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Law enforcement in the United States is one of three major components of the
criminal justice 350px, United States criminal justice system flowchart Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, one of the four cardinal virtues, by Vitruvio Alberi, 1589–1590. Fresco, corner of the vault, studiolo of the Virgin of Mercy, Ma ...
system of the United States, along with
courts A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, govern ...
and
corrections In criminal justice 350px, United States criminal justice system flowchart. Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, one of the four cardinal virtues, by Vitruvio Alberi, 1589–1590. Fresco, corner of the vault, studiolo o ...
. Although each component operates semi-independently, the three collectively form a chain leading from an investigation of suspected criminal activity to the administration of criminal punishment. Law enforcement operates primarily through governmental
police The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing con ...

police
agencies. There are 17,985 U.S. police agencies in the United States which include city police departments, county sheriff's offices, state police/highway patrol and federal law enforcement agencies. The law-enforcement purposes of these agencies are the investigation of suspected criminal activity, referral of the results of investigations to state or federal
prosecutors A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system or the Civil law (legal system), civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the ...
, and the temporary detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action. Law enforcement agencies, to varying degrees at different levels of government and in different agencies, are also commonly charged with the responsibilities of deterring criminal activity and preventing the successful commission of crimes in progress. Other duties may include the service and enforcement of warrants,
writ In , a writ (Anglo-Saxon ''gewrit'', Latin ''breve'') is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial ; in modern usage, this body is generally a . , s, s, and are common types of writ, but many forms exist and have ...

writ
s, and other orders of the courts. Law enforcement agencies are also involved in providing first response to emergencies and other threats to
public safety Public security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities. To meet the in ...
; the protection of certain public facilities and
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An eco ...

infrastructure
; the maintenance of public order; the protection of public officials; and the operation of some detention facilities (usually at the local level).


Types of police

Policing The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic ...

Policing
in the United States is conducted by "around 18,000 federal, state, local and city departments, all with their own rules". Every state has its own nomenclature for agencies, and their powers, responsibilities and funding vary from state to state.


Federal

At the federal level, there exists both federal police, who possess full federal authority as given to them under
United States Code The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification Codification may refer to: *Codification ( ...
(U.S.C.), and federal law enforcement agencies, who are authorized to enforce various laws at the federal level. Both police and law enforcement agencies operate at the highest level and are endowed with police roles; each may maintain a small component of the other (for example, the
FBI Police The FBI Police is the uniformed security police Security Police Officers are persons employed by or for a governmental agency or corporations that own mass private property to provide police The police are a Law enforcement organization, cons ...
). The agencies have jurisdiction in all states, U.S. territories, and U.S. possessions for enforcement of federal law. Most federal agencies are limited by the U.S. Code to investigating only matters that are explicitly within the power of the federal government. However, federal investigative powers have become very broad in practice, especially since the passage of the
USA PATRIOT Act The USA PATRIOT Act (commonly known as the Patriot Act) was a landmark Act of the United States Congress, signed into law by President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organizat ...
. There are also federal law enforcement agencies, such as the
United States Park Police The United States Park Police (USPP) is one of the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agencies in the United States. It functions as a full-service law enforcement agency with responsibilities and jurisdiction in those National Park Servic ...
, that are granted state arrest authority off primary federal jurisdiction. The
Department of Justice A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of governme ...
(DOJ) is responsible for most law enforcement duties at the federal level. It includes the
Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Conce ...

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), the
Drug Enforcement Administration The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA; ) is a Federal law enforcement in the United States, United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice tasked with combating drug trafficking and distribution within th ...

Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA), the
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is a federal law enforcement organization within the United States Department of Justice The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a U ...
(ATF), the
United States Marshals Service The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a federal law enforcement agency in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental Un ...
, the
Federal Bureau of Prisons The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Justice A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency A government or ...
(BOP), and others. The
Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North Amer ...
(DHS) is another branch with numerous federal law enforcement agencies reporting to it. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE),
United States Secret Service The United States Secret Service (USSS or Secret Service) is a Federal law enforcement in the United States, federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Homeland Security, Department of Homeland Security charged with con ...
(USSS),
United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's eight Uniformed services ...
(USCG), and the
Transportation Security Administration The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that has authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States. It was created as a response to the September 11 attac ...
(TSA) are some of the agencies that report to DHS. The United States Coast Guard is assigned to the
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity ...
in the event of war. At a crime or disaster scene affecting large numbers of people, multiple jurisdictions, or broad geographic areas, many police agencies may be involved by mutual aid agreements. For example, the
United States Federal Protective Service The Federal Protective Service (FPS) is the uniformed security police Security Police Officers are persons employed by or for a governmental agency or corporations that own mass private property to provide police The police are a Law enforce ...
responded to the
Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was a large and destructive List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes, Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that caused over 1,800 fatalities and $125 billion in damage in late August 2005, especially in the city of New Orleans and ...
natural disaster. The command in such situations remains a complex and flexible issue. In accordance with the
federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...

federal
structure of the
United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or U ...
, the national (federal) government is not authorized to execute general police powers by the
Constitution of the United States of America The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primar ...
. The power to have a police force is given to each of the United States' 50
federated state A federated state (which may also be referred to as a state, a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...
s. The US Constitution gives the federal government the power to deal with foreign affairs and interstate affairs (affairs between the states). For police, this means that if a non-federal crime is committed in a US state and the
fugitive Image:John Walsh filming a segment for America's Most Wanted.jpg, Fugitives are often profiled in the media in order to be apprehended, such as in the TV show ''America's Most Wanted''. A fugitive (or runaway) is a person who is fleeing from pol ...
does not flee the state, the federal government has no jurisdiction. However, once the fugitive crosses a state line, he violates the federal law of interstate flight and is subject to federal jurisdiction, at which time federal law enforcement agencies may become involved.


State

Most
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
operate statewide
government agencies A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government The machinery of government (sometimes abbreviated as MoG) is the interconnected structures and proce ...
that provide law enforcement duties, including investigations and state patrols. They may be called
state police State police, provincial police, or regional police are a type of sub-national territorial police force A territorial police force is a police service that is responsible for an area defined by sub-national boundaries, distinguished from oth ...
or
highway patrol A highway patrol is either a police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safe ...

highway patrol
, and are normally part of the state Department of Public Safety. In addition, the
Attorney General #REDIRECT Attorney general In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinio ...
's office of each state has its own
state bureau of investigation A state bureau of investigation (SBI) is a U.S. state, state-Law enforcement agency#Jurisdiction, level detective agency in the United States. They are Plainclothes law enforcement, plainclothes agencies which usually investigate both Criminal case, ...
such as in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
with the
California Department of Justice The California Department of Justice (CA DOJ or CAL DOJ) is a statewide investigative law enforcement agency and legal department of the California executive branch under the elected leadership of the California Attorney General The Attorney ...
. The
Texas Ranger Division The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers and also known as "''Los Diablos Tejanos''—"the Texan Devils", is a Law enforcement in the United States, U.S. State bureau of investigation, investigative law enforcement agency wi ...
fulfills this role in
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
although they were founded in the period before Texas became a state. Various departments of state governments may have their own enforcement divisions, such as
capitol police Capitol police in the United States are agencies charged with the provision of security police services for various U.S. state, state agencies, but especially State legislature (United States), state legislatures. Capitol police may function as pa ...
,
campus police Campus police or university police in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consi ...
, state hospitals, Departments of Correction,
water police Water police, also called harbor patrols, port police, marine/maritime police, nautical patrols, bay constables, river police, or maritime law enforcement are police officer officer in Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 ...
, environmental (fish and game/wildlife)
conservation officer A conservation officer is a law enforcement officer A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a Public sector, public-sector employee whose duties primarily involve the Law enforcement, enforcement of laws. T ...
s or game wardens (with full police powers and statewide jurisdiction). For example, in
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
, the Department of Revenue has its own investigative branch.


County

Also known as
parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
and
boroughs A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
,
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
law enforcement is provided by sheriffs' departments or offices and
county police County police are police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health an ...

county police
.


County police

County police County police are police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health an ...

County police
tend to exist only in metropolitan counties and have countywide jurisdiction. For places that have both county police and county
sheriff A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...
, responsibilities are given to each: The county police are in charge of typical police duties such as patrol and investigations, whereas the sheriffs' department in this situation takes care of serving papers and providing security to the courts. County police tend to fall into three broad categories, full service, limited service, and restrictive service. Full service provides full police services to the entire county. Limited service provides to the unincorporated and special districts. Restricted service provide security to the county-owned parts of the county.


Sheriffs' offices

Sheriffs A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...
are police and have many different responsibilities. Sheriffs are elected officials where the head of police is appointed or hired in. Sheriffs are responsible for all three parts of the criminal justice system. They uphold the county jail, ensure safety within the courts, and have jurisdiction to enforce laws in the entire county. They have more responsibilities such as transporting prisoners, running crime labs, and collecting taxes. *In Texas, the sheriff's office is normally the agency responsible for handling mental health calls. If the situation is dangerous, a sheriff's deputy has the power to take a person to a hospital on a mental health commitment immediately. However, if the situation is not actively dangerous, a warrant must be sought. With the rise in mental health units across the state, the was formed.


Commonwealth of Virginia

The
Commonwealth of Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''T ...

Commonwealth of Virginia
does not have overlapping county and city jurisdictions, whereas in most other states, municipalities generally fall within (and share jurisdiction and many other governmental responsibilities with) one (or more) county(ies). In Virginia, governmental power flows down from the state (or in Virginia's case, commonwealth) directly to either a county or an independent city. Thus, policing in Virginia is more streamlined: the county sheriff's office/department or county police department does not overlap with an independent city police department. Unincorporated townships remain part of their parent county, but incorporated townships may have town police departments to augment their county law enforcement. Town police departments are often small and may deploy a combination of paid and unpaid, full and part-time law enforcement officers, including auxiliary officers who typically serve as part-time, unpaid volunteers. If present, independent city sheriff's offices usually follow the restrictive model shown above for sheriff's departments, with limited law enforcement authority including warrant service, jail bailiff, etc. Mutual assistance compacts may exist where neighboring law enforcement agencies will assist each other, however, in addition to state (commonwealth) law enforcement resources. Like most states, Virginia also has campus police officers. Under Virginia State Code 23.1-809 and 23.1-810, public and private colleges and universities can maintain their own armed police force and employ sworn campus police officers. These sworn officers have the same authority as local police and are required to complete police academy training mandated by the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services. Virginia campus police officers have jurisdiction on and immediately around the campus, but police departments may petition to the local circuit court for concurrent jurisdiction with the local police.


Municipal

Municipal police in Florence (Italy) File:Volkswagen Passat Policía Municipal Madrid.JPG, ''Policía Municipal'' of Madrid (Spain) Municipal police are Law enforcement agency, law enforcement agencies that are under the control of local government. This in ...
range from one-officer agencies (sometimes still called the town
marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...

marshal
) to the 40,000 person-strong
New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the ...
. Most municipal agencies take the form (Municipality Name) Police Department. Most
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
have their own police departments. Metropolitan departments, such as the
Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department The Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (also known as the LVMPD or Metro) is a combined city and county law enforcement agency A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is any government agency responsible for the enforcem ...
, have jurisdiction covering multiple communities and municipalities, often over a wide area, and typically share geographical boundaries within one or more cities or counties. Metropolitan departments have usually been formed by a merger between local agencies, typically several local police departments and often the local sheriff's department or office, in efforts to provide greater efficiency by centralizing command and resources and to resolve jurisdictional problems, often in communities experiencing rapid population growth and
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
, or in neighboring communities too small to afford individual police departments. Some county sheriff's departments, such as the
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department (LASD), officially the County of Los Angeles Sheriff's Department, is the United States' largest sheriff's department, with approximately 18,000 employees with 10,915 sworn deputies and 9,244 unswor ...
, are contracted to provide full police services to local cities within their counties.


Puerto Rico Police

The
Puerto Rico Police Department The Puerto Rico Police Department, officially the Puerto Rico Police Bureau, is a law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the entire Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico ('; abbreviated PR, tnq, Boriken, Borinquen), officially t ...
(PRPD) traces back to 1837, when Spanish governor Francisco Javier de Moreda y Prieto created La Guardia Civil de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico Civil Guard) to protect the lives and property of Puerto Ricans who at the time were Spanish subjects, and provide police services to the entire island, even though many municipalities maintained their own police force. The United States invaded and took possession of Puerto Rico in July 1898 as a result of the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
and has controlled the island as a US territory since then. The Insular Police of Puerto Rico was created on February 21, 1899, under the command of Colonel Frank Thacher (
US Marine The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the maritime land force service branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the na ...
officer during the Spanish–American War), with an authorized strength of 313 sworn officers. As of 2009, the PRPD had over 17,292 officers.


Other

There are other types of specialist police departments with varying jurisdictions. Most of these serve special-purpose districts and are known as special district police. In some states, they serve as little more than
security police Security Police Officers are persons employed by or for a governmental agency or corporations that own mass private property to provide police and security guard, security services to those properties. Security police protect their agency's facil ...
, but in states such as
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
, special district forces are composed of fully sworn police officers with statewide authority. These agencies can be
transit police Transit police are a specialized police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the ...
, school district police,
campus police Campus police or university police in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consi ...
,
airport police An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Engl ...
,
railroad police Railroad police or railway police (also called Bulls), are persons responsible for the protection of railroad (or railway) properties, facilities, revenue and personnel, as well as carried passengers and cargo. Railroad police may also patrol publ ...

railroad police
,
park police Park police are a type of security police who function as a full-service law enforcement agency with responsibilities and jurisdiction in park areas primarily located in cities and other urban areas. In addition to performing the normal crime preve ...
or police departments responsible for protecting government property, such as the former Los Angeles General Services Police. Some agencies, such as the
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department, or Port Authority Police Department (PAPD), is a law enforcement agency in New York (state), New York and New Jersey, the duties of which are to protect and to enforce state and cit ...
, have multi-state powers. There are also some
Private Police Private police are law enforcement bodies that are owned and/or controlled by non-governmental entities. Additionally, the term can refer to an off-duty police officer while working for a private entity, providing security, or otherwise law enf ...
agencies, such as the Parkchester Department of Public Safety and Co-op City Department of Public Safety.


Police functions

Textbooks and scholars have identified three primary police agency functions. The following is cited from ''The American System of Criminal Justice'', by George F. Cole and Christopher E. Smith, 2004, 10th edition, Wadsworth/Thomson Learning: ;Order maintenance: This is the broad mandate to keep the peace or otherwise prevent behaviors which might disturb others. This can deal with things ranging from a barking dog to a fist-fight. By way of description, Cole and Smith note that police are usually called-on to "handle" these situations with discretion, rather than deal with them as strict violations of law, though of course their authority to deal with these situations are based in violations of law. ;Law enforcement: Those powers are typically used only in cases where the law has been violated and a suspect must be identified and apprehended. Most obvious instances include
robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a State (polity), state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farm ...

robbery
,
murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification (jurisprudence), justification or valid excuse (legal), excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. ("The killing of another person w ...

murder
, or
burglary Burglary, also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking, is illegally entering a building or other areas to commit a crime. Usually that offence is theft, but most jurisdictions include others within the ambit of burglary. To co ...
. This is the popular notion of the main police function, but the frequency of such activity is dependent on geography and season. ;Service: Services may include rendering
first aid First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering from either a minor or serious illness A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement ...

first aid
, providing tourist information, guiding the disoriented, or acting as educators (on topics such as preventing drug use). Cole and Smith cited one study which showed 80% of all calls for police assistance did not involve crimes, but this may not be the case in all parts of the country. Because police agencies are traditionally available year-round, 24 hours a day, citizens call upon police departments not only in times of trouble but also when just inconvenienced. As a result, police services may include roadside auto assistance, providing referrals to other agencies, finding lost pets or property, or checking locks on vacationers' homes.


Styles of policing

Given the broad mandates of police work and the limited resources they have, police administrators must develop policies to prioritize and focus their activities. Some of the more controversial policies restrict, or even forbid, high-speed vehicular pursuits. Researchers Falcone, Wells, & Weisheit describe a historical separation of police models between small towns and larger cities. The distinction has also been defined between rural and urban policing models, which tended to function differently with separate hierarchical systems supporting each. Three styles of policing develop from a jurisdiction's
socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies social progress, progress, economic stagnation ...
characteristics, government organization, and choice of police administrators. According to a study by James Q. Wilson ("Varieties of Police Behavior", 1968, 1978, Harvard University Press), there were three distinct types of policing developed in his study of eight communities. Each style emphasized different police functions and was linked to specific characteristics of the community the department served. ;Watchman: Emphasizes maintaining order, usually found in communities with a declining industrial base, and a blue-collar, mixed ethnic/racial population. This form of policing is implicitly less pro-active than other styles, and certain offenses may be "overlooked" on a variety of social, legal, and cultural grounds as long as public order is maintained. Cole and Smith comment the broad discretion exercised in this style of policing can result in charges of discrimination when it appears police treatment of different groups results in the perception that some groups get better treatment than others. ;Legalistic: Emphasizes law enforcement and professionalism. This is usually found in reform-minded cities, with mixed socioeconomic composition. Officers are expected to generate a large number of arrests and citations and act as if there were a single community standard for conduct, rather than different standards for different groups. However, the fact that certain groups are more likely to have law enforcement contact means this strict enforcement of laws may seem overly harsh on certain groups; ;Service: Emphasizes the service functions of police work, usually found in suburban, middle-class communities where residents demand individual treatment. Police in homogeneous communities can view their work as protecting their citizens against "outsiders", with frequent but often-informal interventions against community members. The uniform make-up of the community means crimes are usually more obvious, and therefore less frequent, leaving police free to deal with service functions and traffic control. Wilson's study applies to police behavior for the entire department over time. At any given time, police officers may be acting in a watchman, service, or legalistic function by the nature of what they are doing at the time, their temperament, or their mood at the time. Individual officers may also be inclined to one style or another, regardless of the supervisor or citizen demands. Community-oriented policing is a shift in policing practices in the U.S. that moved away from standardization and towards a more preventative model where police actively partner with the community it serves.


History


Early colonial policing

Policing in what would become the United States of America arose from the law enforcement systems in European countries, particularly the ancient English common law system. This relied heavily on citizen volunteers, as well as watch groups, constables, sheriffs, and a conscription system known as ''
posse comitatus The ''posse comitatus'' (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...
'' similar to the militia system. An early night watch formed in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
in 1631, and in 1634 the first U.S. constable on record was Joshua Pratt, in the
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an British America, English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith (explorer), John Smith. The settlement served as t ...
.
Constable A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal Police, law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police. O ...

Constable
s were tasked with surveying land, serving warrants, and enforcing punishments. A rattlewatch was formed in
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the ...

New Amsterdam
, later to become
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, in 1651. The New York rattlewatch "strolled the streets to discourage crime and search for lawbreakers" and also served as town criers. In 1658, they began drawing pay, making them the first municipally funded police organization. When the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
captured New Amsterdam in 1664, they installed a constable whose duties included keeping the peace, suppressing excessive drinking, gambling, prostitution, and preventing disturbances during church services. A night watch was formed in
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in 1700. In the
Southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandat ...
, formal
slave patrol ' Slave patrols—traditionally known as patrollers, patterrollers, pattyrollers or paddy rollersVerner D. Mitchell, Cynthia Davis (2019). ''Encyclopedia of the Black Arts Movement''. p. 323. Rowman & Littlefield by enslaved persons of African des ...

slave patrol
s were created as early as 1704 in
the Carolinas The Carolinas are the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina, considered collectively. They are bordered by Virginia to the north, Tennessee to the west, and Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia to the southwest. The Atlantic Ocean is to the ...
in order to prevent slave rebellions and enslaved people from escaping. By 1785 the
Charleston Charleston most commonly refers to: * Charleston, South Carolina Charleston is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, South Carolina, Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charle ...

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Guard and Watch had "a distinct
chain of command A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others' authority within the group. It can be viewed as part of a power structure, in which it is usually seen as the most vulnerable and also the most powerful part. Milit ...
,
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s, sole responsibility for policing,
salary A salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract A contract is a legally binding agreement that def ...
, authorized use of force, and a focus on preventing 'crime'."


Development of modern policing

Modern policing began to emerge in the U.S. in the mid-nineteenth century, influenced by the Police#Metropolitan police force, British model of policing established in 1829. The first organized publicly-funded professional full-time police services were established in Boston in 1838, New York in 1844, and Philadelphia in 1854. Slave patrols in the south were abolished upon the Abolitionism in the United States, abolition of slavery in the 1860s. The vigilante tactics of the slave patrols are reflected in the tactics of the Ku Klux Klan. In the late 19th and early 20th century, there were few specialized units in police departments. In 1905, the Pennsylvania State Police became the first
state police State police, provincial police, or regional police are a type of sub-national territorial police force A territorial police force is a police service that is responsible for an area defined by sub-national boundaries, distinguished from oth ...
agency established in the United States, as recommended by President Theodore Roosevelt's Coal strike of 1902#Anthracite Coal Strike Commission, Anthracite Strike Commission and Governor Samuel Pennypacker. The advent of the police car, two-way radio, and telephone in the early 20th century transformed policing into a reactive strategy that focused on responding to calls for service. In the 1920s, led by Berkeley, California police chief, August Vollmer, police began to professionalize, adopt new technologies, and place emphasis on training. With this transformation, police command and control became more centralized. Orlando Winfield Wilson, O.W. Wilson, a student of Vollmer, helped reduce Police corruption, corruption and introduce professionalism in Wichita, Kansas, and later in the Chicago Police Department. Strategies employed by O.W. Wilson included rotating officers from community to community to reduce their vulnerability to corruption, establishing a non-partisan police board to help govern the police force, a strict wiktionary:merit, merit system for promotions within the department, and an aggressive, recruiting drive with higher police salaries to attract professionally qualified officers. Despite such reforms, police agencies were led by highly autocratic leaders, and there remained a lack of respect between police and the community. During the professionalism era of policing, law enforcement agencies concentrated on dealing with Felony, felonies and other serious crime, rather than focusing on crime prevention. Following urban unrest in the 1960s, police placed more emphasis on community relations, and enacted reforms such as increased diversity in hiring. The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment, Kansas City Preventive Patrol study in the 1970s found the reactive approach to policing to be ineffective. The cost of policing rapidly expanded during the 1960s. In 1951, American cities spent $82 per person on policing. Adjusting for inflation, police spending increased over 300% by 2016, to $286 per person. In the 1990s, many law enforcement agencies began to adopt community policing strategies, and others adopted problem-oriented policing. In the 1990s, CompStat was developed by the New York Police Department as an information-based system for tracking and Crime mapping, mapping crime patterns and trends, and holding police accountable for dealing with crime problems. CompStat, and other forms of information-led policing, have since been replicated in police departments across the United States.


Powers of officers

Law enforcement officers are granted certain powers to enable them to carry out their duties. When there exists probable cause to believe that a person has committed a Felony, serious crime, a misdemeanor in their presence, or a select-few misdemeanors not in their presence, a law enforcement officer can Handcuffs, handcuff and arrest a person, who will be held in a police station or Prison, jail pending a judicial bail determination or an arraignment. In 2010, the FBI estimated that law enforcement agencies made 13,120,947 arrests (excluding traffic violations). Of those persons arrested, 74.5% were male and 69.4 percent of all persons arrested were white, 28.0 percent were black, and the remaining 2.6 percent were of other races. A law enforcement officer may briefly detain a person upon reasonable suspicion of involvement in a crime but short of probable cause to arrest. Contrary to popular belief and Hollywood-style depictions in TV and movies, merely lawfully detaining a person—in and of itself—does not deprive a person of their Fourth Amendment right against unlawful searches. Federal, state, and local laws, and individual law enforcement departmental policies govern when, where, how, and upon whom a law enforcement officer may perform a "pat down," "protective search," or "Terry frisk," based on several U.S. Supreme Court decisions (including ''Terry v. Ohio'' (1968), ''Michigan v. Long'' (1983), and ''Maryland v. Buie'' (1990)): In ''Terry v. Ohio'', the landmark decision introducing the term "Terry frisk", or "frisk", to the broader public (italics added):
Our evaluation of the proper balance that has to be struck in this type of case leads us to conclude that there must be a narrowly drawn authority to permit a reasonable search for weapons for the protection of the police officer, ''where he has reason to believe that he is dealing with an armed and dangerous individual'', regardless of whether he has probable cause to arrest the individual for a crime. The officer need not be absolutely certain that the individual is armed; the issue is ''whether a reasonably prudent man in the circumstances would be warranted in the belief that his safety or that of others was in danger''.


Controversies


Deadly force and death in custody

In most states, law enforcement officers operate under the same self-defense laws as the general public. Generally, when the first responder or a member of the public is at risk of serious bodily injury and/or death, lethal force is justified. Most law enforcement agencies establish a use of force continuum and list deadly force as a force of last resort. With this model, agencies try to control excessive uses of force. Nonetheless, some question the number of killings by law enforcement officers, including killings of people who are unarmed, raising questions about alleged widespread and ongoing excessive use of force. Other non-fatal incidents and arrests have raised similar concerns. The racial distribution of victims of US police lethal force is not proportionate to the racial distribution of the US population. Whites account for the largest racial group of deaths, but are under-represented, accounting for 45% of police killings (and 60% of the population). Blacks are over-represented, accounting for 24% of police killings (and 13% of the population). Hispanics are proportionately represented, accounting for 17% of police killings (and 18% of the population). Others (including Asian people, Asian, Native Americans in the United States, Native American, and others) are under-represented, accounting for 4% of police killings (and 8% of the population).


Militarization of police

The militarization of both rural and urban law enforcement has been attributed to the United States' involvement in wars during the 20th century, although some attribute the militarization to the more recent campaigns on War on drugs, drugs and War on terror, terror. Historian Charles A. Beard, Charles Beard argues that cultural change during the Great Depression encouraged the militarization of law enforcement, whereas Harwood argues that the creation of #Specialized weapons, SWAT teams and tactical units within law enforcement during the 1960s began such a trend. In recent years, the use of military equipment and tactics for community policing and for public order policing has become more widespread under the 1033 program. The program prompted discussion among lawmakers in 2014 after unrest in Ferguson, Missouri, Ferguson, Missouri. President Barack Obama, Obama introduced restrictions in 2015 on the transfer of surplus military equipment to police. In 2017, the Donald Trump, Trump administration announced it will reinstate the program.


No-knock warrants

The use of no-knock warrants has become widespread and controversial. Their use has led to misconduct, unlawful arrests, and deaths.


Qualified immunity

The U.S. Supreme Court first introduced the qualified immunity doctrine in 1967, originally with the rationale of protecting law enforcement officials from frivolous lawsuits and financial liability in cases where they acted in good faith in unclear legal situations. Starting around 2005, courts increasingly applied the doctrine to cases involving the use of Police brutality in the United States, excessive or Police use of deadly force in the United States, deadly force by police, leading to widespread criticism that it, in the words of a 2020 Reuters report, "has become a nearly failsafe tool to let police brutality go unpunished and deny victims their constitutional rights".


Civil asset forfeiture

Rules on Civil forfeiture in the United States, civil asset forfeiture allow law enforcement officers to seize anything which they can plausibly claim was the proceeds of a crime. The property-owner need not be convicted of that crime; if officers find drugs in a house, they can take cash from the house and possibly the house itself. Commentators have said these rules provide an incentive for law enforcement officers to focus on drug-related crimes rather than crimes against persons, such as rape and homicide. They also provide an incentive to arrest suspected drug-dealers inside their houses, which can be seized, and to raid stash houses after most of their drugs have been sold, when officers can seize the cash.


Misconduct

Over the past decades, police departments across the country have been affected by instances of misconduct and brutality. Some prominent examples include the following: * 1960s: The 1960s, Sixties was the height of the Civil rights movement, Civil Rights Movement and much police misconduct came from protests that often turned violent. There were also planned attacks against police stemming directly from the force that was being used by the police, against the protesters. President Lyndon Johnson created the Office of Law Enforcement Assistance in 1965. From that, much was done on the federal and local level, such as enhanced training for police personnel. Police officers at that time were often made up of ex-military members that had little training and were left to learn their skills during their job experiences. Law enforcement personnel were also responsible to attend college as a result. * 1965: The Watts riots, Watts Riots of 1965 lasted six days and began following the arrest of Marquette Frye by a white California Highway Patrol officer on suspicion of driving while intoxicated. 34 people were killed and more than 1,000 were injured. The riots also caused over $40 million in damage. * 1985: On May 13, 1985, nearly five hundred police officers MOVE (Philadelphia organization), attempted to clear the MOVE black liberation group compound in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After a shootout between police and MOVE members involving automatic weapons and over 10,000 rounds fired, Commissioner Gregore J. Sambor, Gregore Sambor ordered that the compound be bombed. Two one-pound bombs made of FBI-supplied Tovex, were dropped from a police helicopter targeting a fortified, bunker-like cubicle on the roof of the house. The resulting explosions ignited a fire from fuel for a gasoline-powered generator stored in the rooftop bunker. The fire spread and eventually destroyed approximately sixty-five nearby houses. Eleven people including five children aged 7 to 13 died in the resulting fire. * 1991: In March 1991, Officers from the Los Angeles Police Department, while attempting to arrest Rodney King, used what many believed was excessive force. Four LAPD officers used physical force on King after he resisted arrest. A bystander videotaped the incident and later supplied it to local media. The officers were charged with assault and using excessive force, with all officers acquitted of the assault, and three of the four officers acquitted of using excessive use of force, during the initial trial. This led to the citywide 1992 Los Angeles riots, during which 63 people were killed and 2,373 were injured; it ended only after the California Army National Guard, the United States Army, and the United States Marine Corps provided reinforcements to re-establish control. * 2006: In 2006, Shooting of Sean Bell, Sean Bell was fatally shot on the night before his wedding. It was reported that the police had shot over 50 times at Bell and two of his friends that he was with. * 2014: In 2014, Shooting of Michael Brown, Michael Brown was shot by a police officer after struggling with the officer and attempting to take the officer's gun. His death prompted citywide riots and protests that lasted approximately 5 days. * 2016: In 2016, Shooting of Philando Castile, Philando Castile was shot by a police officer. Due to the rise of social media and cell phones, it is now easy for people to broadcast police use of force incidents that they see. The trend started with Rodney King and has grown since. In this case, Castile's girlfriend live-streamed his death on Facebook. The video gained approximately 3.2 million views by the next day. * 2020: In 2020, Murder of George Floyd, George Floyd was murdered by a Minneapolis Police Department officer in an arrest filmed and uploaded on social media. Officer Derek Chauvin spent over nine minutes with his knee on Floyd's neck, asphyxiating him, despite pleas from onlookers to stop. The incident has sparked ongoing George Floyd protests, protests and riots across the United States.


Issues with recruitment

Despite safeguards around recruitment, some police departments have at times relaxed hiring and staffing policies, sometimes in violation of the law, most often in the cases of local departments and federally funded drug task forces facing staffing shortages, attrition, and needs to quickly fill positions. This has included at times the fielding (and sometimes the arming) of uncertified officers (who may be working temporarily in what is supposed to be a provisional limited-duty status prior to certification) and the hiring of itinerant "gypsy cops", who may have histories of poor performance or misconduct in other departments.


Other concerns

The procedural use of strip searches and Body cavity search, cavity searches by law enforcement has raised civil liberties concerns. The practice of taking an arrested person on a perp walk, often handcuffed, through a public place at some point after the arrest, creating an opportunity for the media to take photographs and video of the event, has also raised concerns. The
New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the ...
came under scrutiny in 2012 for its use of a Stop-and-frisk in New York City, stop-and-frisk program.


Accountability

Special commissions, such as the Knapp Commission in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
during the 1970s, have been used to bring about changes in law enforcement agencies. Civilian review boards (permanent external oversight agencies) have also been used as a means for improving police accountability. Review boards tend to focus on individual complaints, rather than broader organizational issues that may result in long-term improvements. The 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act authorized the United States Department of Justice's United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, Civil Rights Division to bring Civil law (common law), civil ("pattern or practice") suits against local law enforcement agencies, to reign in abuses and hold them accountable. As a result, numerous departments have entered into consent decrees or Memorandum of understanding, memoranda of understanding, requiring them to make organizational reforms. This approach shifts focus from individual officers to placing focus on police organizations.


Cost of Police Misconduct Act

The Cost of Police Misconduct Act (H.R.8908) is a bill introduced to the House on 9 December 2020 by Rep. Don Beyer, proposed while incoming chair of the United States Congressional Joint Economic Committee, which seeks to create "a publicly accessible federal database that would track police misconduct allegations and settlements at both the state and federal levels".


Police reform

There have been many initiatives for police reform in the United States, notably since the 1960s, under President Lyndon B. Johnson, Lyndon Johnson, and several more recent efforts. In the 21st century, reforms based on community dialogue, legal requirements and updating of police training are growing. Nonetheless, instances of misconduct and brutality have continued to occur. Many reforms related to the murder of George Floyd have been put forward.


Calls for abolition

While police resentment and calls for abolition of the police have existed in the United States for over a century, police abolition became more popular in 2014 following the killing of Shooting of Michael Brown, Michael Brown and the Ferguson unrest, with national attention being drawn to issues surrounding policing. The roots of police abolition stem from (and is often linked to) the prison abolition movement. Authors and activists such as Angela Davis and Ruth Wilson Gilmore, who are best known for their prison abolition work, have integrated police abolition into their work when advocating against the carceral system of the United States. In the summer of 2016, Chicago had a multitude of abolitionist actions and protests in response to the deaths of Michael Brown and Shooting of Paul O'Neal, Paul O'Neal, among others. This included the occupation of an empty lot across from a Chicago Police Department property, naming it "Freedom Square", as an experiment of a world without police. In 2017, sociologist Alex S. Vitale authored ''The End of Policing'', calling for police abolition as opposed to reforms. Police abolition spiked in popularity following the murder of George Floyd by Minneapolis Police officer Derek Chauvin. A super-majority of the Minneapolis City Council (9 of 12 council members) pledged in June 2020 to dismantle the Minneapolis Police Department.


Entry qualifications

Nearly all U.S. states and the federal government have by law adopted minimum-standard standardized training requirements for all officers with powers of arrest within the state. Many standards apply to in-service training as well as Entry-level job, entry-level training, particularly in the use of firearms, with periodic re-certification required. These standards often comply with standards promoted by the United States Department of Justice, US Department of Justice and typically require a thorough background check that potential police recruits must take. A typical set of criteria dictates that they must: * Be a United States nationality law, United States citizen (waived in certain agencies if the applicant is a lawful resident). * Have a high school diploma or a General Educational Development, GED and if necessary a Academic degree, college degree or served in the United States Armed Forces, United States military without a Military discharge, dishonorable discharge; * Be in good medical, physical, and psychological condition; * Maintain a clean criminal record without either serious or repeated misdemeanor or any felony convictions; * Have a valid Driver's licenses in the United States, driver's license that is not currently nor has a history of being suspended or revoked; * Be of Good moral character, high moral character; * Not have a history of prior narcotic or repeated Cannabis (drug), marijuana use or alcoholism; * Not have a history of ethical, professional, prior employment, motor vehicle, educational, or financial improprieties; * Not have a history of domestic violence or Mental disorder, mental illness; * Not pose a safety and security risk; * Be legally eligible to own and carry a firearm. Repeated interviews, written tests, medical examinations, physical fitness tests, comprehensive background check, background investigations, fingerprinting, drug testing, a police oral board interview, a polygraph examination, and a consultation with a psychologist are common practices used to review the suitability of candidates. Recruiting in most departments is competitive, with more suitable and desirable candidates accepted over lesser ones, and failure to meet some minimum standards disqualifying a candidate entirely. Police oral boards are the most subjective part of the process and often disqualifies the biggest portion of qualified candidates. Departments maintain records of past applicants under review, and refer to them in the case of either reapplication or requests between other agencies.


Training

Police academies exist in every state and also at the federal level. Policing in the United States is highly fragmented,Jeffrey S. Magers, "Police Officer Standard and Training Commissions (POST Commissions)" in ''Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement: International'' (ed. Larry E. Sullivan: SAGE, 2005), pp. 349-351. and there are no national minimum standards for licensing police officers in the U.S.Steven M. Cox, Susan Marchionna & Brian D. Fitch, ''Introduction to Policing'' (SAGE, 2015). Researchers say police are given far more training on use of firearms than on de-escalating provocative situations. On average, US officers spend around 21 weeks training before they are qualified to go on patrol, which is far less than in most other developed countries.


Police equipment


Firearms

Police in the United States usually carry a handgun on duty. Many are required to be armed off-duty and often required to have a concealable off-duty handgun. Among the most common sidearms are models produced by Glock, Smith & Wesson, SIG Sauer, Beretta, and Heckler & Koch, usually in 9×19mm Parabellum, 9mm, .40 S&W, .357 SIG (US Secret Service and other Federal Law Enforcement agencies) or .45 ACP. Until the late 1980s and early 1990s, most US police officers carried revolvers, typically in .38 Special or .357 Magnum calibers, as their primary duty weapons. At the time, Smith & Wesson, Colt's Manufacturing Company, Colt, Sturm, Ruger & Co., Ruger and some Taurus (manufacturer), Taurus models were popular with police officers, most popular being the Smith & Wesson or Colt revolvers. Since then, most agencies have switched to semi-automatic pistol, semiautomatic pistols. Two key events influencing many US police forces to upgrade their primary duty weapons to weapons with greater stopping power and round capacity were the 1980 Norco shootout and the 1986 1986 FBI Miami shootout, FBI Miami shootout. Some police departments allow qualified officers to carry shotguns and/or Semi-automatic rifle, semiautomatic rifles in their vehicles for additional firepower, typically to be used if a suspect is involved in an active shooter situation, or a hostage/barricade incident.


Less lethal weapons

Police also often carry an Club (weapon), impact weapon—a baton (law enforcement), baton, also known as a nightstick. The common nightstick and the side handle baton have been replaced in many locations by expandable batons such as the Monadnock Auto-Lock Expandable Baton or ASP, Inc., ASP baton. One advantage of the collapsible baton is that the wearer can comfortably sit in a patrol vehicle while still wearing the baton on their duty belt. The side handle nightstick usually has to be removed before entering the vehicle. Many departments also use Non-lethal weapon, less-lethal weapons such as Mace (spray), mace, pepper spray, and Bean bag round, beanbag shotgun rounds. Another less lethal weapon that police officers often carry is an Electroshock weapon, electroshock gun, also known as a taser. The handheld electroshock weapon was designed to incapacitate a single person from a distance by using electric current to disrupt voluntary control of muscles. Someone struck by a Taser experiences stimulation of their sensory nerves and motor nerves, resulting in strong involuntary muscle contractions. Tasers do not rely only on pain compliance, except when used in Drive Stun mode, and are thus preferred by some law enforcement over non-Taser stun guns and other electronic control weapons.


Specialized weapons

Most large police departments have elite SWAT units which are called in to handle situations such as barricaded suspects, hostage situations and high-risk warrant service that require greater force, specialized equipment, and special tactics. These units usually have submachine guns, automatic carbines or rifles, semiautomatic combat shotguns, sniper rifles, gas, smoke, and flashbang grenades, and other specialized weapons and equipment at their disposal. Some departments are equipped with Armoured personnel carrier, armored vehicles.


Body armor

Uniformed police officers often wear body armor, typically in the form of a lightweight Level IIA, II or IIIA vest that can be worn under service shirts. SWAT teams typically wear heavier Level III or IV tactical armored vests, often with steel or ceramic trauma plates, comparable to those worn by U.S. military personnel engaged in ground operations. Officers trained in bomb disposal wear specialized heavy protective armor designed to protect them from the effects of an explosion when working around live ordnance. Local police foundations have initiated programs to provide law enforcement agencies with higher level vests that provide greater protection and vests for police Police dog, K-9s as well.


Body-worn camera

Multiple states have pending body-worn camera legislation that requires its law enforcement to be equipped with body-worn cameras when the officers are on duty. Some of these states include California, Washington, and Illinois, among others. Body-worn cameras are video recording devices around three inches long that cost between $129-$900. There are different body-worn camera models, but a standard body-worn camera includes an on and off switch that enables the image capturing technology to record and store data in the cloud. Body-worn cameras have become standard due to the rise of complaints about police brutality across the nation. Supporters argue that the use of a body-worn camera allows evidence to be viewed from an unbiased perspective. Corporations are currently working on body-worn camera models that will resolve the technology's limitations such as better audio capturing technology and battery life, to name a few.


Drones

In recent years police have recruited unmanned surveillance devices such as small throwable robotics and flying drones to conduct reconnaissance in dangerous locations. These devices can be used to identify the presence of a hostage, locate and/or identify subjects, and reveal the layout of a room. The devices do all this by transmitting real-time audio and video to the pilot, giving police an advantage when they cannot directly see a suspect or enter a location where they are needed. Some other uses for this device may be bomb detection, as well as searching suspicious vehicles. Flying drones are also being enlisted to help police in dangerous situations such as a barricaded suspect or a hostage situation. These drones increase safety by providing information that can be used in mapping and planning. These devices equipped with cameras allow officers to get a bird's eye view of a scene in an emergency, allowing responders to safely get much closer to a scene than they could if they went in on foot.


Police communications


Radio

Most American police departments are dispatched from a centralized communications center, using Very high frequency, VHF, Ultra high frequency, UHF, or, more recently, digitally Trunked radio system, trunked radio transceivers mounted in their vehicles, with individual officers carrying portable handsets or ear-worn headsets for communication when away from their vehicles. American police cars are also increasingly equipped with mobile data terminals (MDTs) or portable computers linked by radio to a network allowing them access to state Department of Motor Vehicles, department of motor vehicles information, criminal records, and other important information. Most police communications are now conducted within a regional pool of area telecommunicators or dispatchers using 9-1-1 and 9-1-1 telephone taxation. A large number of police agencies have pooled their 9-1-1 tax resources for Computer Aided Dispatching (CAD) to streamline dispatching and reporting. CAD systems are usually linked to MDTs (see above).


National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System

A variety of national, regional, state, and local information systems are available to law enforcement agencies in the U.S., with different purposes and types of information. One example is the National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (NLETS), an interstate justice and public safety network owned by the states supporting inquiry into state systems for criminal history, driver's license and motor vehicle registration, as well as supporting inquiry into federal systems, such as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) 's U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Law Enforcement Support Center, the
Drug Enforcement Administration The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA; ) is a Federal law enforcement in the United States, United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice tasked with combating drug trafficking and distribution within th ...

Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA) National Drug Pointer Index (NDPIX), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aircraft Registry and the Government of Canada's Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC). NLETS operates primarily through a secure private network through which each state has an interface to the network that all agencies within the state operate through. The federal and international components operate very similarly. Users include all U.S. states and territories, some federal agencies, and certain international agencies. The primary operational site for the network is housed in Arizona, with a secure backup site located in the East Central U.S. Through the NLETS network, law enforcement and criminal justice agencies can access a wide range of information, from standard driver license and vehicle queries to criminal history and Interpol information. Operations consist of nearly 1.5 billion transactions a year to over one million PC, mobile, and handheld devices in the U.S. and Canada at 45,000 user agencies, and to 1.3 million individual users.


Dissemination

Police departments share arrest information with third-party news organizations that archive names of citizens and legal allegations in a "police blotter". However, even if the allegations are dismissed in court, a citizen may not petition the third-party for removal.


Police population

In 2008, federal police employed approximately 120,000 full-time law enforcement officers, authorized to make arrests and carry firearms in the United States. The 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics' Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies (CSLLEA), found there were 17,985 state and local law enforcement agencies employing at least one full-time officer or the equivalent in part-time officers. In 2008, state and local law enforcement agencies employed more than 1.1 million people on a full-time basis, including about 765,000 sworn personnel (defined as those with general arrest powers). Agencies also employed approximately 100,000 part-time employees, including 44,000 sworn officers. From 2004 to 2008, overall full-time employment by state and local law enforcement agencies nationwide increased by about 57,000 (or 5.3%). Sworn personnel increased by about 33,000 (4.6%), and nonsworn employees by about 24,000 (6.9%). From 2004 to 2008, the number of full-time sworn personnel per 100,000 U.S. residents increased from 250 to 251. From 1992 to 2008, the growth rate for support personnel was more than double that of sworn personnel. Local police departments were the largest employer of sworn personnel, accounting for 60% of the total. Sheriffs' offices were next, accounting for 24%. About half (49%) of all agencies employed fewer than 10 full-time officers. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of sworn personnel worked for agencies that employed 100 or more officers.


Demographics

Law enforcement has historically been a male-dominated profession. There are approximately 18,000 law enforcement agencies at federal, state, and local level, with more than 1.1 million employees. There are around 12,000 local law enforcement agencies, the most numerous of the three types. In a 2013 survey, the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics found that 72.8% of local police officers were white. Black or African American were 12.2% (the black population in the United States is roughly 13%) and Latino or Hispanic are 11.6%. Women made up 17% of full-time sworn officers. Women, Asian, and Hispanic officers are significantly under-represented in police forces. Many law enforcement agencies are attempting to hire a diversity of recruits to better represent their communities.


Changes in personnel numbers

Fifteen of the 50 largest local police departments employed fewer full-time sworn personnel in 2008 than in 2004. The largest declines were in Detroit (36%), Memphis, Tennessee, Memphis (23%), New Orleans (13%), and San Francisco (10%). Ten of the 50 largest local police departments reported double-digit increases in sworn personnel from 2004 to 2008. The largest increases were in Phoenix, Arizona, Phoenix (19%), Prince George's County, Maryland, Prince George's County (Maryland) (17%), Dallas (15%), and Fort Worth, Texas, Fort Worth (14%).


Salary

Salary varies widely for police officers, with most being among the top third of wage-earners, age 25 or older, nationwide. The median annual wage for police and detectives was $65,170 in May 2019. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $37,710, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $109,620. The median wages for police and detective occupations in May 2019 were as follows: * $83,170 for detectives and criminal investigators * $71,820 for police and sheriff's patrol officers * $63,150 for transit and railroad police * $57,500 for fish and game wardens


Deaths

According to 2017 FBI figures, the majority of officer deaths on the job were the result of accidents rather than homicides. Civilians faced a homicide rate of 5.6 per 100,000, while police faced a homicide rate of 3 per 100,000. The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc., (ODMP) has tracked approximately 24,000 officers who have died in the line of duty in the United States since 1786. , line-of-duty officer deaths totaled 118 and the two leading causes were contracting COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, coronavirus (COVID-19) (63) and gunfire (19).


See also

* Police officer certification and licensure in the United States *List of United States state and local law enforcement agencies, List of U.S. state and local law enforcement agencies * Police ranks of the United States * Police uniforms in the United States * Police academy#United States, Police academies in the United States * List of law enforcement agencies in the District of Columbia Related: * Crime in the United States * Incarceration in the United States * Terrorism in the United States General: * Police


References


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Law Enforcement In The United States Law enforcement in the United States, Public services of the United States