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Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
. It may be undertaken for several reasons, including to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for admission to legal practice in a particular jurisdiction, to provide a greater breadth of knowledge to those working in other professions such as politics or business, to provide current lawyers with advanced training or greater specialisation, or to update lawyers on recent developments in the law. Legal education can take the form of a variety of programs, including: * Primary
degrees in law
degrees in law
, which may be studied at either undergraduate or graduate level depending on the country. * Advanced academic degrees in law, such as
masters Master or masters may refer to: Ranks or titles *Ascended master, a term used in the Theosophical religious tradition to refer to spiritually enlightened beings who in past incarnations were ordinary humans *Grandmaster (chess), National Master, I ...
and doctoral degrees. * Practice or training courses, which prospective lawyers are required to pass in some countries before they may enter practice. * Applied or specialised law accreditation, which are less formal than degree programs but which provide specialised certification in particular areas. * Continuing legal education, which do not lead to a qualification but provide practicing lawyers with updates on recent legal developments.


History

Early Western legal education emerged in Republican Rome. Initially those desiring to be advocates would train in schools of
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
. Around the third century BCE Tiberius Coruncanius began teaching law as a separate discipline. His public legal instruction had the effect of creating a class of legally skilled non-priests (''jurisprudentes''), a sort of consultancy. After Coruncanius' death, instruction gradually became more formal, with the introduction of books on law beyond the then scant official Roman legal texts. It is possible that Coruncanius allowed members of the public and students to attend consultations with citizens in which he provided legal advice. These consultations were probably held outside the College of Pontiffs, and thus accessible to all those interested. Canon and ecclesiastical law were studied in universities in medieval Europe. However, institutions providing education in the domestic law of each country emerged later in the eighteenth century. In England, legal education emerged in the late thirteenth century through apprenticeships. The Inns of Court controlled admission to practice and also provided some legal training. English universities had taught Roman and canon law for some time, but formal degrees focused on the native common law did not emerge until the 1800s.


Forms


Primary degrees in law

In many countries, including most of those in the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...

Commonwealth of Nations
, the principal law degree is an
undergraduate degree An undergraduate degree (also called first degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usual ...
, usually known as a
Bachelor of Laws Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guard ...
(LLB). Graduates of such a program are eligible to become lawyers by passing the country's equivalent of a bar exam. In these countries, graduate law programs are advanced degrees which allow for more in-depth study or specialisation. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
and Canada, the primary law degree is a graduate degree known as the
Juris Doctor The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is ...
(JD). Students may pursue such a degree only after completing an undergraduate degree, usually a
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
. The undergraduate degree can be in any field, though most American lawyers hold bachelor's degrees in the humanities and social sciences. American law schools are usually an autonomous entity within a larger university. Primary degrees in law are offered by
law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...
s, known in some countries as faculties of law. Law schools may have varying degrees of autonomy within a particular university or, in some countries, can be entirely independent of any other post-secondary educational institution.


Advanced degrees in law

Higher degrees allow for more advanced academic study. These include the Masters of Law (LLM) by coursework or research, and doctoral degrees such as the
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
or SJD. Practitioners may undertake a Masters of Law by coursework to obtain greater specialisation in an area in which they practice. In many common law countries, a higher degree in law is common and expected for legal academics. In addition, incorporating practical skills is beneficial for practitioners seeking higher degrees to better prepare them in their respective legal area of practice. In contrast, higher degrees in law are uncommon in the United States, even within the academy.


Practice or training courses

In some countries, including the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Canada and some states of Australia, the final stages of vocational legal education required to qualify to practice law are carried out outside the university system. The requirements for qualification as a
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialis ...

barrister
or as a
solicitor A solicitor is a legal practitioner A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. ...
are covered in those articles.


Applied law programs or specialist accreditation

Legal education providers in some countries offer courses which lead to a certificate or accreditation in applied legal practice or a particular specialisation.


Continuing legal education

Continuing legal education (also known as continuing professional development) programs are informal seminars or short courses which provide legal practitioners with an opportunity to update their knowledge and skills throughout their legal career. In some jurisdictions, it is mandatory to undertake a certain amount of continuing legal education each year.


By country


Australia

In Australia most universities offer law as an undergraduate-entry course (LLB, 4 years), or combined degree course (e.g., BSc/LLB, BCom/LLB, BA/LLB, BE/LLB, 5–6 years). Some of these also offer a three-year postgraduate Juris Doctor (JD) program.
Bond University Bond University is Australia's first private not-for-profit university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and researc ...

Bond University
in Queensland runs three full semesters each year, teaching from mid-January to late December. This enables the Bond University Law Faculty to offer the LLB in the usual 8 semesters, but only 2 years. They also offer a JD in two years. The
University of Technology, Sydney A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavio ...
will from 2010 offer a 2-year accelerated JD program. In 2008, the
University of Melbourne The University of Melbourne is a public university, public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria (Australia), Victoria. Its Parkville Campus ( ...

University of Melbourne
introduced the
Melbourne Model The Melbourne Model is a standardised academic degree structure which was introduced at the University of Melbourne in 2008. The Melbourne Model is designed to align itself "''with the best of European and Asian practice and North American tra ...
, whereby Law is only available as a graduate degree, with students having to have completed a three-year bachelor's degree (usually an Arts degree) before being eligible. Students in combined degree programs would spend the first 3 years completing their first bachelor's degree together with some preliminary law subjects, and then spend the last 2–3 years completing the law degree (JD). Alternatively, one can finish any bachelor's degree, and providing their academic results are high, apply for graduate-entry into a 3-year LLB program. Australian Law Schools include those at the University of New England,
Australian Catholic University The Australian Catholic University (ACU) is a public university in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian ...
,
Australian National University The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Australia as t ...
,
La Trobe University La Trobe University is a public university, public research university based in Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Its main campus is located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora, Victoria, Bundoora. The university was establish ...

La Trobe University
,
Flinders University Flinders University is a in , . Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of British navigator , who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century. Flinders is a and a member of the (IRU) Group. Academically, ...
,
Bond University Bond University is Australia's first private not-for-profit university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and researc ...

Bond University
,
MacquarieMacquarie may refer to: People * Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of the British colony of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821. * Elizabeth Macquarie Campbell, Lachlan Macquarie's second wife Locations * Division of Macquarie, an electoral district in the ...
, Monash,
DeakinDeakin may refer to: Places *Deakin University, Victoria, Australia *Deakin, Australian Capital Territory, suburb of Canberra, Australia *Deakin, Western Australia, siding on the Trans-Australian Railway *Division of Deakin, Australian Electora ...
, UNSW,
University of Tasmania The University of Tasmania (UTAS) is a public research university, primarily located in Tasmania, Australia. Founded in 1890, it is Australia's fourth oldest university. Christ College (University of Tasmania), Christ College, one of the unive ...
,
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...
, Victoria University,
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...
,
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...
,
Queensland University of Technology Queensland University of Technology (QUT) is a public university, public research university located in the Urban area, urban coastal city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. QUT is located on two campuses in the Brisbane area viz. Gardens Poi ...

Queensland University of Technology
, the
University of Queensland , mottoeng = By means of knowledge and hard work , established = , endowment = A$224.3 million , budget = A$2.1 billion , type = Public university, Public research university , chancellor = Peter Varghese , vice_chancellor = Deborah Te ...
, the
University of Western Australia The University of Western Australia (UWA) is a public research university in the Australian state of Western Australia. The university's main campus is in Perth, the state capital, with a secondary campus in Albany, Western Australia, Albany an ...

University of Western Australia
and the
University of Canberra The University of Canberra (UC) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English i ...
.


Canada

The professional law degree in Canada is the
Bachelor of Laws Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guard ...
(LL.B.) /
Juris Doctor The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is ...
(J.D.) for
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
jurisdictions, and the Bachelor of Laws, Licentiate of Law or Bachelor of Civil Law (LL.B./LL.L./B.C.L.) for Quebec, a
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
jurisdiction. Quebec civil law degrees (and the transsystemic B.C.L../J.D. reviously called B.C.L./LL.B.program at
McGill University McGill University is a public university, public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1821 by royal charter granted by George IV, King George IV,Frost, Stanley Brice. ''McGill University, Vol. I. For the Advanceme ...
) are undergraduate-entry—students can be admitted directly after Quebec's pre-university college program (). Admittance to an LL.B. (also called J.D.) program in common law requires at least two years of
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
education, although a completed undergraduate degree is usually required. In practice, the vast majority of those who are admitted have already earned at least an undergraduate (bachelor's) degree. The change in academic
nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, a ...

nomenclature
re-designating the common law degree as a J.D. rather than an LL.B., currently completed or under consideration at a number of Canadian schools, has not affected the level of instruction—it is the same degree.


China


Germany

In Germany, law degrees historically did not exist and are unnecessary for legal practice. However, those who wish to enter the legal profession must still study in universities, for which the standard curriculum length is 4 and 1/2 years. Some law schools have also begun to award the Diplom-Jurist degree. German students enter into law school after high school (''
Gymnasium Gymnasium may refer to: *Gymnasium (ancient Greece), educational and sporting institution *Gymnasium (school), type of secondary school that prepares students for higher education **Gymnasium (Denmark) **Gymnasium (Germany) **Gymnasium UNT, high ...
'') graduation. After their studies, candidates complete the First
State Examination The ("state examination" or "exam by state"; pl.: ''Staatsexamina'') is a Germany, German government licensing examination that future physicians, teachers, pharmacists, Food chemistry, food chemists, psychotherapists and jurists (i.e., lawyers, ju ...
. In the First State Exam, 30% of the exam is on a specialized area of law, chosen by the examinee, which is organized and carried out by the university. In practice, the more important part is the 70% of obligatory areas of law examined by the ''Justizprüfungsamt'', a body of the state administration of justice. Failure rates of the 1st State Examination can be up to 30%. The written part concerns the analysis of legal issues. After passing the 1st State Examination, candidates undertake a two-year legal traineeship (“''Referendariat''”), organized by the
Federal States A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism Federalism is a mixed or compou ...

Federal States
. After the legal traineeship, candidates must take the 2nd State Examination, with failure rates far lower than in the 1st State Examination. The written exam consists of drafting judgments, contract and other legal documents; there is also an oral exam. After passing the 2nd State Exam, the trainee may become a lawyer.


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong law can be studied as a four-year undergraduate degree
Bachelor of Laws Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guard ...
(LLB), a two-year postgraduate degree (Juris Doctor), or the
Common Professional Examination The Common Professional Examination/Postgraduate Diploma in Law (CPE/PGDL) is a Postgraduate education, postgraduate legal education, law course in England and Wales that is taken by non-law graduates (graduates who have a degree in a discipline ...
conversion course for non-law graduates. One must then pass the one-year
Postgraduate Certificate in Laws The Postgraduate Certificate in Laws (PCLL; 法學專業證書) is an intensive one-year full-time (or two-year part-time) professional legal qualification programme in Hong Kong. It allows graduates to proceed to legal training before qualifyin ...
(PCLL) currently offered at the
University of Hong Kong The University of Hong Kong (abbreviated as HKU) is a public university, public research university in Hong Kong. Founded in 1911, its origins trace back to the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, which was founded in 1887. It is the ol ...

University of Hong Kong
(HKU),
Chinese University of Hong Kong The Chinese University of Hong Kong (abbreviated CUHK) is a public university, public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong, formally established in 1963 by a university charter, charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. It is ...
and
City University of Hong Kong City University of Hong Kong (CityU) is a Public university, public research university in Kowloon, Hong Kong. It was founded in 1984 as City Polytechnic of Hong Kong and became a fully accredited university in 1994. The university has nine ma ...
, before starting vocational training: a year's
pupillageA pupillage, in England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the form ...
for
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialis ...

barrister
s or a two-year
training contract A training contract is a compulsory period of practical training in a law firm for legal education, law graduates before they can qualify as a solicitor in the United Kingdom (UK), the Republic of Ireland, Australia or Hong Kong, or as an advocate ...
for
solicitor A solicitor is a legal practitioner A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. ...
s. The move to a four-year LLB was recent and, in the case of HKU, was aimed at shifting some of the more theoretical aspects of the HKU PCLL into the LLB, leaving more room for practical instruction.


India

The
Bar Council of India The Bar Council of India is a statutory body established under the section 4 of Advocates Act 1961 that regulates the legal practice and legal education in India. Its members are elected from amongst the lawyers in India and as such represents t ...
prescribes and supervises standard of legal education in India. Law degrees in India are granted and conferred in terms of th
Advocates Act, 1961
which is a law passed by the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
both on the aspect of legal education and also regulation of conduct of legal profession. Various regional universities or specialised national law universities offer Law graduate degrees through various law schools. In India law can be studied, as LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) or B.L. (Bachelor of Law), a three-year graduate degree after completion of
Bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
. Alternatively after standard 12 one can join an integrated five-year law course which provides option to avail B.A. LL.B. or B.B.A. LLB. or B.Sc. LL.B. In India applied legal education for specific branches of law is also offered such as, Business law, Human resource and Labour laws, Property laws, Family laws, Human rights & Legal awareness, Taxation law and many more.


Italy and France

Law in Italy and France is studied in a jurisprudence school which is an entity within a larger university. Legal education can be started immediately after obtained a Diploma. Italian and French law schools are affiliated with public universities, and are thus public institutions. As a consequence, law schools are required to admit anyone holding the baccalaureate. However, the failure rate is extremely high (up to 70%) during the first two years of the "licenza in diritto". There are no vast disparities in the quality of Southern European law schools. Many schools focus on their respective city and region. The law school program is divided following the European standards for university studies (
Bologna process The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area ...
): * first a license of law program (''Licence de droit''): three-year period * Then a Master of law program (''Master de droit''): two-year period * Ph.D. in Law (''Doctorat en droit''): three-year period (often more). The first year of the master program (M1) is specialized: public law, private law, business law, European and international law, etc. The second year of the master of law program (M2) can be work-oriented or research oriented (the students write a substantial thesis and can apply to doctoral programs, e.g., a PhD in Law). The second year is competitive (entry is based on the student's grades and overall score and on extracurricular activities) and generally more specialized (IP law, contract law, civil liberties, etc.). Students must pass a specific examination to enter bar school (CRFPA, école du barreau). They must successfully finish the first year of a Master of law (M1 or maitrise de droit) to be able to attend. If they succeed, then after 18 months (school, practical aspects, ethics and internship) they then take the CAPA exam and diploma(Certificat d'Aptitude à la Profession d'Avocat). Successful students also take the Oath in order to practice law.


Japan

The Japanese Ministry of Justice opened the
University of Tokyo , abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government a ...
Faculty of Law in 1877 (changed to Imperial University in 1886). To matriculate to the University of Tokyo, students had to finish ten to fifteen years of compulsory education; acceptance was therefore available to only a small elite. The law program produced politically-dependable graduates to fill fast-track administrative positions in government, also known as high civil servants (koto bunkan), and to serve as judges and prosecutors. Private law schools opened around 1880. These lacked the government funding given to the University of Tokyo, so the quality of education there lagged behind. Students only had to pass an examination to matriculate to private law schools, so many of them had not completed middle school. The private law schools produced a large portion of private attorneys because their graduates were often ineligible to apply for government positions. The Imperial University Faculty of Law was given supervisory authority over many private law schools in 1887; by the 1920s, it promulgated a legal curriculum comprising six basic codes: Constitutional Law, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Civil Procedure, Criminal Law, and Criminal Procedure. The same basic structure survived in Japanese legal education to the end of the twentieth century. Prior to the implementation of the "law school system" in 2004, the legal education system was driven more by examinations than by formal schooling. The passage rate for the bar exam was historically around three percent, and nearly all those who sat for the exam took it several times. A number of specialized "cram schools" trained prospective lawyers for the exam, and these schools remain prevalent today. After passing the bar exam, prospective barristers were required to train for 16 months at the Legal Research and Training Institute of the
Supreme Court of Japan The , located in Hayabusachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Chiyoda, Tokyo, is the Supreme court, highest court in Japan. It has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Constitution of Japan, Japanese constitution and decide questions of national law. It ...
. The training period has traditionally been devoted to litigation practice and virtually no training is given for other aspects of legal practice, e.g., contract drafting,
legal researchLegal research is "the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Cr ...
. During this period, the most "capable trainees" are "selected out" to become career judges; others may become prosecutors or private practitioners. In 2004, the Japanese Diet passed a law allowing for the creation of graduate level law school that offer a J.D., or Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士). The 2006 bar examination was first in Japanese history to require a law school degree as a prerequisite. In the past, although there has been no educational requirement, most of those who passed the examination had earned undergraduate degrees from "elite" Japanese universities such as the
University of Tokyo , abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government a ...
,
Kyoto University , mottoeng = Freedom of academic culture , established = Founded June 18, 1897 , type = National university, Public (National) , endowment = ¥ 250.2 billion (2.2 1000000000 (number), billion USD) , faculty = 2,864 (Teaching Staff) , ...

Kyoto University
or
Hitotsubashi University is a national university specialized in the social sciences in Tokyo, Japan with about 4,500 undergraduate students and about 2,100 postgraduate students. The university has campuses in Kunitachi, Tokyo, Kunitachi, Kodaira, Tokyo, Kodaira, and Kan ...

Hitotsubashi University
. With this new law school system came a new bar exam, with a 40–50% passage rate which is capped by a numerical quota. Applicants are now limited to taking the exam three times in a five-year period. Despite the much higher bar passage rate with the new exam, due to the quotas, approximately half of Japanese law school graduates will never be admitted to practice. The new system also reduced the apprenticeship period at the Legal Research and Training Institute to one year. A number of other law-related professions exist in Japan, such as patent agents (''
benrishiBenrishi (弁理士) is a Japanese legal profession specifically licensed to practice intellectual property law. Most benrishi specialize in patent law, but are also allowed to practice in copyright, trademark, unfair competition and trade secret law ...
''), tax accountants ('' zeirishi''),
scrivener A scrivener (or scribe A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist A copyist is a person who makes copies. The term is sometimes used for artists who make copies of other artists' paintings. However, the modern use of the t ...
s, etc., entry to each of which is governed by a separate examination. Attorneys ("bengoshi"), being qualified to practice any law, can automatically be qualified as patent agents and tax accountants with no additional examination, but not vice versa.


Korea

Legal education in Korea is driven by examination. The profession of barristers, is highly regulated, and the pass rate for the bar exam is around five percent. Prospective attorneys who do pass the exam usually take it two or three times before passing it, and a number of specialized "private educational institutes" exist for prospective lawyers. After passing the bar exam, prospective barristers undergo a two-year training period at the Judicial Research and Training Institute of the
Supreme Court of Korea The Supreme Court of Korea is the Supreme court, highest court in South Korea. It is located in Seoul. Articles 101–110 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea establish the Supreme Court and enumerate its powers and responsibilities. ...
. During this period, the most capable trainees are "selected out" to become career judges; others may become prosecutors or private practitioners. In 2007, the Korean government passed a law allowing for the creation of three-year law schools (''법학전문대학원''). According to the new law, the old system of selecting lawyers by examination will be phased out by 2013 and the U.S.-style law schools will be the sole route to become a lawyer. In February 2008, the Ministry of Education of Korea selected 25 universities to open law schools. The total enrollment for all law schools is capped at 2,000, which is a source of contention between the powerful Korea Bar Association, and citizen groups and school administrators. There is an uproar among the schools which failed to get the government's approval and even among the schools that did get the approval, there is dissatisfaction due to an extremely low enrollment number. Several law schools are permitted to enroll 40 students per year, which is far below the financially sustainable number. Beginning in 2012, passage of the Lawyer Admission Test (which is distinct from the old bar exam) will be required for qualification to practice. A number of other legal professions exist in Korea, such as patent attorneys (''변리사''), tax attorneys (''세무사''),
solicitor A solicitor is a legal practitioner A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. ...
s(''법무사''), etc., entry to each of which is governed by a separate examination.


Malaysia

As a Commonwealth country, the Malaysian legal education system is rooted from the United Kingdom. Legal qualifications offered by the local law faculties require students to have a pre-university qualification such as the Malaysian Higher School Certificate,
A-Level#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
,
International Baccalaureate The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is a nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit ins ...
, Foundation Course or a Diploma. Generally, the law degree programmes in Malaysia consist of civil law subjects, but there are institutions such as The National University of Malaysia,
International Islamic University Malaysia The International Islamic University Malaysia ( ms, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia; ar, الجامعة الإسلامية العالمية بماليزيا), also known as IIUM, is a public university in Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) ...
and
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin ( abbreviated as UniSZA; Jawi: اونيۏرسيتي سلطان زين العابدين; en, Sultan Zainal Abidin University) is the 18th public institution of higher learning, located in the state of Terengga ...
that include
Sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action ...
or Islamic law courses as requirements for admission and graduation. Malaysian law graduates from universities in the UK, Australia or New Zealand are allowed to practice law in Malaysia. However, they are required to obtain a Certificate of Legal Practice in Laws of Malaysia.


New Zealand

The Council of Legal Education was established by section 2 of the New Zealand University Amendment Act 1930 (amending and deemed part of the New Zealand University Act 1908). There is a New Zealand Law Students Association, which has published a journal called ''Wagon Mound'', and holds an annual national mooting competition. There is an Auckland University Law Students Society, which publishes the Auckland University Law Review, is a member of International Law Students Association, and which held the Students' Conference on Law Reform in 1965. There is a Wellington Law Students Society, an Otago Law Students Society, and a University of Canterbury Law Students Society. The original Canterbury Law Students Society was established in 1875.


Philippines

Law degree programs are considered graduate programs in the Philippines. As such, admission to law schools requires the completion of a bachelor's degree, with a sufficient number of credits or units in certain subject areas. Legal education in the Philippines is regulated and supervised by the
Legal Education Board The Legal Education Board, or known widely by its abbreviation LEB, is an independent government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government ...
, a statutorily created independent Body chaired by a retired member of the Supreme Court or of the Court of Appeals. Its first chairman is Justice Hilarion Aquino. Sitting as members of the Board are a representative of the law professors, a representative of the law deans and a representative of the Commission on Higher Education. The membership of a student representative has been subject to continuing debate and resistance on the part of law schools. Graduation from a Philippine law school constitutes the primary eligibility requirement for the Philippine Bar Examinations, administered by the Supreme Court during the month of September every year. In order to be eligible to take the bar examinations, one must complete either of the two professional degrees: The
Bachelor of Laws Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guard ...
(LL.B.) program or the Juris Doctor (J.D.) program. Advanced degrees are offered by some law schools, but are not requirements for admission to the practice of law in the Philippines. The degrees Master of Laws (LL.M.), Master of Legal Studies are available in only a handful of Philippine universities and colleges, among these San Beda College Graduate School of Law, the University of Santo Tomas and Ateneo de Manila University. The Doctor of Civil Law degree (DCL) is offered only by the University of Santo Tomas and the Doctor of Juridical Science (JSD) degree is offered by the San Beda College Graduate School of Law. Graduate programs in law are also regulated by the Legal Education Board. Legal education in the Philippines normally proceeds along the following route: * Undergraduate education (usually 4 years) * Law school (usually 4 years) * Admission to the bar (usually by taking a Philippine bar exam) * Legal practice and mandatory continuing legal education


Russia and Ukraine

Law degree A law degree is an academic degree conferred for studies in law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surroun ...

Law degree
– jurist (often compared to an
LL.M. A Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to shar ...
, but in fact equivalent to the degree of Specialist specific to the Soviet educational system) is awarded in Russia and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
after 5 years of study at a university. Jurist degree may also be awarded in a shorter period of time if a law student has already completed Bachelor or Specialist degree in another field of studies or has previously earned a basic law degree (comparable to Paralegal, an associate degree in U.S.) from a specialized law college. Bachelor jurist degree (equivalent to Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.)) may be earned concurrently with another bachelor's or master's degree in some universities (comparable to a double-major). Note that this fused, one-degree (Specialist) educational scheme has coexisted with the two-degree (bachelor's – master's) scheme since Russia and Ukraine launched their higher education reforms to bring the domestic educational systems in closer compliance with the Bologna accords. See also
academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including Bach ...
. The latest educational reforms created new system where a four-year law program is offered at the universities for earning bachelor's degree, and a five-year law program is offered for master's degree. The degree of Specialist is no longer awarded and is renamed into master's degree.


Serbia

To become a lawyer in Serbia, students must graduate from an accredited faculty of law. First-level studies last four years (eight semesters), after which it is possible to enroll in
Master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professio ...
and
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known a ...
studies programmes. To become a student of the faculty of law, a candidate must pass the admission test. The practical training for students is organized at courts of law, and local and international
moot court Moot court is a co-curricular activity at many law schools. Participants take part in simulated court or arbitration proceedings, usually involving drafting memorials or memoranda and participating in oral argument. In most countries, the phrase " ...

moot court
competitions. A lawyer must pass the national bar examination to become an attorney, a
judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In th ...

judge
, or a
prosecutor A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in states with either the common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by co ...
. In order to take the bar exam, it is only necessary to complete the 4 year studies programme and have a certain amount of work experience ( i.e. as a
paralegal A paralegal is the professional of legal science Legal science is one of the main components in the civil law tradition (after Roman law, canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances ...
), but most attorneys have also attained the master's degree in law before passing the bar exam.


South Africa

In South Africa, the
LL.B. Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guard ...
is the universal legal qualification for admission and enrollment as an
Advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English law English law is the common law List of national legal systems, lega ...

Advocate
or
Attorney Attorney may refer to: Roles * Attorney at law, an official title of lawyers in some jurisdictions * Attorney general, the principal legal officer of (or advisor to) a government * Attorney-in-fact, a holder of a power of attorney who is (though not ...
. Since 1998, LL.B. programmes may be entered directly at the
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
level; at the same time, the LLB. continues to be offered
postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, u ...
and may then be accelerated dependent on the
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
. The programme lasts between two and four years correspondingly (compare ). See . Although not formally required for specialised practice, further training, e.g. in tax, is usually via
postgraduate diploma #REDIRECT Postgraduate diploma A postgraduate diploma (PgD, PgDip, PGDip, PG Dip., PGD, Dipl. PG, PDE) is a postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent entirely within the No ...

postgraduate diploma
s or focused, coursework-based
LL.M. A Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to shar ...
programmes. Research degrees are the
LL.M. A Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to shar ...
and
LL.D. Legum Doctor (Latin: "teacher of the laws") (LL.D.) or, in English, Doctor of Laws Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridic ...
, or
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known a ...
depending on university. The Master's dissertation reflects an ability to conduct independent research, whereas the Doctoral
thesis A thesis, or dissertation (abbreviated diss.), is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher ed ...
will, in addition, constitute an original contribution to the field of law in question. A doctorate, generally, is required for positions in legal
academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...

academia
. See ; . Historically, the B.Proc. and B.Juris were the legal degrees offered at the undergraduate level. The four-year BProc qualified one to practise as an attorney, or become a prosecutor or
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– ...
in the lower courts, but did not allow for admission as an advocate. The three-year B.Juris was the basic requirement for prosecutors and magistrates in the lower courts, but on its own, did not qualify one to practise as an attorney. Both offered admission to the LLB. For admission as an attorney, one serves " articles" as a candidate attorney with a practising attorney for two years, and then writes a "board exam" set by the relevan
provincial Law Society
See
Attorneys in South Africa In South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by popul ...
. The length of articles may be reduced by attending a practical legal training course or performing
community service Community service is unpaid work performed by a person or group of people for the benefit and betterment of their community without any form of compensation. Community service can be distinct from volunteering, since it is not always performed ...

community service
. Attorneys may additionally qualify as
Notaries A notary is a person authorised to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents. The form that the notarial profession takes varies with local legal systems. The Worshipful Company of Scriveners use an old Engli ...
and
Conveyancer In most Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason ...
s, via the Conveyancing and Notarial Practice Examinations; those with technical or scientific training may further . The requirements to enter private practice as advocates (Junior Counsel) are to become members of
Bar Association
by undergoing a period of training ( pupilage) for one year with a practicing Advocate, and to sit an admission examination. On the recommendation of the Bar Councils, an advocate "of proven experience and skill" with at least ten years experience, may be appointed by the President of South Africa as a
Senior Counsel #REDIRECT Senior counsel #REDIRECT Senior counsel#REDIRECT Senior counsel The title of Senior Counsel or State Counsel ( post-nominal letters: SC) is given to a senior lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate ...
(SC; also referred to as a "silk"). See Advocates in South Africa. The Act regulating admission to practise law ("The Qualifications of Legal Practitioners Amendment Act of 1997") is being revised.


South American countries

The law of South America is one of the most unified in the world. All countries can be said to follow civil law systems, although recent developments in the
law of Brazil The law of Brazil is based on statutes and, partly and more recently, a mechanism called ''súmulas vinculantes''. It derives mainly from the civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanvil ...
suggest a move towards the ''
stare decisis A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process. A legal case is typically based ...
'' doctrine.


Sri Lanka

In order to practice law in Sri Lanka, a lawyer must be 'admitted and enrolled as an Attorney-at-Law of the Supreme Court of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. To be admitted to the bar a law student must complete law exams held by the
Sri Lanka Law College , mottoeng = Let justice be done , established = 1874 , type = Public , endowment = , staff = , faculty = , principal = Indira Samarasinghe PC , students = , undergrad = , postgrad = , doctoral = , address = 244 Hulftsdorp Street , city = C ...
and undergo a six-month period of apprenticeship under a senior practicing lawyer. There are two routes taken by students: # Those who have gained a law degree, an
LL.B. Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guard ...
(which is 3–4 years long in Sri Lankan State Universities of
University of Colombo (Buddhih Sarvatra Bhrajate) , mottoeng = ''Wisdom Enlightens'' , established = 1921 , endowment = Sri Lankan rupee, LKR 1.461 1,000,000,000 (number), billion
,
University of Jaffna The University of Jaffna ( ta, யாழ்ப்பாணப் பல்கலைக்கழகம், translit=Yāḻppāṇap Palkalaikkaḻakam; si, යාපනය විශ්වවිද්‍යාලය, ''Yāpanaya Viśvavidyālaya''; ...

University of Jaffna
,
Open University of Sri Lanka "The Open University of Sri Lanka" (OUSL) ( si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා විවෘත විශ්වවිද්‍යාලය , ta, இலங்கை திறந்த பல்கலைக்கழகம்) is a national univers ...

Open University of Sri Lanka
and
University of Peradeniya The University of Peradeniya ( si, පේරාදෙණිය විශ්වවිද්‍යාලය, ta, பேராதனைப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்) is a public university#REDIRECT Public university A public uni ...
) are given direct entry to undertake law exams at the Sri Lanka Law College. # Those who don't hold a law degree, could gain entrance to the Sri Lanka Law College via a competitive entrance exam to study law and prepare for the law exams. Both groups of students must undergo a period of apprenticeship under a senior practicing lawyer who has at least 8 years of practicing experience. To become a judge one must be admitted as an Attorney-at-Law.


United Kingdom

In England and Wales, law can be studied as an undergraduate degree or in a
Graduate Diploma in Law The Graduate Diploma in Law/Postgraduate Diploma in Law/Common Professional Examination (GDL/PGDL/CPE) is a postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for Academic degree, academic o ...
where students complete the Common Professional Examination. After obtaining the degree which is necessary to complete certain vocational courses and to serve a period of on the job training before one is able to qualify to practice as a
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialis ...

barrister
,
legal executive Legal executives are a form of trained legal professional in certain jurisdictions. They often specialise in a particular area of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act ac ...
, or
solicitor A solicitor is a legal practitioner A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. ...
.
Bar Professional Training Course The Bar Professional Training Course or BPTC is a Postgraduate education, postgraduate course which allows law graduates to be named and practise as barristers in England and Wales. The eight institutes that run the BPTC along with the four prest ...
is regarded as one of the hardest degrees and presently it is the most expensive law-related degree.


United States

The education of lawyers in the United States is generally undertaken through a
law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...
program, although in some states (such as California and Virginia) applicants who have not attended law school may qualify to take the bar exam. Legal education in the United States normally proceeds along the following route: * Undergraduate education (usually 4 years) * Law school (usually 3 years) * Admission to the bar (usually by taking a state's bar exam) * Legal practice In the United States, in most cases, the degree awarded by American law schools is the
Doctor of Jurisprudence The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. In Australia, Canada, the Un ...
or
Juris Doctor The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is ...
(J.D.), a
Doctoral A doctorate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
degree, the pursuit of which students undertake only after having completed an undergraduate degree in some other field (usually a
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
). The law school program is considered to be a
professional school Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials A credential is a piece of any document that details a qualification, competence, or authority issued to an individual by a third party with a relevant or ''de f ...
program and upon graduation you receive the distinct title of Doctor (although most states strictly regulate the ability of attorneys to style themselves "doctor"). Research degrees that are awarded include the
Master of Laws A Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
(LL.M.),
Doctor of Juridical Science Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of the Science of Law, (in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around R ...
degrees (J.S.D. or S.J.D.) and Doctor of Comparative Law (D.C.L.), are post-undergraduate and research and academic-based level degrees. In the U.S. the
Legum Doctor Legum Doctor (Latin: "teacher of the laws") (LL.D.) or, in English, Doctor of Laws Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act ...
(LL.D.) is only awarded as an honorary degree. A number of law students apply for an optional
judicial clerkship A law clerk or a judicial clerk is an individual—generally an Lawyer, attorney—who provides direct assistance and counsel to a judge in making legal determinations and in writing Legal opinion, opinions by Legal research, researching issues be ...

judicial clerkship
(less than 10% end up in such position), to be taken after law school and before legal practice. Clerkships usually last one year with appellate courts, but trial level courts (including federal district court) are increasingly moving towards two-year clerkships. Once a student has graduated from law school, the student is expected to pursue
admission to the bar An admission to practice law is acquired when a lawyer receives a license to practice law. In jurisdictions with two types of lawyer, as with barristers and solicitors, barristers must gain admission to the bar whereas for solicitors there are disti ...
in order to practice. Requirements for membership in the
bar Bar or BAR may refer to: Food *Bar (establishment) A bar is a long raised narrow table or bench designed for dispensing beer or other alcoholic beverage, alcoholic drinks. They were originally chest high, and a bar, often brass, ran the len ...
vary across the United States. In almost every state, the only way to be admitted to the bar is to pass a (usually multi-day) written examination. Once admitted, most States require attorneys to must meet certain
Continuing Legal Education Continuing legal education (CLE), also known as mandatory or minimum continuing legal education (MCLE) or, in some jurisdictions outside the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States ( ...
(CLE) requirements. Academic degrees for non-lawyers are available at the baccalaureate and master's level. A common baccalaureate level degree is a Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies (B.S.). Academic master's degrees in legal studies are available, such as the Master of Studies (M.S.), and the Master of Professional Studies (M.P.S.). Such a degree is not required to enter a J.D. program. Foreign lawyers seeking to practice in the U.S., who do not have a J.D., often seek to obtain a
Master of Laws A Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
(LL.M.) (or other degrees similar to the LL.M., such as the Juris Master (J.M.), Master of Comparative Law (M.C.L.) and Master of Jurisprudence (M.J.)).


See also


References

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