HOME

TheInfoList




Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including the following: #
Living elements
Living elements
, such as
flora Flora is all the plant life present in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring (indigenous (ecology), indigenous) native plant, native plants. Sometimes bacteria and fungi are also referred to as flora, as in the terms ' ...

flora
or
fauna Fauna is all of the animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ...

fauna
; or what is commonly called
gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow ...

gardening
, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beauty within the
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of , its s, and how they integrate with or man-made features.''New Oxford American Dictionary''. A landscape includes the physical elements of ly defined s such as (ice-capped) , , such as s, s, ...

landscape
. # Natural abiotic elements, such as
landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws ...

landform
s,
terrain Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a desc ...

terrain
shape and elevation, or
bodies of water A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known l ...
. # Abstract elements, such as the
weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a p ...

weather
and lighting conditions. Landscaping requires expertise in
horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as or ...
and artistic design.


Understanding the land

Construction requires both study and observation, and the process varies in different parts of the world. Landscaping varies according to different
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...

region
s. Therefore, normally local natural experts are recommended if it is done for the first time. Understanding of the site is one of the chief essentials for successful landscaping. Different natural features and phenomena, like the position of the Sun, terrain,
topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an ...
, soil qualities
prevailing winds
depth of the
frost line The frost line—also known as frost depth or freezing depth—is most commonly the depth to which the groundwater Groundwater is the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tastel ...
, and the system of
native flora
native flora
and fauna must be taken into account. Sometimes the land is not fit for landscaping. In order to landscape it, the land must be reshaped to direct water for appropriate drainage. This reshaping of land is called grading. Sometimes in large landscaping projects for example, parks, sports fields and reserves soil may need to be improved by adding nutrients for growth of plants or turf, this process is called soil amelioration. Removal of earth from the land is called cutting while when earth is added to the slope, it is called filling. Sometimes the grading process may involve removal of excessive waste (
landfill A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primar ...

landfill
s),
soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms tha ...

soil
and rocks, so designers should take into account while in the planning stage.


Additional information

At the start, the landscaping contractor issues a statement which is a rough design and layout of what could be done with the land in order to achieve the desired outcome. Different pencils are required to make graphics of the picture. Landscaping has become more technological than natural, as few projects begin without
bulldozers A bulldozer or dozer (also called a crawler) is a large, motorized machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A p ...
,
lawnmowers A lawn mower (also known as mower, grass cutter or lawnmower) is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a lawn, grass surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the mower, but generally ...
, or
chainsaws A chainsaw (or chain saw) is a portable gasoline-, electric-, or battery-powered saw A saw is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals us ...
. Different areas have different qualities of plants. When growing new grass, it should ideally be done in the spring and the fall seasons to maximize growth and to minimize the spread of weeds. It is generally agreed that organic or chemical
fertilizers A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States ...
are required for good plant growth. Some landscapers prefer to use mix
gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally throughout the world as a result of sedimentary and erosive geologic processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone Crushed may refer to ...

gravel
with rocks of varying sizes to add interest in large areas.


See also

*
Aquascaping Aquascaping is the craft of arranging aquatic plant Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (seawater, saltwater or freshwater). They are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes to distinguish them fr ...
*
Arboriculture Arboriculture () is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. ...

Arboriculture
*
Ecoscaping Image:Rath near Clanabogan Community Centre - geograph.org.uk - 93330.jpg, Ecoscaping integrates architectural planning and effective use of resources Ecoscaping integrates the disciplines of landscape architecture and spatial planning with enviro ...
*
Horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as or ...
*
Landscape architecture Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic design and general engineering of various structures for constructio ...
*
Landscape design Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practiced by landscape designers, combining nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, u ...
*
Landscape ecology Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizatio ...
* Landscape engineering *
Landscape planning Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture. According to Erv Zube (1931–2002) landscape planning is defined as an activity concerned with developing landscaping amongst competing land uses while protecting natural processes and sig ...
*
Landscape archaeology Landscape archaeology, a sub-discipline of archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, ...
*
Organic lawn managementOrganic lawn management is the practice of establishing and caring for an athletic Pitch (sports field), turf field or garden lawn and landscape using organic horticulture, without the use of manufactured inputs such as synthetic pesticides or artifi ...
* Naturescaping *
Sustainable landscaping Sustainable landscaping is a modern type of gardening or landscaping that takes the environmental issue of sustainability into account. According to Loehrlein in 2009 this includes design, construction and management of residential and commercial g ...
*
Terraforming Terraforming or terraformation (literally, "Earth-shaping") is the hypothetical process of deliberately modifying the atmosphere, temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of th ...
*
Xeriscaping Xeriscaping is the process of landscaping, or gardening, that reduces or eliminates the need for irrigation Irrigation is the artificial process of applying controlled amounts of water to land to assist in production of crops. Irrigation help ...

Xeriscaping


References


External links

* {{Authority control Landscape Landscape architecture