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it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 = , demographics1_info2 = , demographics1_title3 = , demographics1_info3 = , timezone1 =
CET CET or cet may refer to: Places * Cet, Albania * Cet, standard astronomical abbreviation for the constellation Cetus * Colchester Town railway station (National Rail code CET), in Colchester, England Arts, entertainment, and media * Comcast Enter ...
, utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = CEST , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = , postal_code = , area_code_type =
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined ...
, area_code = IT-42 , blank_name_sec1 =
GDP (nominal) Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect di ...
, blank_info_sec1 = €49.9 billion (2018) , blank1_name_sec1 =
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time peri ...
, blank1_info_sec1 = €32,100 (2018) , blank2_name_sec1 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(2019) , blank2_info_sec1 = 0.898
· 10th of 21 , blank_name_sec2 =
NUTS Region
NUTS Region
, blank_info_sec2 = ITC , website
Regione.Liguria.it
, footnotes = Liguria (, ; lij, Ligûria ) is a
region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wo ...

region
of north-western
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
; its
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
is
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
. Its territory is crossed by the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt i ...

Alps
and the
Apennines The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which woul ...
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usu ...
and is roughly coextensive with the former territory of the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were th ...
. Liguria is bordered by
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
(
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (; oc, Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur, , or , ; commonly shortened to PACA; en, Provence-Alps-French Riviera, italic=yes; also known as Région Sud) is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France France ...
) to the west,
Piedmont Piedmont ( ; it, Piemonte, ; , , and frp, Piemont, , , french: Piémont) is a region in northwest , one of the . It borders the region to the south, the and regions to the east and the region to the northwest; it also borders to the northe ...

Piedmont
to the north, and
Emilia-Romagna egl, Emigliàn (masculine) egl, Emiglièna (feminine) rgn, Rumagnòl (masculine) rgn, Rumagnòla (feminine) it, Emiliano (masculine) it, Emiliana (feminine) or it, Romagnolo (masculine) it, Romagnola (feminine) , population_note = ...

Emilia-Romagna
and
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demograp ...
to the east. It lies on the
Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin ...
, and has a population of 1,557,533. The region is part of the
Alps–Mediterranean Euroregion The Alps–Mediterranean Euroregion In Politics of Europe, European politics, the term Euroregion usually refers to a transnational co-operation structure between two (or more) contiguous territories located in different European country, countrie ...
.


Etymology

The name ''Liguria'' predates
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
and is of obscure origin. The Latin
adjectives In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
(as in ) and ''Liguscus'' reveal the original root of the name, ''ligusc-'': in the Latin name -sc- was shortened to -s-, and later turned into the -r- of , according to rhotacism. Compare grc, λίγυς, translit=Lígus, translation=a Ligurian, a person from Liguria whence . The name derives from the ancient
Ligures The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English language, English: Ligurians; Ancient Greek, Greek: ) were an ancient people after whom Liguria, a region of present-day Northern Italy, north-western Italy, is named. File:Meyers b9 s0067b.jpg, Roman ...
people, although the territory of this people was much larger than the current administrative region; it included all of North-west Italy south to the
Po river The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; grc, Πάδος, Pádos, or , ; Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps; it, Alpi Cozie , photo=Monviso_Cottian_ ...
, and south-eastern
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
. Some scholars see a possible connection with
Old European languages The Paleo-European languages, or Old European languages, are the mostly unknown languages that were spoken in Europe prior to the spread of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European and Uralic languages, Uralic families caused by the Bronze Age i ...
, as the formant -sc- (-sk-) is also present in names like
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
,
Euskadi The Basque Country (; eu, Euskadi ; es, País Vasco ; french: Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community ( eu, Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; es, Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkid ...

Euskadi
(the
endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
of the Basques), and Gascon. Since these are all coastal regions, the shared formant may relate to a shared descent from pre-Indo-European, maritime peoples, and/or the hypothetical
Tyrsenian
Tyrsenian
and Vasconic language families respectively. This argument is weakened, however, by the fact that the name Etruscan is a relatively late
exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
and the relevant endonym, used of the Etruscans themselves, was ''Rasenna'' or ''Raśna''. (In Greek this mutated into ''Tursēnoi'' and ''Tyrrēnoi''; in Latin it became ''Etruria'' and ''Tuscia'', whence the name of the modern
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demograp ...
or ''Toscana''.)


Geography

The narrow strip of land is bordered by the
sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
, the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt i ...

Alps
and the
Apennine Mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which wou ...
. Some mountains rise above ; the
watershed Watershed is a hydrological term, which has been adopted in other fields in a more or less figurative sense. It may refer to: Hydrology * Drainage divide, the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins ** European watershed * Drainage basin, ...
line runs at an average altitude of about . The highest point of the region is the summit of
Monte Saccarello , photo = Vetta del Saccarello.JPG , photo_caption = , elevation_m = 2201 , elevation_ref = ''Alpi Marittime e Liguri'', 1:50.000 map n.8, Istituto Geografico Centrale, I.G.C. (Turin) , prominence_m = 165 , prominence_ref= , range = Lig ...
(). Liguria is the third smallest Italian region after
Aosta Valley , Valdostan or Valdotainian it, Valdostano (man) it, Valdostana (woman)french: Valdôtain (man)french: Valdôtaine (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = Official languages , population_blank1 = Italian Italian ...

Aosta Valley
and
Molise Molise (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Molisano, Mulise) is a Regions of Italy, region of Southern Italy. Until 1963, it formed part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise, alongside the region of Abruzzo. The split, which did not become effect ...

Molise
, but is also one of the most densely populated, with a
population density upright=2.05, Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 2005 Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the ri ...

population density
of 287 ab/km², much higher than the national average, and is fourth place after
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
,
Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative , in the of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming more than one-sixth of Italy's population, and more than a fifth of ...
and
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
. However, there is much difference between inland mountain areas and coastal areas. The region is crossed east to west by the
Ligurian Alps, it, Alpi Liguri , photo=AlpiLiguri0001.jpg , photo_caption= , country_type= Countries , country= , subdivision1_type= regions of Italy, Region, regions of France, Région , subdivision1= , parent= Alps , borders_on= , geology= , orog ...
and the
Ligurian ApenninesLigurian may refer to: * Ligurian, pertaining to modern Liguria in Italy * Ligurian, pertaining to the ancient Ligures * Ligurian language, a modern Romance language spoken in parts of Italy, France, Monaco and Argentina * Ligurian (ancient language) ...
with form an interrupted chain, but discontinuous in its morphology, with stretches where the Alpine/Apennine ridge is extremely compact and high aligning very high mountain groups (north to Ventimiglia, a series of massifs which became French after the Second World War, rises up to altitudes of 2700-3000 m) while in other stretches (for example in the hinterland of Savona and Genoa) the mountain barrier is not very high and deeply crossed by short valleys and passes that do not reach 500 m above sea level ( Bochetta di Altare, Passo dei Giovi, Crocetta d'Orero). The winding arched extension goes from
Ventimiglia Ventimiglia (; lij, label= Intemelio, Ventemiglia , lij, label= Genoese, Vintimiggia; french: Vintimille ; oc, label= Provençal, Ventemilha ) is a city, ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity ...
to
La Spezia La Spezia (, or , ; in the local Spezzino dialect) is the capital city of the province of La Spezia and is located at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Italy. La Spezia is the second largest city ...

La Spezia
. Of this, are mountainous (65% of the total) and are hills (35% of the total). Liguria's natural reserves cover 12% of the entire region, or of land. They are made up of one national reserve, six large parks, two smaller parks and three nature reserves. The continental shelf is very narrow and so steep it descends almost immediately to considerable depths along its coastline. Except for the
Portovenere Porto Venere (; until 1991 ''Portovenere''; lij, Pòrtivene) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , an ...

Portovenere
and
Portofino Portofino (; ) is an Italian fishing village and holiday resort famous for its picturesque harbour and historical association with celebrity and artistic visitors. It is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, ...

Portofino
promontories, the coast is generally not very jagged and is often high. At the mouths of the biggest watercourses are small beaches, but there are no deep bays and natural harbours except at
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
and
La Spezia La Spezia (, or , ; in the local Spezzino dialect) is the capital city of the province of La Spezia and is located at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Italy. La Spezia is the second largest city ...

La Spezia
. The hills lying immediately beyond the coast together with the sea account for a mild climate year-round. Average winter temperatures are and summer temperatures are , which make for a pleasant stay even in the dead of winter. Rainfall can be abundant at times, as mountains very close to the coast create an orographic effect. Genoa and
La Spezia La Spezia (, or , ; in the local Spezzino dialect) is the capital city of the province of La Spezia and is located at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Italy. La Spezia is the second largest city ...

La Spezia
can see up to of rain in a year; other areas instead show the normal Mediterranean rainfall of annually.


History


Prehistory and Roman times

According to classical sources, the Ligurians (
Ligures The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English language, English: Ligurians; Ancient Greek, Greek: ) were an ancient people after whom Liguria, a region of present-day Northern Italy, north-western Italy, is named. File:Meyers b9 s0067b.jpg, Roman ...
) once lived in a far broader territory than present-day Liguria. For example, the Greek colony of
Massalia Massalia (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10 ...

Massalia
, modern
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the of the and , France. Situated in the , it is located on the coast of the , part of the , near the mouth of the . Marseille is the second-largest city in Franc ...

Marseille
, was recorded to lie in Ligurian territory. During the first
Punic War The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146BC fought by the states of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune ...
, the ancient Ligurians were divided, some of them siding with
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
, others, including the inhabitants of Stalia (later
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
), with Rome. Under
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...

Augustus
, Liguria was designated a
region of Italy In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
(''Regio IX Liguria'') stretching from the coast to the banks of the
Po River The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; grc, Πάδος, Pádos, or , ; Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps; it, Alpi Cozie , photo=Monviso_Cottian_ ...
. The great Roman roads (Aurelia and Julia Augusta on the coast, Postumia and Aemilia Scauri towards the inland) helped strengthen territorial unity and increase communication and trade. Important towns developed on the coast, of which evidence is left in the ruins of
Albenga Albenga ( lij, Arbenga; la, Albingaunum) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ma ...
, Ventimiglia and Luni.


Middle Ages

Between the 4th and the 10th centuries, Liguria was dominated by the
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...
s, the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by G ...
of King
Rothari Italy at the time of Rothari. Rothari (or Rothair), ( 606 – 652), of the Harodingi, house of Arodus, was king of the Lombards from 636 to 652; previously he had been duke of Brescia. He succeeded Arioald, who was an Arianism, Arian like himself, ...
(about 641) and the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
(about 774). It was also invaded by
Saracen Saracens () were primarily , but also , or other Muslims as referred to by Christian writers in Europe during the . The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the , Greek and Latin writings used the term to refer to ...
and
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
raiders. In the 10th century, once the danger of pirates decreased, the Ligurian territory was divided into three marches: Obertenga (east), Arduinica (west) and Aleramica (centre). In the 11th and 12th centuries, the marches were split into fees, and then with the strengthening of the bishops' power, the feudal structure began to partially weaken. The main Ligurian towns, especially on the coast, became city-states, over which
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
soon extended its rule. Inland, however, fiefs belonging to noble families survived for a very long time. Between the 11th century (when the Genoese ships played a major role in the first crusade, carrying knights and troops to the Middle-East for a fee) and the 15th century, the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were th ...
experienced an extraordinary political and commercial success (mainly spice trades with the Orient). It was one of the most powerful maritime republics in the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
from the 12th to the 14th century: after the decisive victory in the
Battle of Meloria (1284) The Battle of Meloria was fought near the islet of Meloria in the Ligurian Sea Image:Ligurian Sea map.png, 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Se ...
, it acquired control over the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
and was present in the nerve centres of power during the last phase of the Byzantine empire, having colonies up to
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
and
Crimean Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula located on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost ...
. After the introduction of the title of doge for life (1339) and the election of
Simone Boccanegra Simone Boccanegra (; lij, Scimon Boccaneigra ; died 1363) was the first Doge of Genoa. He became doge in 1339, but was ousted from power six years later. He regained the position in 1356, retaining it until his death in 1363. His story was popul ...
, Genoa resumed its struggles against the Marquis of Finale and the Counts of
Laigueglia Laigueglia (; lij, L'Aigheuja, ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Savona, in Liguria (northern Italy in 1812), nearby the Capo Mele Lighthouse. International relations Twin towns – Sister cities Laigueglia is Twin towns and sister ...

Laigueglia
and it conquered again the territories of Finale,
Oneglia Oneglia (''Inéja'' in Ligurian) is a former town in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by th ...
and
Porto Maurizio Porto or Oporto () is the List of cities in Portugal, second-largest city in Portugal and one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas. Porto city is small compared to its metropolitan area, with a population of 237,559 people. Porto's metrop ...
. In spite of its military and commercial successes, Genoa fell prey to the internal factions which put pressure on its political structure. Due to the vulnerable situation, the rule of the republic went to the hands of the Visconti family of
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
. After their expulsion by the popular forces under Boccanegra's lead, the republic remained in Genoese hands until 1396, when the internal instability led the doge
Antoniotto Adorno The Most Serene Prince Antoniotto Adorno (1340 – Finale Ligure, 1398) was the 6th Doge of Genoa, doge of the Republic of Genoa and rose four times to this supposedly lifelong position, making him the person most often elected to the Doge office ...
to surrender the title of Seignior of Genoa to the king of France. The French were driven away in 1409 and Liguria went back under Milanese control in 1421, thus remaining until 1435.


Early modern

The alternation of French and Milanese dominions over Liguria went on until the first half of the 16th century. The French influence ceased in 1528, when
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of Melfi (; lij, Drîa Döia ; 30 November 146625 November 1560) was a Genoese statesman, ' and admiral, playing a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime. As the ruler of Genoa, Doria reformed the Republic' ...

Andrea Doria
allied with the powerful king of Spain and imposed an aristocratic government, which gave the republic relative stability for about 250 years. Genoese explorer
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
's speculative proposal to reach the
East Indies 300px, The East Indies (or simply the Indies), is a term used in historical narratives of the Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), ...
by sailing westward received the support of the Spanish crown, which saw in it an opportunity to gain the upper hand over rival powers in the contest for the lucrative
spice trade The spice trade involved historical civilizations in Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified b ...
with
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
. During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named ''San Salvador''. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the
Greater
Greater
and
Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Antillas Menores; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, Antias Menor; nl, Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, ...
, as well as the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
coast of
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
and Central America, claiming them for the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
. The value of trade routes through Genoa to the Near East declined during the
Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period approximately from the 15th century to the 18th century ...
, when Portuguese explorers discovered routes to Asia around the
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a Hood (headgear), hood in the Chaperon (headgear), ...

Cape of Good Hope
. The international crises of the seventeenth century, which ended for Genoa with the 1684
bombardment A bombardment is an attack by artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to ...
by
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
's fleet, restored French influence over the republic. Consequently, the Ligurian territory was crossed by the
Piedmontese Piedmontese (autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 ...
and
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
armies when these two states came into conflict with France. Austria occupied Genoa in 1746, but the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
troops were driven away by a popular insurrection. Napoleon's first Italian campaign marked the end of the oligarchic Genoese state, which was transformed into the
Ligurian Republic The Ligurian Republic ( it, Repubblica Ligure) was a French client republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during th ...
, modelled on the
French Republic France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of severa ...
. After the union of Oneglia and Loano (1801), Liguria was annexed to the
French Empire#REDIRECT French Empire {{Redirect shell , {{R from ambiguous page {{R from other capitalisation ...
(1805) and divided by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
into three departments: Montenotte (department), with capital
Savona Savona (; local lij, Sann-a , lij, label=Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also * Genovese, a surname * ...

Savona
, Gênes, with capital
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
and the department of the Apennines, with the capital Chiavari.


Late modern and contemporary

After a short period of independence in 1814, the Congress of Vienna (1815) decided that Liguria should be annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia. The Genoese uprising against the House of Savoy in 1821, which was put down with great bloodshed, aroused the population's national sentiments. Some of the most prestigious figures of ''Risorgimento'' were born in Liguria (Giuseppe Mazzini, Goffredo Mameli, Mameli, Nino Bixio). Italian patriot and general Giuseppe Garibaldi, who was born in the neighbouring Nice (then part of the Sardinian state), started his Expedition of the Thousand on the evening of 5 May 1860 from a rock in Quarto, a quarter of Genoa. In late 19th and early 20th century, the region's economic growth was remarkable: steel mills and ship yards flourished along the coast from Imperia to
La Spezia La Spezia (, or , ; in the local Spezzino dialect) is the capital city of the province of La Spezia and is located at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Italy. La Spezia is the second largest city ...

La Spezia
, while the port of Genoa became the main commercial hub of industrializing Northern Italy. During the tragic period of the Second World War, Liguria experienced heavy bombings, hunger and two years of occupation by the Nazi, German troops, against whom a liberation struggle was led—among the most effective in Italy. When Allied troops eventually entered Genoa, they were welcomed by Italian partisans who, in a successful insurrection, had freed the city and accepted the surrender of the local German command. For this feat, the city has been awarded the gold medal for military valour.


Demographics

The population density of Liguria is much higher than the national average (300 inhabitants per km2, or 770 per mi2), being only less than
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
's,
Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative , in the of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming more than one-sixth of Italy's population, and more than a fifth of ...
's and
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
's. In the Metropolitan City of Genoa, it reaches almost 500 inhabitants per km2, whereas in the provinces of province of imperia, Imperia and province of savona, Savona it is less than 200 inhabitants per km2. The Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur, noting it from sea in 1436, remarked "To one who does not know it, the whole coast from Savona to Genoa looks like one continuous city, so well inhabited is it, and so thickly studded with houses," and today over 80% of the regional population still lives permanently near to the coast, where all the four major cities above 50,000 are located:
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
(pop. 610,000),
La Spezia La Spezia (, or , ; in the local Spezzino dialect) is the capital city of the province of La Spezia and is located at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Italy. La Spezia is the second largest city ...

La Spezia
(pop. 95,000),
Savona Savona (; local lij, Sann-a , lij, label=Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also * Genovese, a surname * ...

Savona
(pop. 62,000) and Sanremo (pop. 56,000). The population of Liguria has been declining from 1971 to 2001, most markedly in the cities of Genoa, Savona and La Spezia. The age pyramid now looks more like a 'mushroom' resting on a fragile base. The negative trend has been partially interrupted only in the last decade when, after a successful economic recovery, the region has attracted consistent fluxes of immigrants. , the Italian national institute of statistics, ISTAT, estimated that 90,881 foreign-born immigrants live in Liguria, equal to 5.8% of the total regional population.


Economy

Ligurian agriculture has increased its specialisation pattern in high-quality products (flowers, Italian wine, wine, olive oil) and has thus managed to maintain the gross value-added per worker at a level much higher than the national average (the difference was about 42% in 1999). The value of flower production represents over 75% of the agriculture sector turnover, followed by animal farming (11.2%) and vegetable growing (6.4%). Steel, once a major industry during the booming 1950s and 1960s, phased out after the late 1980s crisis, as Italy moved away from the heavy industry to pursue more technologically advanced and less polluting production. So the Ligurian industry has turned towards a widely diversified range of high-quality and high-tech products (food, shipbuilding, electrical engineering and electronics, petrochemicals, aerospace etc.). Nonetheless, the region still maintains a flourishing shipbuilding sector (yacht construction and maintenance, cruise liner building, military shipyards). In the services sector, the gross value-added per worker in Liguria is 4% above the national average. This is due to the increasing diffusion of modern technologies, particularly in commerce and tourism.


Transport

A good motorways network ( in 2000) makes communications with the border regions relatively easy. The main motorway is located along the coastline, connecting the main ports of Nice (in France), Savona, Genoa and La Spezia. The number of passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants (524 in 2001) is below the national average (584). In average, about 17 million tonnes of cargo are shipped from the main ports of the region and about 57 million tonnes enter the region. The Port of Genoa, with a trade volume of 58.6 million tonnes it is the first port of Italy, the second in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units after the port of transshipment of Gioia Tauro, with a trade volume of 1.86 million TEUs. The main destinations for the cargo-passenger traffic are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Barcelona and Canary Islands.


Economical Statistic

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the region was 49.9 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 2.8% of Italy's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 32,000 euros or 106% of the EU27 average in the same year. The unemployment rate stood at 8.3% in 2020 and was slightly lower than the national average.


Government and politics

The politics of Liguria takes place in a framework of a Presidential system, presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council. The Regional Government is presided by the Governor, who is elected for a five-year term, and is composed by the President and the Ministers, who are currently 11, including a vice president. The Regional Council of is composed of 40 members and it is elected for a five-year term, but, if the President suffers a vote of no confidence, resigns or dies, under the ''simul stabunt vel simul cadent'' clause (introduced in 1999), also the council will be dissolved and there will be a fresh election. In the last regional election, which took place on 31 May 2015, Giovanni Toti (Forza Italia) defeated Raffaella Paita (Democratic Party (Italy), Democratic Party), after 10 years of regional left-wing government by Claudio Burlando (Democratic Party (Italy), Democratic Party). At both national and local level, Liguria is considered a swing region, where no one of the two political blocs is dominant, with the two eastern provinces leaning left, and the two western provinces right. Liguria is one of 20 regions (administrative divisions) of Italy.


Administrative divisions

Liguria is divided into four provinces:


Culture


Cuisine

Liguria is the original source of pesto, one of the most popular sauces in Italian cuisine, made with fresh basil (herb), basil, pine kernels, olive oil, garlic and Parmesan cheese. Seafood is a major staple of Mediterranean cuisine, the Ligurian variety being no exception, as the sea has been part of the region's culture since its beginning. ''Ciuppin'' soup is made from fish leftovers and stale bread, flavoured with white wine, onion, and garlic. Vegetables, especially beans, are important in Ligurian cooking. ''Mesciua'' soup is made from beans, olive oil and farro (old kinds of wheat including emmer). The Badalucco, Conio and Pigna Beans are a Slow Food Presidium Ligurian pasta includes ''trenette'' and ''trofie'', and the fresh pasta pockets called ''pansòuti''.


Sports

The two main men's football clubs are Genoa C.F.C. and U.C. Sampdoria, which have played for decades in Serie A. They share the Stadio Luigi Ferraris, and face each other in the Derby della Lanterna. The third most successful club is Spezia Calcio, which debuted in Serie A in 2020. Pro Recco is a men's water polo club that has a record 33 Serie A1 (water polo), Serie A1 titles and 9 LEN Champions League titles. The Milan–San Remo is one of the most prestigious one-day road cycling races in the world. The Rallye Sanremo auto race was part of the World Rally Championship from 1973 to 2003.


See also

* Italian Riviera


References


External links


Official Region website

Video Introduction to Liguria
{{coord, 44, 27, 00, N, 8, 46, 00, E, display=title Liguria, Regions of Italy NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Wine regions of Italy