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''Le Viandier'' (often called ''Le Viandier de Taillevent'', ) is a
recipe collection
recipe collection
generally credited to
Guillaume Tirel File:Tombe de Taillevent.jpg, Guillaume Tirel's tombstone at the church of :fr:Église Saint-Léger de Saint-Germain-en-Laye Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent (French language, French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Po ...
, alias ''Taillevent''. However, the earliest version of the work was written around 1300, about 10 years before Tirel's birth. The original author is unknown, but it was common for
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting bo ...

recipe
collections to be
plagiarized Plagiarism is the representation of another author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is also considered a writer or poet. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gav ...

plagiarized
, complemented with additional material and presented as the work of later authors. ''Le Viandier'' is one of the earliest and best-known recipe collections of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
, along with the Latin-language ''
Liber de Coquina The ''Liber de Coquina'' ("The book of cooking/cookery") is one of the oldest medieval cookbooks. Two codices survive from the beginning of the 14th century. Both are preserved at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, France. Description The text ...
'' (early 14th century, believed to compile recipes from France and Italy) and the English ''
Forme of Cury ''The Forme of Cury'' (''The Method of Cooking'', from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition ...
'' (c. 1390). Among other things, it contains the first detailed description of an
entremet , a type of grain porridge Porridge (historically also spelled porage, porrige, or parritch) is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Gree ...

entremet
.


Manuscripts

There are four extant manuscripts of ''Le Viandier''.; Scully 1988 is the first edition to collate all four extant manuscripts; an English translation of the 220 recipes is included. The oldest, found in the Archives cantonales du Valais (
Sion, Switzerland Sion (; german: Sitten ; it, Seduno; la, Sedunum) is a , a municipality, and the capital of the of and of the district of . it had a population of (known as ''Sédunois(es)''). On 17 January 1968, the former municipality of merged into the ...

Sion, Switzerland
), was written in the late 13th or very early 14th century, and was largely overlooked until the 1950s. It is this manuscript that calls into question the authorship of Tirel, but a portion of it is missing at the beginning, so the title and author given for this earlier work are unknown. A manuscript from the 14th century housed in the
Bibliothèque Nationale A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or electronic media, digital access to material, and may be a physical l ...
(Paris), was formerly thought to be the oldest. The version in the
Biblioteca Vaticana The Vatican Apostolic Library ( la, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, it, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly known as the Vatican Library or informally as the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. Formally est ...
(Vatican City), is from the early 15th century. The fourth extant version is in the (Paris) and also dates to the 15th century. There was a fifth version from the 15th century in
Saint-Lô Saint-Lô (, ) is a Communes of France, commune in north-western France, the capital of the Manche Departments of France, department in the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy.
, in the Archives de la Manche. It was mentioned by Jérôme Pichon and
Georges Vicaire Georges Vicaire (8 December 1853 – 4 November 1921) was a French bibliophile and bibliographer. The son of (1802-1865), General Director of forests, and Marthe Vicaire Blais, Georges Vicaire was the father of Jean Vicaire and (1893–1976), an o ...
in their 1892 monograph, ''Le Viandier''; however, the Saint-Lô manuscript was destroyed by fire on 6 June 1944 during the
invasion of Normandy Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, wh ...
. In the Valais manuscript there are about 130 recipes. There are variations from manuscript to manuscript, both in their original form and in what has been preserved or lost over the centuries.


Haute Cuisine

''Le Viandier'' was one of the first "haute cuisine" cookbooks, offering a framework for its preparation and presentation at table. Taillevent was a master cook to Charles V, which gave him extensive experience in serving French nobility. Taillevent divided the book into various sections, including sections specific to the preparation of meats, entremets, fish, sauces, and other recipes. Taillevent also goes into detail on the spices that should be used for various dishes. According to Taillevent, there are three themes in haute cuisine; the use of spices, the separation of preparation for the meat and fish dishes from the sauces, and the way a dish should be presented. These were all carefully outlined in ''Le Viandier''. To further this idea of "medieval haute cuisine", Taillevent also mentions how much emphasis was placed on presentation by noting that often dyes were used to color sauces and meat roasts were covered with gold and silver leaves.


Print

About 1486, ''Le Viandier'' went into print without a title-page date or place, but this was undoubtedly Paris. The 1486 version contained an additional 142 recipes not found in the manuscripts. Twenty-four editions were produced between 1486 and 1615.


See also

* ''
Apicius ''Apicius'', also known as ''De re culinaria'' or ''De re coquinaria'' (''On the Subject of Cooking'') is a collection of Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th ce ...

Apicius
'' – a collection of Roman cookery recipes. * ''
Liber de Coquina The ''Liber de Coquina'' ("The book of cooking/cookery") is one of the oldest medieval cookbooks. Two codices survive from the beginning of the 14th century. Both are preserved at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, France. Description The text ...
'' – one of the oldest medieval cookbooks. *
Medieval cuisine Medieval cuisine includes foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various Culture of Europe, European cultures during the Middle Ages, which lasted from the fifth to the fifteenth century. During this period, diet (nutrition), diets and cook ...
* ''
The Forme of Cury ''The Forme of Cury'' (''The Method of Cooking'', from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition ...
'' – an extensive collection of medieval English recipes.


References


External links


Vatican Manuscript text at the University of Giessen
{{DEFAULTSORT:Viandier 14th-century books Medieval cookbooks French cookbooks