appellate court An appellate court, commonly called an ''appeals court'', ''court of appeals'' (American English Americ ...
'' in 1543. During the next century, it flourished as the center of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas, Europe and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the presence of pirates and
privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or deleg ...
s in the Pacific Ocean lead to the building of the Walls of Lima between 1684 and 1687. The 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings; the earthquake marked a turning point in the city's history, as it coincided with a trade recession and growing economic competition with cities such as
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
. In 1746, another powerful earthquake severely damaged Lima and destroyed
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) ...

Callao
, forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de Velasco. In the later half of the 18th century,
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
ideas on public health and social control shaped development. During this period, Lima was adversely affected by the
Bourbon Reforms The Bourbon Reforms ( es, Reformas Borbónicas) consisted of political and economical legislation promulgated by the Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spa ...
, as it lost its monopoly on overseas trade and its control over the mining region of
Upper Peru Upper Peru (; ) is a name for the land that was governed by the Real Audiencia of Charcas The Real Audiencia of Charcas ( es, Audiencia y Cancillería Real de La Plata de los Charcas) was a Spanish '' audiencia'' with its seat in what is toda ...
. The city's economic decline left its elite dependent on royal and ecclesiastical appointment and thus, reluctant to advocate independence. A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General
José de San Martín José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 177817 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín () or ''libertadores, El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru'', was an Argentina, Argentine general and the prime leader of t ...

José de San Martín
landed south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on land, Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital in July 1821 to save the Royalist army. Fearing a popular uprising and lacking any means to impose order, the city council invited San Martín to enter Lima and signed a Declaration of Independence at his request. However, the war was not over; in the next two years, the city changed hands several times. After independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru, but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased public and private revenues from
guano Guano (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguatio ...

guano
exports led to a rapid development of the city. The export-led expansion also widened the gap between rich and poor, fostering social unrest. During the 1879–1883
War of the Pacific The War of the Pacific ( es, link=no, Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Saltpeter War ( es, link=no, Guerra del salitre) and by War of the Pacific#Etymology, multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Treaty of Defensive Allianc ...
, Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting public museums, libraries and educational institutions. At the same time, angry mobs attacked wealthy citizens and the Asian population, sacking their properties and businesses. The city underwent renewal and expansion from the 1890s to the 1920s. During this period, the urban layout was modified by the construction of broad avenues that crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring towns. On 24 May 1940, a 1940 Lima earthquake destroyed most of the city, which at that time was mostly built of
adobe Adobe (; ) is a building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from ...

adobe
and ''
quinchaQuincha is a traditional construction system that uses, fundamentally, wood and Cane (grass), cane or Arundo, giant reed forming an earthquake-proof framework that is covered in mud and plaster. History Quincha is a Spanish language, Spanish term ...
''. In the 1940s, Lima started a period of rapid growth spurred by migration from the Andean region, as rural people sought opportunities for work and education. The population, estimated at 600,000 in 1940, reached 1.9 million by 1960 and 4.8 million by 1980. At the start of this period, the urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by the city's
historic center History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
,
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) ...

Callao
and Chorrillos; in the following decades settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to the east, along the Central Highway and to the south. The new migrants, at first confined to
slum A slum is a highly populated urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: Ge ...

slum
s in downtown Lima, led this expansion through large-scale land invasions, which evolved into shanty towns, known as '' pueblos jóvenes''.


Geography

The urban area covers about . It is located on mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as above sea level. Within the city are isolated hills that are not connected to the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rímac District, which lies directly north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth. Metropolitan Lima covers , of which (31%) comprise the actual city and (69%) the city outskirts. The urban area extends around from north to south and around from west to east. The city center is located inland at the shore of the Rímac River, a vital resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectric dams that provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be composed of the central 30 of 43 districts of
Lima Province Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type ...
, corresponding to an urban area centered around the historic
Cercado de Lima Image:Lima1750.jpg, 350px, Map of Lima in 1750. The Cercado de Lima (''Walled Lima''), Damero de Pizarro (''Pizarro's Checkerboard''), or Lima Cuadrada (''Squared Lima'') is an area of the Historic Centre of Lima, historic center of Lima (capital ...
district. The city is the core of the Lima Metro Area, one of the ten largest metro areas in the Americas. Lima is the world's third largest desert city, after
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to re ...

Karachi
, Pakistan, and
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
, Egypt.


Climate

Lima has a mild climate, despite its location in the tropics and in a
desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...

desert
. Lima's proximity to the waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to intense maritime moderation of the temperatures, thereby making the climate much milder than those to be expected for a tropical desert, and thus Lima can be classified as a
desert climate The desert climate or arid climate (in the Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used systems. It was first published by German-Russian (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modific ...
( Köppen: ''BWh'') with
subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locat ...
temperature ranges. Temperatures rarely fall below or rise above . Two distinct seasons can be identified: summer, December through April, and winter from June through September/October. May and October/November are generally transition months, with a more dramatic warm-to-cool weather transition in later May or/and earlier June. The summers, December through April, are sunny, hot, and muggy. Daily temperatures oscillate between lows of and highs of . Coastal fogs occur in some mornings and high clouds in some afternoons and evenings. Summer sunsets are colorful, known by locals as "cielo de brujas" (Spanish for "sky of witches"), since the sky commonly turns shades of orange, pink, and red around 7 pm. During winter, June through October, the weather is dramatically different. Grey skies, breezy conditions, higher humidity, and cooler temperatures prevail. Long 10 to 15-day stretches of dark overcast skies are not uncommon. Persistent morning drizzle occasionally occurs from June through September, coating the streets with a thin layer of water that generally dries up by early afternoon. Winter temperatures vary little between day and night. They range from lows of and highs of , rarely exceeding except in the easternmost districts.
Relative humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapour (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity , 1.864 kJ/(kg·K) Water vap ...

Relative humidity
is always very high, particularly in the mornings. High humidity produces brief morning fog in the early summer and a usually persistent low cloud deck during the winter (generally develops in late May and persists until mid-November or even early December). The predominantly onshore flow makes the Lima area one of the cloudiest among the entire Peruvian coast. Lima has only 1284 hours of sunshine a year, 28.6 hours in July and 184 hours in April, which is exceptionally little for its latitude. By comparison, London has an average of 1653 hours of sunshine per year, and Moscow 1731 hours of sunshine per year. Winter cloudiness prompts locals to seek sunshine in Andean valleys located at elevations generally above
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
. While relative humidity is high, rainfall is very low due to strong atmospheric stability. The severely low rainfall impacts the city's water supply, which originates from wells and from rivers that flow from the
Andes The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the List of mountain ranges#Mountain ranges by length, longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of Sou ...

Andes
. Inland districts receive anywhere between of rainfall per year, which accumulates mainly during the winter months. Coastal districts receive only . As previously mentioned, winter precipitation occurs in the form of persistent morning drizzle events. These are locally called 'garúa', 'llovizna' or '
camanchaca Camanchacas are marine stratocumulus cloud banks that form on the Chilean coast, by the Earth's driest desert, the Atacama Desert, and move inland. (In Peru, camanchaca is called garúa) On the side of the mountains where these cloud banks form, th ...

camanchaca
s'. On the other hand, summer rain is infrequent and occurs in the form of isolated light and brief showers. These generally occur during afternoons and evenings when leftovers from Andean storms arrive from the east. The lack of heavy rainfall arises from high atmospheric stability caused, in turn, by the combination of cool waters from semi-permanent coastal upwelling and the presence of the cold
Humboldt Current #REDIRECT Humboldt Current The Humboldt Current, also called the Peru Current, is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America.Montecino, Vivian, and Carina B. Lange. "The Humboldt Current System: Eco ...
and warm air aloft associated with the South Pacific anticyclone. Lima's climate (like most of coastal Peru) gets severely disrupted in
El Niño es, El Niño, translation=The Boy (; ) is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the Tropics, tropical east ...
events. Coastal waters usually average around , but get much warmer (as in 1998 when the water reached ). Air temperatures rise accordingly.


Demographics

With a municipal population of 8,852,000 and 9,752,000 for the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
and a population density of ,Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática
''Perfil Sociodemográfico del Perú''
pp. 29–30, 32, 34.
Lima ranks as the 30th most populous agglomeration in the world, , and the second biggest city in South America in terms of population within city limits, after
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
. Its population features a complex mix of racial and ethnic groups.
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

Mestizo
s of mixed
Amerindian The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who n ...
and
European European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...
(mostly Spanish and
Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong att ...

Italians
) ancestry are the largest ethnic group. European Peruvians are the second largest group. Many are of
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
or
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
descent; many others are of French,
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...
, or
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
descent. The minorities in Lima include Amerindians (mostly
Aymara Aymara may refer to: Languages and people * Aymaran languages Aymaran (also Jaqi or Aru) is one of the two dominant language families in the central Andes alongside Quechua languages, Quechuan. The family consists of Aymara language, Aymara, wi ...
and
Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language **Sou ...
) and
Afro-Peruvians Black Peruvians or Afro-Peruvians are Peruvian Peruvians ( es, Peruanos) are people identified with the country of Peru. There were Andean and Coastal Ancient civilizations like Caral, the oldest civilization of Peru and the Americas, who inha ...
, whose African ancestors were initially brought to the region as
slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
.
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...
of European descent and Middle Easterners are there. Lima's
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
community is made up primarily of
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
(Cantonese) and
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...
descendants, whose ancestors came mostly in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The city has, by far, the largest Chinese diaspora in Latin America. The first settlement in what would become Lima was made up of 117 housing blocks. In 1562, another district was built across the Rímac River and in 1610, the first stone bridge was built. Lima then had a population of around 26,000; blacks made up around 40% and whites made up around 38%. By 1748, the white population totaled 16,000–18,000. In 1861, the number of inhabitants surpassed 100,000 and by 1927, had doubled. During the early 20th century, thousands of immigrants came to the city, including people of European descent. They organized social clubs and built their own schools. Examples are The American-Peruvian school, the Alianza Francesa de Lima, the Lycée Franco-Péruvien and the hospital Maison de Sante;
Markham College Markham College is an international school in Lima, Peru. Founded by United Kingdom, British immigrants, Markham promotes a mixture of United Kingdom, British and Peruvian education. Markham is an independent, non-profit, co-educational, bilingual ...
, the British-Peruvian school in Monterrico, Antonio Raymondi District Italian School, the Pestalozzi Swiss School and also, several German-Peruvian schools. Chinese and a lesser number of Japanese came to Lima and established themselves in the Barrios Altos neighborhood in downtown Lima. Lima residents refer to their
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave File:India Square JC jeh.JPG, India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey#Demographics, Jersey City, New Jersey, one of 24 Indian American, Indian ethnic enclaves in the New York City Metropolitan Area. In ...
as ''Barrio chino'' or ''Calle Capon'' and the city's ubiquitous
Chifa Chifa is culinary tradition based on Chinese Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate ...

Chifa
restaurantssmall, sit-down, usually Chinese-run restaurants serving the Peruvian spin on Chinese cuisinecan be found by the dozens in this enclave. In 2014, the National Institute for Statistics and Information (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica) reported that the population in Lima's 49 districts was 9,752,000 people, including the Constitutional Province of Callao. The city and (metropolitan area) represents around 29% of the national population. Of the city's population 48.7% are men and 51.3% are women. The 49 districts in Metropolitan Lima are divided into 5 areas: Cono Norte (North Lima), Lima Este (East Lima), Constitutional Province of Callao, Lima Centro (Central Lima) and Lima Sur (South Lima). The largest areas are Lima Norte with 2,475,432 people and Lima Este with 2,619,814 people, including the largest single district San Juan de Lurigancho, which hosts 1 million people. Lima is considered a "young" city. According to INEI, by mid 2014 the age distribution in Lima was: 24.3% between 0 and 14, 27.2% between 15 and 29, 22.5% between 30 and 44, 15.4% between 45 and 59 and 10.6% above 60. Migration to Lima from the rest of Peru is substantial. In 2013, 3,480,000 people reported arriving from other regions. This represents almost 36% of the entire population of Metropolitan Lima. The three regions that supply most of the migrants are Junin, Ancash and Ayacucho. By contrast only 390,000 emigrated from Lima to other regions. The annual population growth rate is 1.57%. Some of the 43 metropolitan districts are considerably more populous than others. For example, San Juan de Lurigancho, San Martin de Porres, Ate, Comas, Villa El Salvador and Villa Maria del Triunfo host more than 400,000, while San Luis, San Isidro, Magdalena del Mar, Lince and Barranco have less than 60,000 residents. A 2005 household survey study shows a socio-economic distribution for households in Lima. It used a monthly family income of 6,000 soles (around US$1,840) or more for socioeconomic level A; between 2,000 soles (US$612) and 6,000 soles (US$1,840) for level B; from 840 soles (US$257) to 2,000 soles (US$612) for level C; from 420 soles (US$128) to 1200 soles (US$368) for level D; and up to 840 soles (US$257) for level E. In Lima, 18% were in level E; 32.3% in level D; 31.7% in level C; 14.6% in level B; and 3.4% in level A. In this sense, 82% of the population lives in households that earn less than 2000 soles (or US$612) monthly. Other salient differences between socioeconomic levels include levels of higher education, car ownership and home size. In Metropolitan Lima in 2013, the percentage of the population living in households in poverty was 12.8%. The level of poverty is measured by households that are unable to access a basic food and other household goods and services, such as clothing, housing, education, transportation and health. The level of poverty has decreased from 2011 (15.6%) and 2012 (14.5%). Lima Sur is the area in Lima with the highest proportion of poverty (17.7%), followed by Lima Este (14.5%), Lima Norte (14.1%) and Lima Centro (6.2%). In addition 0.2% of the population lives in extreme poverty, meaning that they are unable to access a basic food basket.


Economy

Lima is the country's industrial and financial center and one of Latin America's most important financial centers, home to many national companies and hotels. It accounts for more than two-thirds of Peru's industrial production and most of its
tertiary sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, Percentages of a country's economy made up by different sectors. Countries with h ...
. The Metropolitan area, with around 7,000 factories, is the main location of industry. Products include textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil derivatives are manufactured and processed. The financial district is in
San Isidro(San) Isidro or (San) Ysidro may refer to: People Saints *Saint Isidore the Laborer (c. 1070 – died 1130), the patron saint of farmers of Madrid (Spain) and La Ceiba (Honduras) *Saint Isidore of Seville (c. 560 – died 636), scholar and Archbish ...
, while much of the industrial activity takes place in the west of the city, extending to the airport in
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) ...

Callao
. Lima has the largest export industry in South America and is a regional center for the cargo industry. Industrialization began in the 1930s and by 1950, through
import substitution Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, i ...
policies, manufacturing made up 14% of
GNP The Gross National Income (GNI), previously known as Gross National Product (GNP), is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of Gross Domestic Product ( GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign ...
. In the late 1950s, up to 70% of consumer goods were manufactured in factories located in Lima. The Callao
seaport A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...
is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in South America, covering over and shipping 20.7 million metric tons of cargo in 2007. The main export goods are commodities: oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee. , Lima generated 53% of GDP. Most foreign companies in Peru settled in Lima. In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the largest growth rate in South America. The
Lima Stock Exchange The Lima Stock Exchange ( es, Bolsa de Valores de Lima, BVL) is the stock exchange of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great S ...
rose 185.24% in 2006 and in 2007 by another 168.3%, making it then one of the fastest growing stock exchanges in the world. In 2006, the
Lima Stock Exchange The Lima Stock Exchange ( es, Bolsa de Valores de Lima, BVL) is the stock exchange of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great S ...
was the world's most profitable. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit 2008 and the
Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union SummitThe European Union, Latin America and the Caribbean Summit (EU–LAC) is a biennial meeting of heads of state and government of Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union. In the first EU–LAC summit, held in Rio de Janeiro between 28 June ...
were held there. Lima is the headquarters for banks such as Banco de Crédito del Perú,
Scotiabank The Bank of Nova Scotia (french: link=no, La Banque de Nouvelle-Écosse), operating as Scotiabank (french: link=no, Banque Scotia), is a Canadian multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization o ...
Perú,
Interbank Interbank is a Peruvian provider of financial services. History Image:Banco Internacional del Peru.jpg, 250px, Interbank office in Arequipa In 1897, Elias Mujica opened an agency at Jiron de la Union in Lima's historical center under the name o ...
, Bank of the Nation, Banco Continental, MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Financiero, Banco de Comercio and CrediScotia. It is a regional headquarters for
Standard Chartered Standard Chartered plc is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...

Standard Chartered
. Insurance companies based in Lima include Rimac Seguros, Mapfre Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta and La Positiva.


Government


National

Lima is the capital city of the
Republic of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , nati ...
and
Lima Province Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type ...
. As such, it is home to the three branches of the
Government of Peru , border = Central , image = , caption = Logo of the Government of Peru , date = 1990 , state = Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escud ...
. The
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government that enforces law, and has Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. In political systems based on the principle ...
is headquartered in the Government Palace, located in the Plaza Mayor. All ministries are located in the city. The
legislative branch A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure ...
is headquartered in the Legislative Palace and is home to the
Congress of the Republic of Peru The Congress of the Republic of Peru ( es, Congreso de la República) is the unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Art ...
. The
Judicial branch The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
is headquartered in the Palace of Justice and is home to the
Supreme Court of Peru The Supreme Court of Justice is the highest judicial court in Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , ot ...
. The Palace of Justice in Lima is seat of the Supreme Court of Justice the highest judicial court in Peru with jurisdiction over the entire territory of Peru. Lima is seat of two of the 28-second highest or Superior Courts of Justice. The first and oldest Superior Court in Lima is the ''Superior Court of Justice,'' belonging to the Judicial District and. Due to the judicial organization of Peru, the highest concentration of courts is located in Lima despite the fact that its judicial district has jurisdiction over only 35 of the 43 districts. The ''Superior Court of the Cono Norte'' is the second Superior Court located in Lima and is part of the Judicial District of North Lima. This judicial district has jurisdiction over the remaining eight districts, all located in northern Lima.


Local

The city is roughly equivalent to the
Province of Lima Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type ...
, which is subdivided into 43 districts. The
Metropolitan Municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical application within Canada, a metropolitan municipality is an urban local government with p ...
has authority over the entire city, while each district has its own local government. Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality, although a provincial municipality, acts as and has functions similar to a
regional government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geogra ...
, as it does not belong to any of the 25 regions of Peru. Each of the 43 districts has their own distrital municipality that is in charge of its own district and coordinate with the metropolitan municipality.


Political system

Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality has functions of regional government and is not part of any administrative region, according to Article 65. 27867 of the Law of Regional Governments enacted on 16 November 2002, 87 The previous political organization remains in the sense that a Governor is the political authority for the department and the city. The functions of this authority are mostly police and military. The same city administration covers the local municipal authority.


International organizations

Lima is home to the headquarters of the
Andean Community of Nations The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America South America is a continent e ...
that is a
customs union A customs union is generally defined as a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

customs union
comprising the South American countries of
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of g ...

Bolivia
,
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
,
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...

Ecuador
, and
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
. Along with other regional and international organizations.


Cityscape

Lima's architecture offers a mix of styles. Examples of early colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the
Cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...
and the
Torre Tagle Palace The Palacio de Torre Tagle is a Baroque palace located at Jr. Ucayali 363, in downtown Lima, Peru, a couple blocks east of the Plaza Mayor, Lima, Plaza de Armas. The palace currently is home to the Ministry of Foreign Relations (Peru), Peruvian M ...
. These constructions are generally influenced by Spanish Baroque architecture, Spanish Baroque, Spanish Neoclassicism, Neoclassical and Spanish Colonial architecture, Spanish Colonial styles. After independence, preferences gradually shifted toward neoclassical architecture, neoclassical and Art Nouveau styles. Many of these works were influenced by French architecture, French architectural styles. Many government buildings and major cultural institutions were constructed in this period. During the 1960s, the brutalist architecture, brutalist style began appearing in Lima due to the military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado. Examples of this architecture include the Museum of the Nation and the Ministry of Defense (Peru), Ministry of Defense. The early 21st century added skyscraper, glass skyscrapers, particularly around the financial district. The largest parks are in the center area, including the Park of the Reserve, Park of the Exposition, El Campo de Marte, Campo de Marte and University Park. The Park of the Reserve is home to the largest fountain complex in the world known as the Magical Circuit of Water. Many large parks lie outside the city center, including Reducto Park, Pantanos de Villa Wildlife Refuge, El Golf (San Isidro), Parque de las Leyendas (Lima Zoo), El Malecon de Miraflores and the Golf Los Incas. The street grid is laid out with a system of plazas that are similar to roundabouts or Junction (road), junctions. In addition to this practical purpose, plazas serve as principal green spaces and contain monuments, statues and water fountains.


Society and culture

Strongly influenced by Culture of Europe, European, Andes, Andean, Culture of Africa, African and Culture of Asia, Asian culture, Lima is a melting pot, due to colonization, immigration and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous influences. The Historic Centre of Lima, Historic Centre was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. The city is known as the ''Gastronomical Capital of the Americas,'' mixing Spanish cuisine, Spanish, Andes, Andean and Asian cuisine, Asian culinary traditions. Lima's beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the city, are heavily visited during the summer. Restaurants, clubs and hotels serve the beachgoers. Lima has a vibrant and active theater scene, including classic theater, cultural presentations, modern theater, experimental theater, dramas, dance performances and theater for children. Lima is home to the Teatro Municipal (Lima), Municipal Theater, Segura Theater, Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British theater, Theater of the PUCP Cultural Center and the Yuyachkani Theater.


Language

Known as Peruvian Coast Spanish, Lima's Spanish is characterized by the lack of strong intonations as found in many other Spanish-speaking regions. It is heavily influenced by Castile (historical region), Castilian Spanish. Throughout the Viceroyalty era, most of the Spanish nobility based in Lima were originally from Castile. Limean Castillian is also characterized by the lack of ''voseo'', unlike many other Spanish language in the Americas, Hispanic American countries. This is because ''voseo'' was primarily used by Spain's lower socioeconomic classes, a social group that did not begin to appear in Lima until the late colonial era. Limean Spanish is distinguished by its clarity in comparison to other Latin American accents and has been influenced by immigrant groups including Italians, Andalusian people, Andalusians, West Africans, Chinese and Japanese. It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of globalization, as well as by Andean Spanish and Quechuan languages, Quechua, due to migration from the Andean highlands.


Museums

Lima is home to the country's highest concentration of museums, most notably the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú, Museum of Art, the Museo Pedro de Osma, the Museum of Natural History, Lima, Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the Nation, The Sala Museo Oro del Perú Larcomar, the Museum of Italian Art, the Museum of Gold and the Larco Museum. These museums focus on art, Pre-Columbian era, pre-Columbian cultures, natural history, science and religion. The Museum of Italian Art shows European art. File:LimaMuseoNacion.jpg, The Museum of the Nation houses thousands of artifacts spanning the entire span of human occupation in Peru. File:Museodearteitaliano.jpg, Museum of Italian Art It's the only European arts museum in Peru, under the administration of the National Culture Institute. File:Lima museo larco.jpg, Larco Museum is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art that is housed in an 18th-century vice-royal building built over a 7th-century pre-Columbian pyramid. File:Calle Antonio Polo Pueblo Libre.jpg, National Museum of the Archaeology, Anthropology, and History of Peru is the largest and oldest museum in Peru.


Tourism

The Historic Centre of Lima, Historic Centre, made up of the districts of Lima District, Lima and Rímac District, Rímac, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988. Some examples of colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the
Cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...
, Convent of Santo Domingo and the Torre Tagle Palace, Palace of Torre Tagle. A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit. A trip through the central district visits churches dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral and the Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by catacombs. Both contain paintings, Sevilian tile and sculpted wood furnishings. Also notable is the Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas, the point of origin for the Lord of Miracles, whose festivities in the month of October constitute the city's most important religious event. Some sections of the Walls of Lima, Walls remain and are frequented by tourists. These examples of medieval Spanish fortifications were built to defend the city from attacks by pirates and
privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or deleg ...
s. Beaches are visited during the summer months, located along the Pan-American Highway, to the south of the city in districts such as Lurín District, Lurín, Punta Hermosa, Santa María del Mar (Peru), San Bartolo District, San Bartolo, Miraflores beach and Asia District, Peru, Asia. The archeological site Huaca Pucllana is a great
adobe Adobe (; ) is a building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from ...

adobe
and clay pyramid located in the Miraflores District, Lima, Miraflores district, built from seven staggered platforms. It served as an important ceremonial and administrative center for the advancement of the Lima culture. The suburban districts of Cieneguilla, Pachacamac District, Pachacamac and the city of Lurigancho-Chosica, Chosica, are tourist attractions among locals. Because they are located at a higher elevation than Lima, they receive more sunshine in winter months, something that the city frequently lacks under seasonal fog. According to Mastercard's Global Destination Cities Index 2019, Lima is the top destination in South America, with 2.63 million international visitors in 2018 and a growth forecast of 10.00% percent for 2019.


Food

Lima is known as the ''Gastronomical Capital of the Americas''. A center of immigration and the center of the Spanish Viceroyalty, chefs incorporated dishes brought by the conquistadors and waves of immigrants: African, European, Chinese and Japanese. Since the second half of the 20th century, international immigrants were joined by internal migrants from rural areas. Lima cuisines include Creole peoples, Creole food,
Chifa Chifa is culinary tradition based on Chinese Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate ...

Chifa
s, Ceviche, Cebicherias and Pollo a la Brasa, Pollerias. In the 21st century, its restaurants became recognized internationally. In 2007, the Peruvian Society for Gastronomy was born with the objective of uniting Peruvian gastronomy to put together activities that would promote Peruvian food and reinforce the Peruvian national identity. The society, called APEGA, gathered chefs, nutritionists, institutes for gastronomical training, restaurant owners, chefs and cooks, researchers and journalists. They worked with universities, food producers, artisanal fishermen and sellers in food markets. One of their first projects (2008) was to create the largest food festival in Latin America, called Mistura ("mixture" in Portuguese). The fair takes place in September every year. The number of attendees has grown from 30,000 to 600,000 in 2014. The fair congregates restaurants, food producers, bakers, chefs, street vendors and cooking institutes from for ten days to celebrate excellent food. Since 2011, several Lima restaurants have been recognized as among The World's 50 Best Restaurants. In 2016, Central was awarded No. 4 (chefs Virgilio Martínez Véliz, Virgilio Martinez and Pia Leon), Maido was awarded No. 13 (chef Mitsuharu Tsumura) and Astrid & Gaston was awarded No. 30 (chef Diego Muñoz and owned by chef Gaston Acurio). In addition, Central was named No. 1 restaurant in the list of Latin America's 50 Best Restaurants 2015. Out of the 50 best restaurants in Latin America, we find: Central #1, Astrid & Gaston #3, Maido #5, La Mar #12, Malabar #20, Fiesta #31, Osso Carnicería y Salumería #34, La Picanteria #36 and Rafael #50. These restaurants fuse ideas from across the country and the world. Peruvian coffee and chocolate have also won international awards. Lima is the Peruvian city with the greatest variety and where different dishes representing South American cuisine can be found. Ceviche is Peru's national dish and it's made from salt, garlic, onions, hot Peruvian peppers, and raw fish that's all marinated in lime. In Northern Peru, one can find black-oyster ceviche, mixed seafood ceviche, crab and lobster ceviche. In the Andes one can also find trout ceviche and chicken ceviche.


Sports

The city and has sports venues for association football, football, golf, volleyball and basketball, many within private clubs. A popular sport among Limenos is ''Paleta Frontón, fronton'', a racquet sport similar to ''Squash (sport), squash'' invented in Lima. The city is home to seven international-class golf links. Equestrianism is popular in Lima with private clubs as well as the Hipódromo de Monterrico horse racing track. The most popular sport in Lima is Association football, football with professional club teams operating in the city. File:Plaza Acho.jpg, Plaza de toros de Acho, the plaza is classified as a national historic monument. It is the oldest bullring in the Americas. File:PRESIDENTA DEL CONSJEO DE MINISTROS Y MINISTRA DE DEFENSA REALIZARON UN SOBREVUELO POR LA CAPITAL - 51229945883.jpg, Estadio Nacional del Perú, Estadio Nacional of Peru Its current capacity is 40,000 seats as stated by the Peruvian Football Federation. File:Estadio monumental lima.jpg, Estadio Monumental "U" It is the highest capacity soccer stadium in South America and one of the largest in the world. File:Lima Golf Club, San Isidro District.jpg, Lima Golf Club (San Isidro District, Lima, San Isidro District) File:Campo de marte.jpg, Campo de Marte is one of the largest parks in the metropolitan area of Lima. The historic Plaza de toros de Acho, located in the Rímac District, a few minutes from the Plaza Mayor, Lima, Plaza de Armas, holds Bullfighting, bullfights yearly. The season runs from late October to December. Lima is the host of . The 131st IOC Session was held in Lima. The meeting saw Paris elected to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Los Angeles elected to host the 2028 Summer Olympics. Lima will have 2 venues for the 2019 FIFA U-17 World Cup.


Subdivisions

Lima is made up of thirty-one densely populated districts, each headed by a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to these and the twelve outer districts of the Lima province. The city's
historic center History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
is located in the
Cercado de Lima Image:Lima1750.jpg, 350px, Map of Lima in 1750. The Cercado de Lima (''Walled Lima''), Damero de Pizarro (''Pizarro's Checkerboard''), or Lima Cuadrada (''Squared Lima'') is an area of the Historic Centre of Lima, historic center of Lima (capital ...
district, locally known as simply Lima, or as "El Centro" ("Center"). It is home to most of the vestiges the colonial past, the Presidential Palace ( es, Palacio de Gobierno, links=no), the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima, Metropolitan Municipality and ( es, Consejo municipal metropolitano de Lima, links=no), Barrio Chino (Lima), Chinatown and dozens of hotels, some operating and some defunct, that cater to the national and international elite. The upscale San Isidro District, Lima, San Isidro District is the city's financial center. It is home to politicians and celebrities. San Isidro has parks, including Parque El Olivar, which is home to olive trees imported from Spain during the seventeenth century. The Lima Golf Club, a prominent country club, golf club, is located within the district. Another upscale district is Miraflores District, Lima, Miraflores, which has luxury hotels, shops and restaurants. Miraflores has parks and green areas, more than most other districts. Larcomar, a shopping mall and entertainment center built on cliffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean, featuring bars, dance clubs, movie theaters, cafes, shops, boutiques and galleries, is also located in this district. Nightlife, shopping and entertainment center around Parque Kennedy, a park in the heart of Miraflores. La Molina District, La Molina, San Borja District, San Borja, Santiago de Surco -home to the American Embassy and the exclusive Club Polo Lima – are the other three wealthy districts. The middle class districts in Lima are Jesús María District, Lima, Jesús María, Lince District, Lince, Magdalena del Mar, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel District, Lima, San Miguel and Barranco District, Barranco. The most densely populated districts lie in Northern and Southern Lima, where the suburbs of the city begin (Spanish: Cono Norte and Cono Sur (Lima), Cono Sur, respectively) and they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived during the mid- and late- 20th century looking for a better life and economic opportunity, or as refugees of the country's internal conflict with the Shining Path during the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the case of Cono Norte (now called Cono Norte, Lima Norte), shopping malls such as Megaplaza and Royal Plaza were built in the Independencia District, Lima, Independencia district, on the border with the Los Olivos District (the most residential neighborhood in the northern part). Most inhabitants are middle class, middle or lower middle class. Barranco District, Barranco, which borders Miraflores District, Lima, Miraflores by the Pacific Ocean, is the city's bohemian district, home or once home of writers and intellectuals including Mario Vargas Llosa, Chabuca Granda and Alfredo Bryce Echenique. This district has restaurants, music venues called "peñas" featuring the traditional folk music of coastal Peru (in Spanish, "música criolla") and Victorian-style chalets. Along with Miraflores it serves as the home to the foreign nightlife scene.


Education

Home to universities, institutions and schools, Lima has the highest concentration of institutions of higher learning on the continent. Lima is home to the oldest continuously operating higher learning institution in the New World,
National University of San Marcos The National University of San Marcos ( es, link=no, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general p ...
, founded in 1551. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI) was founded in 1876 by Polish engineer Edward Habich and is the country's most important engineering school. Other public universities offer teaching and research, such as the Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (the second largest), the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (where ex-president Alberto Fujimori once taught) and the National University of Callao. The Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, established in 1917, is the oldest private university. Other private institutions include University of the Pacific (Peru), Universidad del Pacifico, Universidad ESAN, Universidad de Lima, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Universidad Cientifica del Sur, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista and Universidad Ricardo Palma. The city and has a total of 8,047 elementary and high schools, both public and private, which educate more than one and a half million students. The number of private schools is much greater than public schools (6,242 vs 1,805) while the average size of private schools is 100 for elementary and 130 for high school. Public schools average 400 students in elementary and 500 in high school. Lima has one of the country's highest levels of enrollment in high school and preschool. 86.1% of high school-age students are in school, vs the national average of 80.7%. In early childhood, the enrollment level in Lima is 84.7%, while the national average is 74.5%. Early childhood enrollment has improved by 12.1% since 2005. In elementary school, the enrollment in Lima is 90.7%, while the national average for this level is 92.9%. The dropout rate for Lima is lower than the national average, except for elementary school, which is higher. In Lima, the dropout rate in elementary is 1.3% and 5.7% in high school, while the national average is 1.2% in elementary and 8.3% in high school. In Peru, students grade second and fourth students take a test called "Evaluacion Censal de Estudiantes" (ECE). The test assesses skills in reading comprehension and math. Scores are grouped in three levels: Below level 1 means that students were not able to respond to even the most simple questions; level 1 means the students did not achieve the expected level in skills but could respond to simple questions; and level 2 means they achieved/exceeded the expected skills for their grade level. In 2012, 48.7% of students in Lima achieved level 2 in reading comprehension compared to 45.3% in 2011. In math, only 19.3% students achieved level 2, with 46.4% at level 1 and 34.2% less than level 1. Even though the results for Math are lower than for reading, in both subject areas performance increased in 2012 over 2011. The city performs much better than the national average in both disciplines. The educational system in Lima is organized under the authority of the "Direccion Regional de Educacion (DRE) de Lima Metropolitana", which is in turn divided into 7 sub-directions or "UGEL" (Unidad de Gestion Educativa Local): UGEL 01 (San Juan de Miraflores, Villa Maria del Triunfo, Villa El Salvador, Lurin, Pachacamac, San Bartolo, Punta Negra, Punta Hermosa, Pucusana, Santa Maria and Chilca), UGEL 02 (Rimac, Los Olivos, Independencia, Rimac and San Martin de Porres), UGEL 03 (Cercado, Lince, Breña, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel, Magdalena, Jesus Maria, La Victoria and San Isidro), UGEL 04 (Comas, Carabayllo, Puente Piedra, Santa Rosa and Ancon), UGEL 05 (San Juan de Lurigancho and El Agustino), UGEL 06 (Santa Anita, Lurigancho-Chosica, Vitarte, La Molina, Cieneguilla and Chaclacayo) and UGEL 07 (San Borja, San Luis, Surco, Surquillo, Miraflores, Barranco and Chorrillos). The UGELes with highest results on the ECE 2012 are UGEL 07 and 03 in both reading comprehension and math. UGEL 07 had 60.8% students achieving level 2 in reading comprehension and 28.6% students achieving level 2 in Math. UGEL 03 had 58.5% students achieve level 2 in reading comprehension and 24.9% students achieving level 2 in math. The lowest achieving UGELs are UGEL 01, 04 and 05. 23% of men have completed university education in Lima, compared to 20% of women. Additionally, 16.2% of men have completed non-university higher education along with 17% of women. The average years of schooling in the city is 11.1 years (11.4 for men and 10.9 for women).


Transportation


Air

Lima is served by Jorge Chávez International Airport, located in
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) ...

Callao
(LIM). It is the country's largest airport hosting the largest number of domestic and international passengers. It serves as the fourth-largest hub in the Latin American air network. Lima possesses five other airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport and runways in Santa María del Mar (Peru), Santa María del Mar, San Bartolo District, San Bartolo and Chilca.


Road

Lima is a major stop on the Pan-American Highway. Because of its location on the country's central coast, Lima is an important junction in Peru's highway system. Three major highways originate in Lima. *The Peru Highway 1, Northern Panamerican Highway extends more than to the border with Ecuador connecting the northern districts and with many major cities along the northern Peruvian coast. *The Central Highway ( es, Carretera Central, links=no) connects the eastern districts and with cities in central Peru. The highway extends with its terminus at the city of Pucallpa near Brazil. *The Peru Highway 1, Southern Panamerican Highway connects the southern districts and to cities on the southern coast. The highway extends to the border with Chile. The city has one big bus terminal next to the mall Plaza Norte. This bus station is the point of departure and arrival point for national and international destinations. Other bus stations serve private bus companies around the city. In addition, informal bus stations are located in the south, center and north of the city.


Maritime

Lima's proximity to the port of
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) ...

Callao
allows Callao to act as the metropolitan area's major port and one of Latin America's largest. Callao hosts nearly all maritime transport for the metropolitan area. A small port in Lurín District, Lurín serves oil tankers due to a nearby refinery. Maritime transport inside Lima city limits is relatively insignificant compared to that of Callao.


Rail

Lima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril Central Andino which runs from Lima through the departments of Junín Region, Junín, Huancavelica Region, Huancavelica, Pasco Region, Pasco and Huánuco Region, Huánuco. Major cities along this line include Huancayo, La Oroya, Huancavelica and Cerro de Pasco. Another inactive line runs from Lima northwards to the city of Huacho. Commuter rail services for Lima are planned as part of the larger Tren de la Costa (Peru), Tren de la Costa project.


Public

Lima's road network is based mostly on large Dual carriageway, divided avenues rather than Controlled-access highway, freeways. Lima operates a network of nine freeways – the Via Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier Prado, Via Expresa Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur, Carretera Central, Via Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche and the Autopista Ramiro Priale. According to a 2012 survey, the majority of the population uses public or collective transportation (75.6%), while 12.3% uses a car, taxi or motorcycle. The urban transport system is composed of over 300 transit routes that are served by buses, microbuses and combis. Taxis are mostly informal and unmetered; they are cheap but feature poor driving habits. Fares are agreed upon before the passenger enters the taxi. Taxis vary in size from small four-door compacts to large vans. They account for a large part of the car stock. In many cases they are just a private car with a taxi sticker on the windshield. Additionally, several companies provide on-call taxi service.


Corredores Complementarios Bus System

The Sistema Integrado de Transporte (which means Integrated Transport System), is a bus system developed by the local government to reorganize the current system of routes that has become chaotic. One of the main goals of the SIT is to reduce the number of urban routes, renew the bus fleet currently operating by many private companies and to reduce (and eventually replace) most "combis" from the city. As of July 2020, SIT currently operates 16 routes: San Martín de Porres District, San Martin de Porres – Santiago de Surco, Surco (107) Ate District, Ate – San Miguel District, Lima, San Miguel (201, 202,204,206 and 209), Rímac District, Rimac – Santiago de Surco, Surco (301,302,303 and 306), San Juan de Lurigancho – Magdalena del Mar District, Magdalena (404,405,409,412), and Lima District, Downtown Lima – San Miguel District, Lima, San Miguel(508)


Colectivos

Colectivos render express service on some major roads. The colectivos signal their specific destination with a sign on their windshield. Their routes are not generally publicitized but are understood by frequent users. The cost is generally higher than public transport; however, they cover greater distances at greater speeds due to the lack of stops. This service is informal and is illegal. Some people in the periphery use so-called "mototaxis" for short distances.


Metropolitan Transport System

The Metropolitan Transport System or El Metropolitano is a new, integrated system, consisting of a network of buses that run in exclusive corridors under the Bus Rapid Transit system (BST). The goal is to reduce passengers' commute times, protect the environment, provide improved security and overall quality of service. Metropolitano was executed with funds from the City of Lima and financing from the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. Metropolitana is the first BRT system to operate with natural gas, seeking to reduce air pollution. This system links the principal points of the Lima Metropolitan Area. The first phase of this project has of line (north) to Chorrillos (south). It began commercial operations on 28 July 2010. Since 2014, Lima Council operates the "Sistema Integrado de Transporte Urbano" (Urban integrated transport system), which comprises buses over Avenida Arequipa. By the end of 2012, the Metropolitano system counted 244 buses in its central routes and 179 buses in its feeding routes. Weekday use averages 437,148 passengers. Usage increased since 2011 by 28.2% for weekdays, 29.1% for Saturdays and 33.3% for Sundays.


Metro

The Lima Metro has twenty six passenger stations, with an average separation of . It begins in the Industrial Park of Villa El Salvador, south of the city, continuing on to Av. Pachacútec in Villa María del Triunfo and then to Av. Los Héroes in San Juan de Miraflores. Afterwards, it continues through Av. Tomás Marsano in Surco to reach Ov. Los Cabitos, to Av. Aviación and then cross the river Rimac to finish, after almost , in the east of the capital in San Juan de Lurigancho. The system operates 24 trains, each with six wagons. Each wagon has the capacity to transport 233 people. The metro system began operating in December 2012 and transported 78,224 people on average on a daily basis.


Other transportation issues

Lima has high traffic congestion, especially at peak hours. 1.397 million vehicles were in use by the end of 2012. The region operates 65.3% of the cars in the country. The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) offered economic incentives for municipalities to implement bicycle routes in their districts. Recreational bike lanes can be found in 39 districts. The Proyecto Especial Metropolitano de Transporte No Motorizado (PEMTNM) estimates that more than a million and a half people used the bike lanes in 2012. The bike lanes ran for . They estimate that the use of the bike lanes prevented the emission of 526 tons of carbon dioxide in 2012. San Borja district was the first to implement a bike-share program called San Borja en Bici. It supplied 200 bicycles and six stations across the district (two of them connecting with the Metro). By December 2012, the program had 2,776 subscribers.


Challenges


Environment


Air

Lima suffers most from air pollution. The sedimentary dust has solid particles that settle as dust on different surfaces or float through the air. The fine particles are the most dangerous given that they are able to damage human respiratory systems. The recommended limit of these particles by the World Health Organization is 5 tons/km2/month. In February 2014, Lima recorded an average of 15.2 tons/km2. The two districts with the highest concentration of sedimentary dust are El Agustino (46.1 tons/km2) and Independencia (25.5 tons/km2) in February 2014. Lima has built billboards which serve as air purifiers.


Water

The permissible limit of lead in the water supply is 0.05 milligrams per liter, according to the Norm ITINTEC. In January 2014, the concentration of minerals in water treatment facilities of SEDAPAL was 0.051 iron, 0.005 lead, 0.0012 cadmium and 0.0810 aluminum. These values increased 15.9% and 33.3% in iron and cadmium with respect to January 2013 and a decrease of 16.7% and 12.4% in lead and aluminum. The values are within the recommended limits.


Solid waste

The amount of solid waste produced per capita in Lima is about per day. In 2012, each resident produced of solid waste. The district municipalities only collect about 67% of the solid waste they generate. The rest ends up in informal landfills, rivers, or the ocean. Three municipalities recycle 20% or more of their waste. COVID-19 Lima has a population of about 10 million people. This equates to one-third of the overall population of the nation. Lima was subjected to a lengthy period of confinement or quarantine that lasted more than four months. However, in May 2020, the process of restoring activities began as part of the national government's economic reactivation strategy. Lima's green recovery is centred on bringing services closer to the most vulnerable people, with the goal of creating a green, wealthy, and equitable city for all. The municipality has an aim of implementing sustainable infrastructure to limit the development of COVID-19 through the execution of 46 km of rising bike routes. Lima is one of over 10,000 cities from all around the world that make up the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy, Global Covenant of Mayors.


Access to basic services

In Lima, 93% of households have access to water supply in their homes. In addition, 92% of homes connect with sewage systems. 99.6% of homes have grid electric service. Although most households have water and sewage systems, some are available for only a few hours a day.


Security

The perception of security varies by district. For example, San Isidro has the lowest perception of insecurity (21.4%), while Rimac has the highest perception of insecurity (85%), according to a 2012 survey. The five districts with the lowest perception of insecurity are San Isidro, San Borja, Miraflores, La Molina and Jesus Maria. The districts with the highest perception of insecurity are Rimac, San Juan de Miraflores, La Victoria, Comas and Ate. Overall, 40% of the population in Lima above 15 years old has been a crime victim. The younger population (ages 15 to 29 years old) has the highest victimization rate (47.9%). In 2012, citizens reported thefts (47.9%): in homes or establishments (19.4%), robbery or attack (14.9%), gang aggression (5.7%), among others in lesser frequency. The districts with the highest level of victimization are Rimac, El Agustino, Villa El Salvador, San Juan de Lurigancho and Los Olivos. The safest districts by level of victimization are Lurin, Lurigancho-Chosica, San Borja, Magdalena and Surquillo. These districts do not necessarily correspond to the districts with highest or lowest perception of insecurity. While the police force is nationally controlled and funded, each district in Lima has a community policing structure called Serenazgo. The quantity of Serenazgos officials and resources varies by district. For example, Villa Maria del Triunfo has 5,785 citizens per official. Twenty-two districts in Lima have a ratio above 1000 citizens per Serenazgo official, while 14 districts have ratios below 200 citizens per official, including Miraflores with 119 and San Isidro with 57. The satisfaction with the Serenazgos also varies greatly by district. The highest satisfaction rates can be found in San Isidro (88.3%), Miraflores (81.6%), San Borja (77%) and Surco (75%). The lowest satisfaction rates can be found in Villa Maria del Triunfo (11%), San Juan de Miraflores (14.8%), Rimac (16.3%) and La Victoria (20%).


Notable people


Twin towns – sister cities

Lima is Sister city, twinned with: * Akhisar, Turkey * Asunción, Paraguay * Austin, Texas, Austin, United States * Beijing, China * Bogotá, Colombia * Bordeaux, France *
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, Argentina * Cleveland, United States * Dhaka, Bangladesh * Guadalajara, Mexico * Karaçoban, Turkey * Kyiv, Ukraine * Madrid, Spain * Manila, Philippines * Miami, United States * Oruro, Bolivia, Oruro, Bolivia * Pescara, Italy * Quito, Ecuador * San Salvador, El Salvador * Santa Ana, Costa Rica, Santa Ana, Costa Rica *
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
, Brazil * Shanghai, China * Stamford, Connecticut, Stamford, United States * Taipei, Taiwan


See also

*Largest cities in the Americas *List of people from Lima *List of sites of interest in the Lima Metropolitan area


References


Works cited

* * * * * * * * *


Further reading


General

*''Nota etimológica: El topónimo Lima'', Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú *''Lima Monumento Histórico'', Margarita Cubillas Soriano, Lima, 1996


History

*Higgins, James (editor). ''The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts'', 2014. Online at https://sites.google.com/site/jhemanperu *Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. ''Lima Metropolitana perfil socio-demográfico''. Lima: INEI, 1996.


Demographics

*Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, ''Perfil Sociodemográfico del Perú''. Lima: INEI, 2008. *United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, ''Urban Agglomerations 2007''. New York (June 2008).


External links


Municipality of Lima

1.40 gigapixel image of Lima
* {{Authority control Lima, Capitals in South America Cities in Peru Lima Province Populated coastal places in Peru Populated places established in 1535 1535 establishments in the Spanish Empire Buildings and structures in Lima