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Bottens Bottens is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Gros-de-Vaud District, Gros-de-Vaud in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud in Switzerland. History Bottens is first mentioned in 1142 as ''Botens''. Geography Bo ...

Bottens
,
Bretigny-sur-Morrens Bretigny-sur-Morrens (, literally ''Bretigny on Morrens'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Gros-de-Vaud District, Gros-de-Vaud in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud in Switzerland. History Bretigny-sur-M ...

Bretigny-sur-Morrens
,
Chavannes-près-Renens
Chavannes-près-Renens
,
Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which ...
,
Crissier Crissier () is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Ouest Lausannois District, Ouest Lausannois in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is a suburb of Lausanne. History Crissier is first mentio ...
, Cugy, Écublens, Épalinges,
Évian-les-Bains Évian-les-Bains (), or simply Évian ( frp, Èvian, , or ), is a Communes of France, commune in the northern part of the Haute-Savoie Departments of France, department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Regions of France, region in Southeastern Franc ...

Évian-les-Bains
(FR-74), Froideville, Jouxtens-Mézery,
Le Mont-sur-Lausanne Le Mont-sur-Lausanne is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which i ...
,
Lugrin Lugrin is a Communes of France, commune in the Haute-Savoie Departments of France, department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Regions of France, region in south-eastern France. See also *Communes of the Haute-Savoie department References

...
(FR-74), Maxilly-sur-Léman (FR-74),
Montpreveyres Montpreveyres is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is s ...
,
Morrens Morrens () is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Gros-de-Vaud District, Gros-de-Vaud in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud in Switzerland. History Morrens is first mentioned in 1147 as ''Morrens''. Geography M ...

Morrens
,
Neuvecelle Neuvecelle is a Communes of France, commune in the Haute-Savoie Departments of France, department and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Regions of France, region of eastern France. See also *Communes of the Haute-Savoie department References

Com ...
(FR-74),
Prilly Prilly () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subord ...
,
Pully Pully () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in Switzerland in the Vaud, canton of Vaud, located in the district of Lavaux-Oron District, Lavaux-Oron. It is one of the eastern suburbs of the city of Lausanne, located on the shores o ...
,
Renens Renens ( ) is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. It is located in the district of Ouest Lausannois District, Ouest Lausannois, and is a suburb of the city of Lausanne. It is the fourth largest city in ...

Renens
,
Romanel-sur-Lausanne Romanel-sur-Lausanne is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which i ...
, Saint-Sulpice, Savigny , twintowns = Lausanne (, , , ; frp, Losena ; it, Losanna; rm, Losanna) is the capital city and biggest
town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth an ...
of the
canton of Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is Lausanne. Its fl ...
, Switzerland. It is situated on the shores of
Lake Geneva * it, Lago Lemano * rm, Lai da Genevra , pushpin_map = Switzerland , image = Lake Geneva by Sentinel-2.jpg , caption = Satellite image , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = ...
(french: link=no, le Léman or ''Lac Léman''). It faces the French town of , with the
Jura Mountains The Jura Mountains ( , , , ; french: Massif du Jura; german: Juragebirge; it, Massiccio del Giura, rm, Montagnas da Jura) are a sub-alpine mountain range a short distance north of the Western Alps and mainly demarcate a long part of the ...

Jura Mountains
to its north-west. Lausanne is located northeast of
Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ; frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra) is the List of cities in Switzerland, second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-spea ...

Geneva
. The municipality of Lausanne has a population of about 140,000, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having about 420,000 inhabitants (as of January 2019). The
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
of Lausanne-Geneva (including
Vevey Vevey () is a town in Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = under an , leader_title1 = , leader_name1 = , leader_title2 = , ...

Vevey
-
Montreux Montreux (, , ; frp, Montrolx) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...

Montreux
,
Yverdon-les-Bains Yverdon-les-Bains () (called Eburodunum and Ebredunum during the Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anci ...

Yverdon-les-Bains
,
Valais Valais (in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Wester ...

Valais
and foreign parts), commonly designated as '' Arc lemanique'' was over 1.3 million inhabitants in 2017 and is the fastest growing in Switzerland. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
(which has recognized the city as the "Olympic Capital" since 1994), the
Court of Arbitration for Sport The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; french: Tribunal arbitral du sport, ''TAS'') is an international body established in 1984 to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration Image:LCIA.jpg, upright=1.5, The London Court of Inter ...
and some 55 international sport associations. It lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a
28-station metro system
28-station metro system
, making it the smallest city in the world to have a
rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn (''underground railway'') ...
system. Lausanne hosted the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics.


History

The
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
built a military camp, which they called , at the site of a
Celt The Celts (, see Names of the Celts#Pronunciation, pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European languages, ...

Celt
ic settlement, near the lake where
Vidy Vidy is an area of the city of Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Crissier, Cugy, Vaud, Cugy, Écublens, Vaud, Écublens, Épalinges, Évian-les-Bains (FR-74), ...

Vidy
and
Ouchy (2009) File:Lausanne Lausanne.jpg, The ''Lausanne'' CGN boat in Ouchy (2007) Ouchy is a port and a popular lakeside resort south of the centre of Lausanne in Switzerland, at the edge of Lake Geneva (french: lac Léman). Facilities Very pop ...
are situated; on the hill above was a fort called or (The "-y" suffix is common to many place names of Roman origin in the region (e.g.)
Prilly Prilly () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subord ...
,
Pully Pully () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in Switzerland in the Vaud, canton of Vaud, located in the district of Lavaux-Oron District, Lavaux-Oron. It is one of the eastern suburbs of the city of Lausanne, located on the shores o ...
,
Lutry Lutry is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Switzerland, Swiss Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud, located in the Lavaux-Oron District, Lavaux-Oron, which includes the Lavaux region, a UNESCO World Heritage site. History Lutr ...
, etc.). By the 2nd century AD, it was known as and in 280 as . By 400, it was , and in 990 it was mentioned as . After the fall of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site that was easier to defend. The city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the
Counts of SavoyThe following is a list of rulers of Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie ; it, Savoia ; pms, Savòja ; ) is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps. Situated on the cultural boundary between Franco-Provençal, Occitan ...
and the
Bishop of Lausanne Model of Lausanne Cathedral. The Bishop of Lausanne (French: ''Évêque de Lausanne'') was a Prince-Bishop of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic com ...
. It was invaded by forces from the canton of
Bern ,german: Berner(in),french: Bernois(e), it, Bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corpor ...

Bern
and remained under their domination from 1536 to 1798. The iconoclastic Bernese stripped the Lausanne cathedral of its Roman Catholic trappings, and a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them, but they never were returned. After the
revocation Revocation is the act of recall or annulment. It is the cancelling of an act, the recalling of a grant or privilege, or the making Void (law), void of some deed previously existing. A temporary revocation of a grant or privilege is called a suspe ...

revocation
of the
Edict of Nantes The Edict of Nantes () was signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV and granted the Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protesta ...
in 1685, Lausanne became (along with Geneva) a place of refuge for French
Huguenot The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a Religious denomination, religious group of French people, French Protestantism, Protestants who held to the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition of Protestantism. The term, which may be derived from the name of a ...

Huguenot
s. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Antoine Court and Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely; this number would rise to 400. Official persecution ended in 1787; a faculty of Protestant theology was established at
Montauban Montauban (, ; oc, Montalban ) is a Commune of France, commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne Departments of France, department, regions of France, region of Occitanie, Occitania, Southern France. It is the capital of the department and lies north of ...

Montauban
in 1808, and the Lausanne seminary was finally closed on 18 April 1812. During the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton,
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the forming the . It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is . Its flag bears the motto "Liberté et patrie" on a white ...
, under which it joined the Swiss Federation.


Modern history and heritage

In 1923 the city was the venue for the signing of the
Treaty of Lausanne A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relation ...
, which established the modern
Turkish Republic Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East ...

Turkish Republic
. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events. From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians,
Spaniards Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a predominantly Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, ...

Spaniards
and
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
immigrated to Lausanne, settling mostly in the industrial suburb of
Renens Renens ( ) is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. It is located in the district of Ouest Lausannois District, Ouest Lausannois, and is a suburb of the city of Lausanne. It is the fourth largest city in ...

Renens
. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne,
T. S. Eliot Thomas Stearns Eliot (26 September 18884 January 1965) was a poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform the ...
composed most of his 1922 poem ''
The Waste Land ''The Waste Land'' is a poem by T. S. Eliot, widely regarded as one of the most important poems of the 20th century and a central work of Modernist poetry in English, modernist poetry. Published in 1922, the 434-line poem first appeared in the ...
'' ("by the waters of Leman I sat down and wept").
Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, journalist, and sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th- ...
also visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people – such as historian
Edward Gibbon Edward Gibbon (; 8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Eng ...

Edward Gibbon
and Romantic era poets Shelley and
Byron George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824) known simply as Lord Byron, was an English Peerage of the United Kingdom, peer, who was a poet and politician. He was one of the leading figures of the Romanticism ...

Byron
— have sojourned, lived, and worked in Lausanne or nearby. The city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. In the early 1980s, the Lôzane Bouge protests demanded the city "open an autonomous centre, lower cinema ticket prices, liberalise cannabis and end the process of keeping records on homosexuals, all accompanied by leaflets, chants, and songs in the street". Protests occurred in 2003, against the meetings.


Geography


Topography

The most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva (''Lac Léman'' in French). Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the
Swiss plateau The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (german: Schweizer Mittelland; french: plateau suisse; it, altopiano svizzero) is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland, lying between the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps. It covers about 30% of ...

Swiss plateau
, with a difference in elevation of about between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering
Le Mont-sur-Lausanne Le Mont-sur-Lausanne is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which i ...
and Épalinges. Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the lake and the Swiss and Savoyan
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
. In addition to its generally southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, which has been covered since the 19th century. The former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre, generally following the course of the present ''Rue Centrale'', with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate. The name '' Flon'' is also used for the
metro Metro, short for metropolitan, may refer to: Geography * Metro (city), a city in Indonesia * A metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...

metro
station located in the gorge. The municipality includes the villages of
Vidy Vidy is an area of the city of Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Crissier, Cugy, Vaud, Cugy, Écublens, Vaud, Écublens, Épalinges, Évian-les-Bains (FR-74), ...

Vidy
, Cour,
Ouchy (2009) File:Lausanne Lausanne.jpg, The ''Lausanne'' CGN boat in Ouchy (2007) Ouchy is a port and a popular lakeside resort south of the centre of Lausanne in Switzerland, at the edge of Lake Geneva (french: lac Léman). Facilities Very pop ...
, Mornex, Chailly, La Sallaz, Vennes, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Montheron and Chalet-à-Gobet () as well as the
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of
Lavaux Lavaux is a region in the canton of Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its ca ...

Lavaux
(to the east) and la Côte (to the west). Lausanne has an area, , of (depending on calculation method). Of this area, or 15.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 38.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, or 45.9% is settled (buildings or roads), or 0.2% is either rivers or lakes and or 0.0% is unproductive land.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics
2018 data accessed 26 July 2020
Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 22.8% and transportation infrastructure made up 12.4%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.6% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 7.4%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 9.4% is used for growing crops and 4.9% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is in lakes and streams. The municipality was part of the old Lausanne District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, and it became the capital of the new district of Lausanne.Nomenklaturen – Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz
. Retrieved 4 April 2011.


Climate

Lausanne has an average of 119.7 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives of
precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...
. The wettest month is May during which time Lausanne receives an average of of rain. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 12.1 days. The driest month of the year is February with an average of of precipitation over 8.8 days. The USDA
Hardiness Zone A hardiness zone is a geographic area defined as having a certain range of annual minimum temperature, a factor relevant to the survival of many plants. In some systems other statistics are included in the calculations. The original and most w ...
for Lausanne-Pully is 8b with an average minimum temperature of −7.0 C over the past 20 years (1997–2016). Spring and the City.jpg, Spring Summer and the City.jpg, Summer Autumn and the City.jpg, Autumn Winter and the City.jpg, Winter


Politics


Coat of arms

The
blazon In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal and noble rank ...

blazon
of the municipal
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
is ''Gules, chief argent''.


Administrative divisions

The city is divided into 18 ''quartiers'', or districts, sometimes composed of several neighborhoods. They are: Centre (1), Maupas/Valency (2), Sébeillon/Malley (3), Montoie/Bourdonnette (4), Montriond/Cour (5), Sous-Gare/Ouchy (6), Montchoisi (7), Florimont/Chissiez (8), Mousquines/Bellevue (9), Vallon/Béthusy (10), Chailly/Rovéréaz (11), Sallaz/Vennes/Séchaud (12), Sauvabelin (13), Borde/Bellevaux (14), Vinet/Pontaise (15), Bossons/Blécherette (16), Beaulieu/Grey/Boisy (17), and Les Zones foraines (90).


Government

The municipality (''la Municipalité'') constitutes the executive government of the City of Lausanne and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of seven councilors (french: link=no, conseiller municipal/conseillère municipale), each presiding over a directorate. One of the members act as mayor (''syndic''). In the mandate period 2021–2026 (''la législature'') the Municipality is presided by le Syndic Grégoire Junod. Directoral tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Communal Council are carried by the Municipality. The regular election of the Municipality by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every five years. Any resident of Lausanne allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipality. Since 14 April 2003, due to the constitution by canton of Vaud not only Swiss citizen have the right to vote and elect and being elected on communal level, but also foreigners with a residence permit of at least 10 years in Switzerland and 3 years in the canton of Vaud. The current mandate period is from 1 July 2016 to 30 June 2021. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Majorz. The mayor is later on elected as such by a public election as well by a system of Majorz, while the heads of the other departments are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the Town Hall (''L'Hôtel de Ville''), in the old city on ''Place de la Palud''. , Lausanne's Municipality is made up of three representatives of the PS (
Social Democratic Party The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by many Political party, political parties in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their Ideologies of parties, pol ...
, of whom one is also the mayor), and two members of PES (
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
), and one each of le Parti Ouvrier et Populaire Vaudois (POP) & ''gauche en mouvement'' (an alliance of the left parties
POP Pop or POP may refer to: Places * Gregorio Luperón International Airport (IATA code POP), Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic * Pop, a tributary of the river Jijia in eastern Romania * Poppleton railway station (station code), York, England People ...
(''Parti Suisse du Travail – Parti Ouvrier et Populaire'') and solidaritéS and ''indépendant.e.s''), and PLR ( Les Libéraux-Radicaux (PLR)), giving the left parties a very strong six out of seven seats. The last election was held in March 2021. Simon Affolter is Town Chancellor (chancelier municipal) since for the Municipality.


Parliament

The Communal Council (''Conseil communal'') holds
legislative power A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday l ...
. It is made up of 100 members, with elections held every five years. The Communal Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Municipality and the administration. The sessions of the Communal Council are public. Unlike members of the Municipality, members of the Communal Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Lausanne allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Communal Council. Since 14 April 2003, due to the constitution by canton of Vaud not only Swiss citizen have the right to vote and elect and being elected on communal level, but also foreigners with a residence permit of at least 10 years in Switzerland and 3 years in the canton of Vaud. The Parliament holds its meetings in the Town Hall (''Hôtel de Ville''), in the old city on ''Place de la Palud''. The last election of the Communal Council was held on 28 February 2016 for the mandate period (''la législature'') from 1 June 2016 to 31 May 2021. Currently the Communal Council consist of 33 members of the Social Democratic Party (PS), 21 Les Libéraux-Radicaux (PLR), 17 Green Party (PES), 12
Swiss People's Party The Swiss People's Party (german: Schweizerische Volkspartei, SVP; rm, Partida populara Svizra, PPS), also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre (french: Union démocratique du centre, UDC; it, Unione Democratica di Centro, UDC), is a nati ...
(UDC), 11 ''Ensemble à Gauche'' (an alliance of the left parties
POP Pop or POP may refer to: Places * Gregorio Luperón International Airport (IATA code POP), Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic * Pop, a tributary of the river Jijia in eastern Romania * Poppleton railway station (station code), York, England People ...
(''Parti Suisse du Travail – Parti Ouvrier et Populaire'') and solidaritéS and ''indépendant.e.s''), and 6 ''Le Centre'' (an alliance of Christian Democratic People's Party (PDC) and Green Liberal Party (pvl)).


Elections


National Council

In the for the
Swiss National Council The National Council (german: Nationalrat; french: Conseil national; it, Consiglio nazionale; rm, Cussegl naziunal) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ...
the most popular party was the
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
which received 27.3% (+11.4) of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the PS (26.7%, -4.2), PLR (15.1%, -3.6), the UDC (9.3%, -6), the
POP Pop or POP may refer to: Places * Gregorio Luperón International Airport (IATA code POP), Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic * Pop, a tributary of the river Jijia in eastern Romania * Poppleton railway station (station code), York, England People ...
/ solidaritéS (9%, +1.9), the pvl (6.9%, +3.4). In the federal election a total of 26,070 votes were cast, and the
voter turnout In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...

voter turnout
was 39.7%. In the for the
Swiss National Council The National Council (german: Nationalrat; french: Conseil national; it, Consiglio nazionale; rm, Cussegl naziunal) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ...
the most popular party was the PS which received 30.8% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the PLR (18.7%), the
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
(15.9%), and the UDC (15.4%). In the federal election, a total of 26,116 voters were cast, and the
voter turnout In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...

voter turnout
was 41.0%.


Twin towns and sister cities

*
Akhisar Akhisar is a county district and its town center in Manisa Province Manisa Province ( tr, ) is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir tr, İzmirli , area_urban_km2 = 944 , area_total_km2 ...
, Turkey *
Osijek Osijek () is the fourth-largest city in Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватск ...

Osijek
, Croatia *
Pernik Pernik ( bg, Перник ) is a town in western Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southe ...
, Bulgaria


Demographics


Population

Lausanne has a population () of . , 42% of the population were resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (1999–2009) the population has changed at a rate of 9.9%. It has changed at a rate of 8.3% due to migration and at a rate of 2.6% due to births and deaths.Swiss Federal Statistical Office
. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
The population of the greater Lausanne area (''grand Lausanne'') is 402,900 (as of December 2014). Of the population in the municipality, 58% or 80,828 have a Swiss citizenship, while 16,908 or 12.1% are from Lausanne and still lived there in December 2013. There were 27,653 or 19.8% who are from somewhere else in the same canton, while 36,276 or 26.0% have a Swiss citizenship in another canton. 58,9562 or 42.0% have a foreign citizenship. In 2000, most of the population spoke French (98,424 or 78.8%), with German being second most common (5,365 or 4.3%) and Italian being third (4,976 or 4.0%). There were 62 people who speak Romansh. In there were 840 live births to Swiss citizens and 623 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 862 deaths of Swiss citizens and 127 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 22 while the foreign population increased by 496. There were 9 Swiss men and 57 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 2230 non-Swiss men and 1802 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 883 and the non-Swiss population increased by 2221 people. This represents a
population growth rate Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, ...
of 2.6%. The age distribution, , in Lausanne is; 11,818 children or 9.4% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 12,128 or 9.7% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 21,101 people or 16.8% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 22,158 people or 17.6% are between 30 and 39, 18,016 people or 14.4% are between 40 and 49, and 13,940 people or 11.1% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 11,041 people or 8.8% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 8,277 people or 6.6% are between 70 and 79, there are 5,896 people or 4.7% who are between 80 and 89, and there are 1,171 people or 0.9% who are 90 and older.Canton of Vaud Statistical Office
. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
, there were 58,100 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 48,990 married individuals, 7,797 widows or widowers and 10,027 individuals who are divorced.STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 – 2000
. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
the average number of residents per living room was 0.64 which is about equal to the cantonal average of 0.61 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, kitchens and habitable cellars and attics. About 6.5% of the total households were owner occupied, or in other words did not pay rent (though they may have a
mortgage A mortgage loan or simply mortgage () is a loan In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e., the borrower) incurs a ...
or a
rent-to-own Rent-to-own, also known as rental purchase or rent-to-buy, is a type of legally documented transaction under which tangible property In law, tangible property is literally anything that can be touched, and includes both real property and pers ...
agreement). , there were 62,258 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.9 persons per household. There were 31,205 households that consist of only one person and 2,184 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 63,833 households that answered this question, 48.9% were households made up of just one person and there were 306 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 13,131 married couples without children and 11,603 married couples with children. There were 3,883 single parents with a child or children. There were 2,130 households that were made up of unrelated people, and 1,575 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. there were 1,833 single family homes (or 23.1% of the total) out of a total of 7,925 inhabited buildings. There were 3,634 multi-family buildings (45.9%), along with 1,955 multi-purpose buildings that were mostly used for housing (24.7%) and 503 other use buildings (commercial or industrial) that also had some housing (6.3%). Of the single family homes 324 were built before 1919, while 153 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes (498) were built between 1919 and 1945. The most multi-family homes (933) were built before 1919 and the next most (906) were built between 1919 and 1945. There were 180 multi-family houses built between 1996 and 2000.Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB – Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 – Gebäude und Wohnungen
. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
there were 69,383 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 22,408. There were 9,579 single room apartments and 7,388 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 61,056 apartments (88.0% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 6,840 apartments (9.9%) were seasonally occupied and 1,487 apartments (2.1%) were empty. , the construction rate of new housing units was 2.1 new units per 1000 residents. the average price to rent an average apartment in Lausanne was 1064.08 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$850, £480, €680 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 597.46 CHF (US$480, £270, €380), a two-room apartment was about 792.33 CHF (US$630, £360, €510), a three-room apartment was about 1044.64 CHF (US$840, £470, €670) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2024.55 CHF (US$1620, £910, €1300). The average apartment price in Lausanne was 95.3% of the national average of 1116 CHF.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices
2003 data. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
The vacancy rate for the municipality, , was 0.17%.


Historic population

The historical population is given in the following chart: Colors= id:lightgrey value:gray(0.9) id:darkgrey value:gray(0.8) ImageSize = width:1100 height:500 PlotArea = height:350 left: 100 bottom:90 right:100 Legend = columns:3 left:220 top:70 columnwidth:160 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = x.y Period = from:0 till:140000 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical AlignBars = justify ScaleMajor = gridcolor:darkgrey increment:30000 start:0 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:lightgrey increment:6000 start:0 Colors= id:TO value:yellowgreen legend:Total id:FR value:teal legend:French_Speaking id:GE value:green legend:German_Speaking id:CA value:lightpurple legend:Catholic id:PR value:oceanblue legend:Protestant id:SW value:red legend:Swiss PlotData= color:yellowgreen width:40 mark:(line,white) align:center bar:1850 from:start till:17108 text:"17,108" color:TO bar:1870a from:start till:25845 text:"25,845" color:TO bar:1888 from:start till:33340 text:"33,340" color:TO bar:1900 from:start till:46732 text:"46,732" color:TO bar:1910 from:start till:64446 text:"64,446" color:TO bar:1930 from:start till:75915 text:"75,915" color:TO bar:1950 from:start till:106807 text:"106,807" color:TO bar:1970 from:start till:137383 text:"137,383" color:TO bar:1990 from:start till:128112 text:"128,112" color:TO bar:2000 from:start till:124914 text:"124,914" color:TO LineData = points:(300,154)(400,179) color:FR points:(400,179)(500,206) color:FR points:(500,206)(600,237) color:FR points:(600,237)(700,311) color:FR points:(700,311)(800,344) color:FR points:(800,344)(900,329) color:FR points:(900,329)(1000,336) color:FR points:(300,104)(400,107) color:GE points:(400,107)(500,114) color:GE points:(500,114)(600,118) color:GE points:(600,118)(700,121) color:GE points:(700,121)(800,120) color:GE points:(800,120)(900,107) color:GE points:(900,107)(1000,103) color:GE points:(100,92)(200,99) color:CA points:(200,99)(300,101) color:CA points:(300,101)(400,113) color:CA points:(400,113)(500,129) color:CA points:(500,129)(600,132) color:CA points:(600,132)(700,158) color:CA points:(700,158)(800,227) color:CA points:(800,227)(900,231) color:CA points:(900,231)(1000,208) color:CA points:(100,130)(200,146) color:PR points:(200,146)(300,161) color:PR points:(300,161)(400,182) color:PR points:(400,182)(500,205) color:PR points:(500,205)(600,231) color:PR points:(600,231)(700,279) color:PR points:(700,279)(800,278) color:PR points:(800,278)(900,211) color:PR points:(900,211)(1000,180) color:PR points:(100,130)(200,146) color:SW points:(200,146)(300,161) color:SW points:(300,161)(400,183) color:SW points:(400,183)(500,212) color:SW points:(500,212)(600,253) color:SW points:(600,253)(700,333) color:SW points:(700,333)(800,356) color:SW points:(800,356)(900,312) color:SW points:(900,312)(1000,291) color:SW


Religion

From the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
in the 16th century, the city was mostly
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
until the late 20th century, when it received substantial immigration, particularly from largely Catholic countries. Catholics now form a plurality of the city's population. The Jewish community gathers at the Synagogue of Lausanne. From the , 47,225 people (37.8% of the population) were
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
, while 33,993 (27.2%) belonged to the
Swiss Reformed Church The Swiss Reformed Church (german: Evangelisch-reformierte Kirchen der Schweiz, lit=Evangelical Reformed Churches of Switzerland) is the Reformed branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , base ...

Swiss Reformed Church
. Of the rest of the population, there were 2,698 members of an Orthodox church (2.16%), there were 65 individuals (0.05%) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church, and there were 4,437 individuals (3.55%) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 849 individuals (0.68%) who were Jewish, and 7,501 (6.00%) who were
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
. There were 452 individuals who were
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
, 772 individuals who were
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
and 343 individuals who belonged to another church. 21,080 (16.88%) belonged to no church, were agnostic or
atheist Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psy ...

atheist
, and 7,590 individuals (6.08%) did not answer the question.


Crime

In 2014 the crime rate, of crimes listed in the
Swiss Criminal Code , french: Code pénal suisse (CP), it, Codice penale svizzero (CP), rm, Cudesch penal svizzer , citation = , territorial_extent = Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , governme ...
, in Lausanne was 167.3 per thousand residents. During the same period, the rate of drug crimes was 49.5 per thousand residents, and the rate of violations of immigration, visa and work permit laws was 21 per thousand residents.


Transport

Lausanne is served by an extensive network of local, national and international public transport. National and international passenger trains of the
Swiss Federal Railways Swiss Federal Railways (german: Schweizerische Bundesbahnen, ''SBB''; french: Chemins de fer fédéraux suisses, ''CFF''; it, Ferrovie federali svizzere, ''FFS'') is the national railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is ...
depart from
Lausanne railway station Lausanne railway station (french: Gare de Lausanne) is the main intercity and regional railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, whic ...
, which is also the hub of the RER Vaud commuter rail system, and a stop on the city's Rapid transit, metro. The metro (rapid transit), metro and local buses are operated by Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL), with many routes run using trolleybuses. Additional commuter trains are run by the Lausanne–Echallens–Bercher railway (LEB) from Lausanne-Flon station. Ships across Lake Geneva are provided by the Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman (CGN). Lausanne became the first city in Switzerland to have a rubber-tyred metro system, with the m2 Line which opened in October 2008. The rolling stock is a shorter version of the one used on Paris Métro Line 14. Further expansion of the system is planned, as is the re-introduction of trams. Lausanne is connected to the A1 (Switzerland), A1 motorway on its west side (Geneva – Zürich axis) and to the A9 (Switzerland), A9 on its north and east side (for transit with Italy and France); the interchange between these two motorways is on the north-west side of the city. Lausanne Airport is located at Blécherette, and also houses a Boeing 737 Simulator. The city is also directly linked by train to the Geneva International Airport, four times an hour, in 42min.


Economy

, Lausanne had an unemployment rate of 8%. , there were 114 people employed in the Primary sector of the economy, primary economic sector and about 25 businesses involved in this sector. 6,348 people were employed in the Secondary sector of the economy, secondary sector and there were 698 businesses in this sector. 83,157 people were employed in the Tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector, with 6,501 businesses in this sector. There were 59,599 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which women made up 47.4% of the workforce. the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 75,041. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 93, of which 56 were in agriculture, 34 were in forestry or lumber production and 3 were in fishing or fisheries. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 6,057 of which 1,515 or (25.0%) were in manufacturing, 24 or (0.4%) were in mining and 3,721 (61.4%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 68,891. In the tertiary sector; 8,520 or 12.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 2,955 or 4.3% were in the movement and storage of goods, 4,345 or 6.3% were in a hotel or restaurant, 4,671 or 6.8% were in the information industry, 6,729 or 9.8% were the insurance or financial industry, 8,213 or 11.9% were technical professionals or scientists, 5,756 or 8.4% were in education and 14,312 or 20.8% were in health care. , there were 55,789 workers who commuted into the municipality and 19,082 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 2.9 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 1.9% of the workforce coming into Lausanne are coming from outside Switzerland, while 0.1% of the locals commute out of Switzerland for work.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb
. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
Of the working population, 40.9% used public transportation to get to work, and 35.1% used a private car. Large companies headquartered in Lausanne and its metropolitan area include: * Banque cantonale vaudoise, banking * Bata Corporation, shoe manufacturing * Bobst SA, machinery * :de:Compagnie financière Tradition, Compangie financière Tradition, financial services * Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman, CGN, transportation * Edipresse, publishing * :fr:ELCA Informatique, ELCA, IT *Eni Suisse SA, oil & gas * Kudelski Group, IT * Landolt & Cie, banking * Logitech, computer peripherals * Nespresso, coffee (an operating unit of Nestlé) * :fr:Payot (librairie), Payot, retail bookstore * Philip Morris International, a tobacco company . * :fr:Retraites populaires, Retraites Populaires, financial services * Sophia Genetics, biotechnology * Tetra Laval, packaging * :fr:Vaudoise Assurances, Vaudoise Assurances, insurance


Education

In Lausanne about 40,118 or (32.1%) of the population have completed non-mandatory Education in Switzerland#Secondary, upper secondary education, and 22,934 or (18.4%) have completed additional higher education (either List of universities in Switzerland, university or a ''Fachhochschule''). Of the 22,934 who completed tertiary schooling, 38.7% were Swiss men, 31.3% were Swiss women, 17.1% were non-Swiss men and 12.9% were non-Swiss women. In the 2009/2010 school year there were a total of 12,244 students in the Lausanne school district. In the Vaud cantonal school system, two years of non-obligatory pre-school are provided by the political districts. During the school year, the political district provided pre-school care for a total of 2,648 children of which 1,947 children (73.5%) received subsidized pre-school care. The canton's primary school program requires students to attend for four years. There were 6,601 students in the municipal primary school program. The obligatory lower secondary school program lasts for six years and there were 5,244 students in those schools. There were also 399 students who were home schooled or attended another non-traditional school.Canton of Vaud Statistical Office – Scol. obligatoire/filières de transition
Retrieved 2 May 2011.
Lausanne is home to a number of museums including; the ''Collection de l'art brut'', the ''Espace Arlaud'', the ''Fondation de l'Hermitage'', the ''Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire'', the ''Musée cantonal de géologie'', the ''Musée cantonal de zoologie'', the Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts, the Musée de l'Élysée and the ''Musée historique de Lausanne''.Canton of Vaud Statistical Office – Fréquentation de quelques musées et fondations, Vaud, 2001–2009
Retrieved 2 May 2011.
In 2009 the ''Collection de l'art brut'' was visited by 27,028 visitors (the average in previous years was 33,356). The ''Espace Arlaud'' was visited by 9,222 visitors (the average in previous years was 14,206). The ''Fondation de l'Hermitage'' was visited by 89,175 visitors (the average in previous years was 74,839). The ''Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire'' was visited by 14,841 visitors (the average in previous years was 15,775). The ''Musée cantonal de zoologie'' was visited by 30,794 visitors (the average in previous years was 30,392). The ''Musée cantonal de géologie'' was visited by 28,299 visitors (the average in previous years was 24,248). The Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts was visited by 26,456 visitors (the average in previous years was 26,384). The Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts was visited by 28,554 visitors (the average in previous years was 22,879). The Musée de l'Élysée was visited by 36,775 visitors (the average in previous years was 37,757). The ''Musée historique de Lausanne'' was visited by 23,116 visitors (the average in previous years was 22,851). , there were 12,147 students in Lausanne who came from another municipality, while 2,258 residents attended schools outside the municipality.


Libraries

Lausanne is home to eight large libraries or collections of libraries. These libraries include the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne, the library of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), the libraries of the ''Réseau Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, EPFL'', the ''Bibliothèque municipale de Lausanne'', the ''Haute école de travail social et de la santé (EESP)'', the ''HECV Santé'', the ''Haute école de la santé La Source'' and the École cantonale d'art de Lausanne (ECAL). There was a combined total () of 3,496,260 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 1,650,534 items were loaned out.


Tertiary education

Lausanne enjoys some world class education and research establishments (see also Lausanne campus), including private schools, attended by students from around the world. * École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) * University of Lausanne (UNIL) ** HEC Lausanne, Faculty of Business and Economics of the University of Lausanne * Lausanne University Hospital, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), a hospital centre with associated research * École hôtelière de Lausanne, ''École hôtelière de Lausanne'' (EHL) * École cantonale d'art de Lausanne, ''École cantonale d'art de Lausanne'' (ECAL) * International Institute for Management Development (IMD) * IDHEAP, Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration (IDHEAP) * AISTS ("International Academy of Sports Science and Technology") * Business School Lausanne (BSL) * The Lausanne campus of the University of the Nations * Pepperdine University maintains an international study campus in Lausanne


Primary and secondary schools

; International schools: * École française de Lausanne-Valmont * Lycée Pareto (Italian school) * Brillantmont International School * International School of Lausanne * Collège Champittet ; Private schools: * École Vinet * École Alphalif


Culture and arts


Heritage sites of national significance

There are 46 buildings or sites that are listed as Swiss Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance, heritage sites of national significance. Additionally, the entire old city of Lausanne and the Vernand-Dessus region are listed in the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. * Religious Buildings: Lausanne Cathedral, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Swiss Reformed Church, Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-François, Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-Laurent and the Synagogue of Lausanne, Synagogue at Avenue de Florimont. * Civic Structures: Former Hôpital at Rue Mercerie 24, Former Federal Tribunal, the Former Académie at Rue Cité-Devant 7, Casino de Montbenon, Château Saint-Maire, St-Maire Castle, Bois-de-Vaux Cemetery, Fondation de l'Hermitage and House de maître, Lausanne railway station, Railway station, Beau-Rivage Palace, City Hall, Hôtel des Postes, Administration Building of André & Cie. S.A., Administration Building of the Vaudoise Assurances, Apartment and Office Building at Rue du Grand-Chêne 8, Les Bains de Bellerive, ''l'Estérel'' House, House at Chemin de Chandolin 4, the Mon-Repos estate at Parc de Mon-Repos, Olympic Museum and Archives of the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
, the vessels of the CGN (La Suisse (1910), Savoie (1914), Simplon (1920), Rhône (1927)), Pont Chauderon, the Vernand-Dessus rural site, Site de l'Expo 64 avec Théatre de
Vidy Vidy is an area of the city of Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Crissier, Cugy, Vaud, Cugy, Écublens, Vaud, Écublens, Épalinges, Évian-les-Bains (FR-74), ...

Vidy
, the Tour Bel-Air and the University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV). * Museums and Libraries: Former Residence of the Bishop of Lausanne which is now the Lausanne Museum of History, ''Bibliothèque des cèdres'' (former Bibliothèque des pasteurs), Beaulieu Castle and the ''Collection de l'art brut'', Fondation Toms Pauli Collection de tapisseries and d'art textile, Galeries Saint-François, ''Musée de l'Élysée'', Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts (MUDAC), Musée et jardins botaniques cantonaux, Cantonal Botanical Museum and Gardens, the Roman Museum, the Palais de Rumine with the Musée cantonal de géologie, Musée Cantonal de Zoologie, Cantonal Museum of Zoology, Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts, (Cabinet des médailles) and ''Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire''. * Archives: Archives of the ''Banque Vaudoise'', Archives of the City of Lausanne, Archives of ''Énergie Ouest Suisse'' (EOS), the Radio Suisse Romande archives and the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland with archives. * Archeological sites: The Roman era/medieval hill-top city and the prehistoric settlement and Roman era Vicus of
Vidy Vidy is an area of the city of Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Crissier, Cugy, Vaud, Cugy, Écublens, Vaud, Écublens, Épalinges, Évian-les-Bains (FR-74), ...

Vidy
(Lousanna). File:Casino Montbenon.jpg, The Casino de Montbenon File:Lausanne-cathe7.JPG, Lausanne Cathedral File:CHUV Lausanne Suisse 045.JPG, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) File:Château St-Maire.jpg, Château Saint-Maire File:Picswiss VD-46-21.jpg, Swiss Reformed Church, Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-François File:St-Laurent Lausanne.jpg, Swiss Reformed Church, Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-Laurent File:Hermitagefoundation.jpg, Fondation de l'Hermitage File:Gare-lausanne-IMG 0002.JPG,
Lausanne railway station Lausanne railway station (french: Gare de Lausanne) is the main intercity and regional railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, whic ...
File:Beau Rivage Hotel, Lausanne.jpg, Hôtel Beau-Rivage Palace File:TschumiMutuelleAssurance03.jpg, Administrative building of the Vaudoise Assurances File:Musée de l'Elysée 4.jpg, Musée de l'Élysée File:Musee olympique.jpg, Olympic Museum and Archives of the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
File:Ouchy waterfront statue.JPG,
Ouchy (2009) File:Lausanne Lausanne.jpg, The ''Lausanne'' CGN boat in Ouchy (2007) Ouchy is a port and a popular lakeside resort south of the centre of Lausanne in Switzerland, at the edge of Lake Geneva (french: lac Léman). Facilities Very pop ...
waterfront File:Lausanne synagogue.jpg, Synagogue of Lausanne, Synagogue File:Tour sauvabelin.JPG, The Tour de Sauvabelin, Sauvabelin Tower File:Lausanne Lausanne.jpg, Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman


Culture

The ''Orchestre de chambre de Lausanne'', the Lausanne Opera and the ''Ensemble vocal de Lausanne'' provide a diverse and rich musical life. The latter has been under the direction of Michel Corboz for many years. In January, the Prix de Lausanne, a famous dance competition, takes place at the Palais de Beaulieu (the biggest theatre in Switzerland) over a one-week period. The event attracts dancers and some of the big names in dance from all over the world. The Swiss Film Archive is based in Lausanne and the city hosts film festivals such as the ''Festival cinémas d'Afrique'' and the Lausanne Underground Film and Music Festival. In addition to modern cinemas, the "Capitole" (in activity since 1929) is the biggest cinema in Switzerland (currently 867 seats). The town hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 1989. Each July, the ''Festival de la cité'' is held in the La Cité (Lausanne), old part of town. Other music festivals include the Bach Festival, the ''Festival et concours Bach de Lausanne'', which follows the ''Nuit de musées'' (museums' night) in the fall season. Lausanne is also the home of the Béjart Ballet.


Monuments

* Lausanne Cathedral, Cathedral (restored by Viollet-le-Duc) * Château Saint-Maire, Saint-Maire Castle (''Château Saint-Maire'') * Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland * Town Hall


Museums

Lausanne is also the site of many museums: * Archizoom (EPFL), Archizoom * Musée Bolo * Olympic Museum, Olympic Museum (''Musée olympique'') * Musée de l'Élysée * ("Hermitage Foundation") * Collection de l'art brut, Collection of Outsider Art (Collection de l'art brut) * Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts (Musée de design et d'arts appliqués contemporains) * (Musée historique de Lausanne) * Musée Arlaud or "Espace Arlaud" * ''Espace des inventions'' ("Science Center for Kids") at the * – Musée de la main ("Museum of the Hand") * * Musée et jardins botaniques cantonaux, Cantonal Botanical Museum and Gardens (Musée et jardins botaniques cantonaux) * (Musée monétaire cantonal) (formerly "Cabinet cantonal des médailles") * (Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire) * Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts (Musée cantonal des beaux-arts) * Musée Cantonal de Zoologie, Cantonal Museum of Zoology (Musée cantonal de zoologie) * (Musée cantonal de Géologie) *


Art galleries


Main contemporary art galleries

* Lucy Mackintosh, Galerie Lucy Mackintosh (closed) * Dubner Moderne * Synopsism * Espace Saint-François


Art centers or artist-run galleries

* Circuit * Galerie Galerie 1m3 * Doll espace d'art contemporain


Music

* Contemporary composer Leonardo Balada's Symphony No. 4 is subtitled 'Lausanne'. * Igor Stravinsky's ''L'Histoire du Soldat'' was premiered in Lausanne in September 1918.


Sports

Lausanne is home to the International Olympic Committee, IOC, with water sports available on the nearby lake and mountaineering in the nearby mountains. Cycling is also a common pastime, with the vineyards in the surrounding hills providing extensive views and challenging routes. There is an annual Track and field meeting (''Athletissima''), road running through the city (the 20 km of Lausanne, 20 km (12 mi) of Lausanne), the Tour de Romandie road cycling race, Marathon of Lausanne and triathlon competition, among other sports events. The two most important sports are ice hockey and association football, football. Lausanne hosted the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics and the 2020 IIHF World Championship. Local * Lausanne Hockey Club * FC Lausanne-Sport, Lausanne-Sport Football Club * Lausanne-Sports Aviron Rowing Club * Lausanne Sharks American Football Club * Federation of Swiss Bandy * Stade Lausanne Rugby Club * Lausanne University Club (Luc) Rugby International Lausanne hosts the headquarters of the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
(IOC) and
Court of Arbitration for Sport The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; french: Tribunal arbitral du sport, ''TAS'') is an international body established in 1984 to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration Image:LCIA.jpg, upright=1.5, The London Court of Inter ...
(CAS), and many other international sport associations: * European Athletic Association, European Athletics Association (EAA) * International Baseball Federation (IBAF) * International Federation for Equestrian Sports (, FEI) * International Fencing Federation (, FIE) * International Golf Federation (, IGF) * International Federation of Gymnastics (, FIG) * International Hockey Federation (, FIH) * International Rowing Federation (, FISA) * International Skating Union (ISU) * International Swimming Federation (, FINA) * International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) * International Triathlon Union (ITU) * International University Sports Federation (, FISU) * International Volleyball Federation (, FIVB) * International Wushu Federation (IWUF) * World Air Sports Federation (, FAI) * World Archery Federation (WA; , FITA) * FIDE(International Chess Federation)


International relations

In March–April 2015, the negotiations on Iran nuclear deal framework for a comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme took place at the Beau-Rivage Palace, where the foreign ministers and delegations from the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, France, the European Union, Germany (P5+1) and Iran were also hosted. The final press conference, on 2 April 2015, was held at the EPFL Learning Centre. On 24 July 1923, the
Treaty of Lausanne A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relation ...
was signed at the Beau-Rivage Palace.


Notable people

Public service, the military and the church * Pierre Viret (1511–1571), a Reformed theologian and Protestant reformer * David-Louis Constant de Rebecque (1722–1785), colonel and commandant of a Swiss regiment * Alexandre Vinet (1797–1847), a Swiss critic and theologian * Amalric-Frédéric Buscarlet (1836–1928), overseas minister of the Church of Scotland, promoted the building of the Scots Kirk, Lausanne in 1876 * Major General Lionel Dunsterville CB CSI (1865–1946), a British general, who led Dunsterforce * Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (1867–1951), Finnish field marshal and president * Gustave Biéler DSO MBE (1904–1944), a Special Operations Executive agent during WWII * Metropolitan Anthony of Sourozh (1914–2003), Russian Orthodox ecclesiastic * Georges-André Chevallaz (1915–2002), an historian, politician, Mayor of Lausanne 1958–1973 and member of the Swiss Federal Council 1974–1983 * Jean-François Bergier (1931–2009), an historian, chaired the Bergier commission * Jean-Pascal Delamuraz (1936–1998), Swiss politician * Daniel Brélaz (born 1950), a mathematician and politician, Mayor of Lausanne 2001–2016 Science and architecture * Jean-Nicolas-Sébastien Allamand FRS (1716–1787), a Swiss-Dutch natural philosopher * Johann Ludwig Burckhardt (1784–1817), a traveller, geographer and orientalist * Oswald Heer (1809–1883), Swiss geologist and naturalist * Eugène Viollet-le-Duc (1814–1879), a French architect and author * Eugène Renevier (1831–1906), geologist and professor at the University of Lausanne * Léon Walras (1834–1910), Economist, Professor of Economics at University of Lausanne, co-founder of the Lausanne School of economics, together with: Vilfredo Pareto * Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923), Economist, engineer, sociologist, philosopher, Professor of Economics at University of Lausanne, co-founder of the Lausanne School of economics, together with: Léon Walras * Sir Waldemar Haffkine (1860–1930), Ukrainian bacteriologist * Auguste Piccard (1884–1962), a physicist, inventor and explorer * Michel Mayor (born 1942), an astrophysicist, winner of the 2015 Kyoto Prize * Bernard Tschumi (born 1944), an architect, writer and educator associated with deconstructivism Writing * Jean Bagnyon (1412–1487), a lawyer, historian, political writer and translator * Jean-Pierre de Crousaz (1663–1750), a writer, theologian and philosopher *
Edward Gibbon Edward Gibbon (; 8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Eng ...

Edward Gibbon
FRS (1737–1794), an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament * Benjamin Constant (1767–1830), a political activist and writer on politics and religion * Albert Chavannes (1836–1903), a Swiss-born American author, philosopher and sociologist * Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz (1878–1947), a French-speaking Swiss writer * Georges Simenon (1903–1989), a Belgian writer, created ''Jules Maigret'' * Alejo Carpentier (1904–1980), a Cuban novelist, essayist, and musicologist * Jean Anouilh (1910–1987), French dramatist * Han Suyin (1917–2012), a Chinese-born Eurasian, a physician and author of books on China * Nanos Valaoritis (born 1921), a Greek writer, poet, novelist and playwright * Albin Schram (1926–2005), collected letters by royals, scientists, writers and philosophers * Jon Steele (born 1950), an American expat author, cameraman and journalist Acting * George Sanders (1906–1972), a British film and television actor and author * James Mason (1909–1984), an English actor * Freddy Buache (born 1924), cinema critic and director of the Swiss Film Archive 1951–1996 * Capucine (1928–1990), French actress and model * Fernand Melgar (born 1961), a Swiss actor, producer, director and film editor * Vincent Perez (born 1964), film actor and director * David Bennent (born 1966), actor * Élodie Frenck (born 1974), a Peruvian-Swiss-French actress * James Thiérrée (born 1974), a circus performer, violinist, actor and director Painting * François Bocion (1828–1890), artist and teacher, painted scenes around Lake Geneva * Eugène Grasset (1845–1917), a decorative artist, a pioneer in Art Nouveau design * Elizabeth Thompson (Lady Butler) (1846–1933), a British painter of history paintings * Théophile Steinlen (1859–1923), a French Art Nouveau painter and printmaker * Marius Borgeaud (1861–1924), a Post-Impressionist painter * Félix Vallotton (1865–1925), a Swiss/French painter and printmaker associated with Les Nabis * Alice Bailly (1872–1938), a radical painter, participated in the Dada movement * René Auberjonois (painter), René Auberjonois (1872–1957), a Post-Impressionism, post-impressionist painter * Ernest Boiceau (1881–1950), artist and designer * Aloise Corbaz (1886–1964), outsider artist * Lucienne Peiry (born 1961), PhD in the history of art, specialist in Outsider Art ("Art Brut"), an exhibition curator and lecturer *Andy Picci (born 1989), conceptual artist Music and dancing * Karol Szymanowski (1882–1937), a Polish composer and pianist * Hélène Boschi (1917–1990), pianist * Maurice Béjart (1927–2007), dancer, choreographer and opera director, ran the Béjart Ballet Lausanne, Béjart Ballet * Charles Dutoit (born 1936), conductor * Manola Asensio (born 1943), a former ballet dancer * Jacques Viret (born 1943), French musicologist * Pierre Amoyal (born 1949), a French violinist, artistic director of the Conservatory of Lausanne * Rachel Kolly d'Alba (born 1981), a violinist and an honorary citizen of Asunción in Paraguay Royalty and the landed gentry * Pierre de Coubertin (1863–1937) French baron, founder of the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
* Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg (1887–1969) Queen of Spain as the wife of King Alfonso XIII * Helen of Greece and Denmark (1896–1982) Queen mother of Romania, saved Romanian Jews in WWII * Prince Nicholas Tchkotoua (1909–1984) a Georgian writer and member of the Order of Malta * Bhumibol Adulyadej (1927–2016) late Monarchy of Thailand, King of Thailand, educated and lived locally 1933–1945 * Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria (1938–2015) the last infante of Spain * Prince Egon von Furstenberg (1946–2004) a socialite, banker, fashion and interior designer * Princess Yasmin Aga Khan (born 1949) an American philanthropist * Princess Margareta of Romania (born 1949) daughter of Michael I of Romania, King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania * Princess Elena of Romania (born 1950) daughter of Michael I of Romania, King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania * Princess Ubol Ratana (born 1951) Thai princess * Prince Christoph of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1956–2006) a European socialite * Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany (born 1966) head of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine Business * Peter Carl Fabergé (1846–1920) a Russian jeweller of Fabergé eggs, founded House of Fabergé * Coco Chanel (1883–1971) a French fashion designer and business woman * Ingvar Kamprad (1926–2018) founded IKEA * Paloma Picasso (born 1949) a French and Spanish fashion designer and businesswomanIMDb Database
retrieved 8 December 2018
* Dominique Lévy (born 1967) art dealer Sports * André Wicky (1928–2016) racing car driver and team owner * Umberto Agnelli (1934–2004) head of Fiat and Juventus F.C. * Bertrand Piccard FRSGS (born 1958) psychiatrist and balloonist * Patrik Lörtscher (born 1960) 1998 Olympic gold medalist in curling * Stéphane Chapuisat (born 1969) footballer * Mattia Binotto (born 1969) Italian F1 designer, current team principal of Scuderia Ferrari. * Sébastien Loeb (born 1974) French professional rally, racing, and rallycross driver * Ludovic Magnin (born 1979) former footballer, 347 club caps with 63 for national side, current manager of FC Zürich * Lorik Cana (born 1983) Albanian former professional footballer, 388 club caps and 92 for national side * Stan Wawrinka (born 1985) tennis player * Stéphane Lambiel (born 1985) figure skater and coach and 2006 Winter Olympic silver medallist * Timea Bacsinszky (born 1989) tennis player Notorious notables * Marie Manning (murderer), Marie Manning (1821–1849) a Swiss domestic servant and, with her husband, a murderer * Serge Voronoff (1866–1951) a French quack surgeon of Russian extraction * Gaston-Armand Amaudruz (1920–2018) a neo-fascist political philosopher and Holocaust denial, Holocaust denier * Francois Genoud , (1915-1996), Swiss financier and Nazi sympathizer.


See also

* Franco-Provençal language * Eurovision Song Contest 1989 * International Academy of Sport Science and Technology (AISTS) * Lac de Sauvabelin, Tour de Sauvabelin * Beau-Rivage Palace * Scots Kirk, Lausanne (Church of Scotland) * List of mayors of Lausanne * Lausanne Conference, 1949 * Savoy#Duchy of Savoy, Treaty of Lausanne (1564) * Italo-Turkish War#Treaty of Ouchy, Treaty of Lausanne (1912) * Treaty of Lausanne (1923)


References


Bibliography

;Published in the 19th century * ;Published in the 20th century *


External links


City of Lausanne, official site

The official tourism homepage of LausanneMap of public transport
* {{Authority control Lausanne, Cantonal capitals of Switzerland Cities in Switzerland Municipalities of the canton of Vaud Canton of Vaud Populated places on Lake Geneva Cultural property of national significance in the canton of Vaud