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Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a non-metropolitan and
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
in
North West England North West England is one of nine official and consists of the of , , , and . The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the in the United Kingdom, after the and . The largest settlements are and . Subdivisions The o ...

North West England
. The county's administrative centre is
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
, while
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...
is the
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
. The present borders of the administrative county were created by the
Local Government Act 1972 The Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the of the , the and the . It alone possesses and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodi ...
(enacted 1974) and enclose a population of 1,449,300 and an area of . However, this is only a small portion of the extent of the historic
county palatine In England, Wales and Ireland a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a Monarchy, kingdom or empire. The name derives from the Latin adjective ''palātīnu ...
, which included the large cities of
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England and Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country's List of English districts by population, fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018) and li ...

Manchester
and
Liverpool Liverpool is a and in , England. With a population of in 2019, it is the , and its is the fifth largest in the with a population of 2.24 million. Situated on the eastern side of the , Liverpool historically lay within the ancien ...

Liverpool
as well as the
Furness Furness ( ) is a peninsula and region of Cumbria in northwestern England. Together with the Cartmel Peninsula it forms Lonsdale Hundred, North Lonsdale, Historic counties of England, historically an exclave of Lancashire. The Furness Peninsula, a ...

Furness
and
Cartmel Cartmel is a village in Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after t ...

Cartmel
peninsulas in the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, i ...

Lake District
, and had an area of . Many of these places still identify strongly with the county, particularly in areas of
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
(such as
Oldham Oldham is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, amid the Pennines and between the rivers River Irk, Irk and River Medlock, Medlock, southeast of Rochdale and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropolitan ...

Oldham
and Bury) where Lancashire is still used as part of the postal address. The population of Lancashire in the 1971 census (before local government changes) was 5,118,405, making it the most heavily populated county in the United Kingdom at the time (other than
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
, which had only been created in 1965). The
history of Lancashire Lancashire is a Counties of England, county of England, in the northwest of the country. The county did not exist in 1086, for the Domesday Book, and was apparently first created in 1182, making it one of the youngest of the traditional counties ...
begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the ''
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the spelling of "Doomsday Book" – is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of William I, known as . Domesday has long been associated with the Latin p ...
'' of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a Historic counties of England, historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison with other English cou ...

Yorkshire
. The land that lay between the Ribble and
Mersey The River Mersey () is a river in the North West of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated ...
, ''Inter Ripam et Mersam'', was included in the returns for
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...

Cheshire
. When its boundaries were established, it bordered
Cumberland Cumberland ( ) is a historic county of North West England North West England is one of nine official and consists of the of , , , and . The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the in the United Kingdom, after the ...

Cumberland
,
Westmorland Westmorland (, formerly also spelt ''Westmoreland'';R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British IslesVision of Britain/ref> even older spellings are ''Westmerland'' and ''Westmereland''; the people of Westmorland are known as Westmerians) i ...
, Yorkshire, and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a major commercial and industrial region during the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the
cotton mill A cotton mill is a building that houses spinning (textiles), spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system. Although ...

cotton mill
s respectively. These cities dominated global trade and the birth of modern industrial
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...

capitalism
. The county contained several
mill town A mill town, also known as factory town or mill village, is typically a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories, usually cotton mills or factories producing textiles. Europe Italy * ''Crespi d'Adda'', UNESCO World Her ...
s and the collieries of the
Lancashire Coalfield The Lancashire Coalfield in North West England North West England is one of nine official regions of England and consists of the ceremonial counties of England, adminstrative counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and ...
. By the 1830s, approximately 85% of all
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus '' Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition ...

cotton
manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire.
Accrington Accrington is a town in the Hyndburn borough of Lancashire, England. It lies about east of Blackburn, west of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston, north of Manchester city centre and is situated on the mostly culverted River Hyndbu ...
,
Blackburn Blackburn is a large industrial town located in Lancashire, England, north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the River Ribble, Ribble Valley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and boxing the compass, NNW of Manchester. Bla ...

Blackburn
,
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; the third largest in England afte ...

Bolton
,
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...
, Bury,
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In th ...
,
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle, Lancashire, England. 2.5 miles northeast of Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and west of L ...
,
Darwen Darwen is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hint ...

Darwen
,
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England and Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country's List of English districts by population, fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018) and li ...

Manchester
,
Nelson Nelson may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Nelson (1918 film), ''Nelson'' (1918 film), a historical film directed by Maurice Elvey * Nelson (1926 film), ''Nelson'' (1926 film), a historical film directed by Walter Summers * Nelson (opera), ''Ne ...
,
Oldham Oldham is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, amid the Pennines and between the rivers River Irk, Irk and River Medlock, Medlock, southeast of Rochdale and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropolitan ...

Oldham
,
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
,
Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines in the dale (landform), dale on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropo ...
and
Wigan Wigan ( ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Man ...
were major
cotton mill A cotton mill is a building that houses spinning (textiles), spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system. Although ...

cotton mill
towns during this time.
Blackpool Blackpool is a large town and seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation ba ...

Blackpool
was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns, particularly during
wakes week The Wakes Week is a holiday A holiday is a day set aside by custom Custom may refer to: Sense: Customary * Convention (norm), a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted rules, norms, standards or criteria, often taking the form of a cus ...
. The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, and most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
and
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
.George, D., ''Lancashire'', (1991)Local Government Act 1972. 1972, c. 70 The detached northern part of Lancashire in the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, i ...

Lake District
, including the
Furness Peninsula
Furness Peninsula
and
Cartmel Cartmel is a village in Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after t ...
, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a ...

Cumbria
. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the
West Riding of Yorkshire The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North ...
. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, and
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

North
and
West Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a and in . It is an inland and, in relative terms, upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in the moors of the . West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of t ...

West Yorkshire
to the east; with a coastline on the
Irish Sea The Irish Sea or , gv, Y Keayn Yernagh, sco, Erse Sie, gd, Muir Èireann , Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster ...
to the west. The
county palatine In England, Wales and Ireland a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a Monarchy, kingdom or empire. The name derives from the Latin adjective ''palātīnu ...
boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...
serving as the
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
, and the
Duke of Lancaster The Dukedom of Lancaster is an extinct Peerage of England, English peerage. It was created three times during the Middle Ages but finally merged in the Crown when Henry V of England, Henry V succeeded to the throne in 1413. Despite the extinctio ...

Duke of Lancaster
(i.e. the Queen) exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside.


Political history


Early history

During Roman times the area was part of the
Brigantes The Brigantes were Ancient Britons who in British Iron Age, pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England. Their territory, often referred to as Brigantia (ancient region), Brigantia, was centred in what wa ...

Brigantes
tribal area in the military zone of
Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity when large parts of the island of Great Britain were under Roman conquest of Britain, occupation by the Roman Empire. The occupation lasted from AD 43 to AD 410. During that time, the ...

Roman Britain
. The towns of
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England and Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country's List of English districts by population, fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018) and li ...

Manchester
,
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...
,
Ribchester Ribchester is a village and civil parish within the Ribble Valley district of Lancashire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Ribble, northwest of Blackburn Blackburn is a large industrial town located in Lancashire, England, nor ...
,
Burrow An Eastern chipmunk at the entrance of its burrow A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of Animal locomotion, locomotion. Burrows provide ...

Burrow
, Elslack and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county probably formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of
Rheged The River Eden, Cumbria, Eden Valley is thought by some to have been the heartland of the kingdom of Rheged. Rheged () was one of the kingdoms of the ''Hen Ogledd'' ("Old North"), the Brittonic languages, Brittonic-speaking region of what is now N ...
, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a who inhabited . They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the coastlands of . However, the of the Anglo-Saxons occurred within Britain, and the ide ...
Kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is now Northern England and Lothian, south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old English meaning "the people o ...

Kingdom of Northumbria
from the north of the
River Ribble The River Ribble runs through North Yorkshire and Lancashire in Northern England. It starts close to the Ribblehead Viaduct in North Yorkshire, and is one of the few that start in the Yorkshire Dales and flow westwards towards the Irish Sea (th ...
and the
Kingdom of Mercia Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Li ...
from the south, which both became parts of England in the 10th century. In the ''
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the spelling of "Doomsday Book" – is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of William I, known as . Domesday has long been associated with the Latin p ...
'', land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as " Inter Ripam et Mersam"Sylvester (1980). p. 14. and included in the returns for
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...

Cheshire
. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was then part of Cheshire,Booth, P. cited in George, D., ''Lancashire'', (1991) it is by no means certain.Harris and Thacker (1987). write on page 252: Certainly there were links between Cheshire and south Lancashire before 1000, when Wulfric Spot held lands in both territories. Wulfric's estates remained grouped together after his death, when they were left to his brother Aelfhelm. And indeed, there still seems to have been some kind of connexion in 1086, when south Lancashire was surveyed together with Cheshire by the Domesday commissioners. Nevertheless, the two territories do seem to have been distinguished from one another in some way and it is not certain that the shire-moot and the reeves referred to in the south Lancashire section of Domesday were the Cheshire ones.Crosby, A. (1996). writes on page 31: The Domesday Survey (1086) included south Lancashire with Cheshire for convenience, but the Mersey, the name of which means 'boundary river' is known to have divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia and there is no doubt that this was the real boundary. It is also claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the
West Riding of Yorkshire The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North ...
. The county was established in 1182, and came to be bordered by
Cumberland Cumberland ( ) is a historic county of North West England North West England is one of nine official and consists of the of , , , and . The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the in the United Kingdom, after the ...
,
Westmorland Westmorland (, formerly also spelt ''Westmoreland'';R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British IslesVision of Britain/ref> even older spellings are ''Westmerland'' and ''Westmereland''; the people of Westmorland are known as Westmerians) i ...
, Yorkshire, and Cheshire. It was divided into the
hundred 100 or one hundred (Roman numerals, Roman numeral: C) is the natural number following 99 (number), 99 and preceding 101 (number), 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the short hundred or five 20 (number), score in order to differenti ...
s of
Amounderness The Amounderness Hundred () is one of the six subdivisions of the Historic counties of England, historic county of Lancashire in North West England, but the name is older than the system of hundreds first recorded in the 13th century and might b ...
,
Blackburn Blackburn is a large industrial town located in Lancashire, England, north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the River Ribble, Ribble Valley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and boxing the compass, NNW of Manchester. Bla ...
, Leyland, Lonsdale,
Salford Salford () is the second-largest city in Greater Manchester, England. It is the principal settlement of the City of Salford. In 2011, Salford had a population of 103,886, Salford is located in a meander of the River Irwell which forms part of ...
and
West Derby West Derby ( ) is a suburb of Liverpool, England. It is located east of the city and is also a Liverpool City Council Ward (country subdivision), ward. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, 2011 Census, the population was 14,382. History Mentioned ...
.Vision of Britain
– Lancashire ancient county divisions
Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of
Morecambe Bay Morecambe Bay is a large estuary in northwest England, just to the south of the . It is the largest expanse of intertidal s and in the , covering a total area of . In 1974, the second largest gas field in the UK was discovered west of Blackpool ...
including
Furness Furness ( ) is a peninsula and region of Cumbria in northwestern England. Together with the Cartmel Peninsula it forms Lonsdale Hundred, North Lonsdale, Historic counties of England, historically an exclave of Lancashire. The Furness Peninsula, a ...

Furness
and
Cartmel Cartmel is a village in Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after t ...

Cartmel
, and Lonsdale South.


Modern history

Since the
Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
, Lancashire has had multiple reforms of local government.Berrington, E., ''Change in British Politics'', (1984) In 1889, the
administrative county An administrative county was a first-level administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar term ...
of Lancashire was created, covering the majority of the county. Multiple
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a cou ...
s were outside the
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
control;
Barrow-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness is a town in Cumbria, North-West England. Historic counties of England, Historically part of Lancashire, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with Dalton-in-Furness Urban District in 1974 to form the Ba ...
,
Blackburn Blackburn is a large industrial town located in Lancashire, England, north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the River Ribble, Ribble Valley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and boxing the compass, NNW of Manchester. Bla ...

Blackburn
,
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boro ...
,
Bootle Bootle (pronounced ) is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, Merseyside, England, which had a population of 51,394 in 2011; the wider Bootle (UK Parliament constituency), Parliamentary constituency had a population of 98,449. Histo ...

Bootle
,
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...
, Bury,
Liverpool Liverpool is a and in , England. With a population of in 2019, it is the , and its is the fifth largest in the with a population of 2.24 million. Situated on the eastern side of the , Liverpool historically lay within the ancien ...

Liverpool
,
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England and Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country's List of English districts by population, fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018) and li ...

Manchester
,
Oldham Oldham is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, amid the Pennines and between the rivers River Irk, Irk and River Medlock, Medlock, southeast of Rochdale and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropolita ...
,
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
,
Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines in the dale (landform), dale on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropo ...
,
Salford Salford () is the second-largest city in Greater Manchester, England. It is the principal settlement of the City of Salford. In 2011, Salford had a population of 103,886, Salford is located in a meander of the River Irwell which forms part of ...
, St. Helens and
Wigan Wigan ( ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Man ...
. The area served by the
Lord-Lieutenant A lord-lieutenant () is the British monarch's personal representative in each lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as th ...
(termed now a
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
) covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs. It expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as
Wythenshawe Wythenshawe () is a suburb of south Manchester, England. Historic counties of England, Historically in Cheshire, Wythenshawe was transferred in 1931 to the City of Manchester, which had begun building a massive housing estate there in the 1920s. ...
in Manchester south of the River Mersey and from Cheshire, and southern
Warrington (God giveth the increase) , image_skyline = Warrington Town Hall.jpg , imagesize = 280px , image_caption = Warrington Town Hall , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_siz ...

Warrington
. It did not cover the western part of
Todmorden Todmorden ( ; ) is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Upper Calder Valley in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England. It is north-east of Manchester, south-east of Burnley and west of Halifax, West Yorkshire, Hal ...

Todmorden
, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became increasingly urban with
Warrington (God giveth the increase) , image_skyline = Warrington Town Hall.jpg , imagesize = 280px , image_caption = Warrington Town Hall , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_siz ...
(1900),
Blackpool Blackpool is a large town and seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation ba ...

Blackpool
(1904) and
Southport Southport is a large seaside resort, seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the United Kingdom Census 2001, 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the List of North West England cities and metropolitan areas by population, elev ...
(1905) becoming county boroughs, with many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were particularly complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire.Lord Redcliffe-Maud and Bruce Wood. English Local Government Reformed. (1974)


Post-1974

By the
census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...

census
of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK. The administrative county was also the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the
Local Government Act 1972 The Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the of the , the and the . It alone possesses and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodi ...
, the southern part of the geographic county was transferred to the two newly established metropolitan counties of
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
and
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
.Jones, B. et al., ''Politics UK'', (2004) The new county of
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a ...

Cumbria
incorporated into the and otherwise newly exclaves were incorporated into
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...

Cheshire
. The new
metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of districts of England, local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as ...
s of
Liverpool Liverpool is a and in , England. With a population of in 2019, it is the , and its is the fifth largest in the with a population of 2.24 million. Situated on the eastern side of the , Liverpool historically lay within the ancien ...

Liverpool
, Knowsley, St. Helens and
SeftonSefton may refer to: Places * Sefton, Merseyside, a village in Merseyside, England ** Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England * Sefton, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney, Australia * Sefton, New Zealand, a sm ...
were formed in
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
. In
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
the new metropolitan boroughs were Bury,
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boro ...
,
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England and Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country's List of English districts by population, fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018) and li ...

Manchester
,
Oldham Oldham is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, amid the Pennines and between the rivers River Irk, Irk and River Medlock, Medlock, southeast of Rochdale and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropolita ...
(part),
Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines in the dale (landform), dale on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropo ...
,
Salford Salford () is the second-largest city in Greater Manchester, England. It is the principal settlement of the City of Salford. In 2011, Salford had a population of 103,886, Salford is located in a meander of the River Irwell which forms part of ...
,
Tameside The Metropolitan Borough of Tameside is a metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of districts of England, local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Govern ...
(part),
Trafford Trafford is a of , , with an estimated population of 235,493 in 2017. It covers Retrieved on 13 December 2007. and includes the area of and the towns of , , , and . The borough was formed in 1974 as a merger of the s of Altrincham, , ...
(part) and
Wigan Wigan ( ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Man ...
. Newly created
Warrington (God giveth the increase) , image_skyline = Warrington Town Hall.jpg , imagesize = 280px , image_caption = Warrington Town Hall , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_siz ...

Warrington
borough and parts of Halton borough, south of the new Merseyside and Greater Manchester, were transferred to the administrative county of
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...

Cheshire
. The former urban districts of
Barnoldswick Barnoldswick (pronounced or ) is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle in the county of Lancashire, England. It lies near the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstandi ...
and
Earby Earby is a town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest t ...
,
Bowland Rural District {{coord, 53.913, -2.490, display=title, region:GB_scale:100000 Bowland was a rural district in the West Riding of Yorkshire from 1894 to 1974. It was named after the Forest of Bowland, which it included. It was formed under the Local Governme ...
and the parishes of Bracewell and Brogden and Salterforth from
Skipton Rural District Skipton was a rural district in the West Riding of Yorkshire from 1894 to 1974. It was named after Skipton, which constituted an Urban district (Great Britain and Ireland), urban district on its southern border. The district was expanded in 1937 ...
in the
West Riding of Yorkshire The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North ...
became part of the administrative county of Lancashire. One parish, Simonswood, was transferred from the borough of Knowsley in Merseyside to the district of
West Lancashire West Lancashire is a non-metropolitan district with borough status in the United Kingdom, borough status in Lancashire, England. Its council is based in Ormskirk, and the largest town is Skelmersdale. At the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Ce ...
in 1994. In 1998 Blackpool and
Blackburn with Darwen Blackburn with Darwen is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Lancashire, North West England. It consists of the town of Blackburn and the market town of Darwen including other villages around the two towns. Formation It ...
became
unitary authorities A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized gove ...
(reform equivalent of a county borough), removing them from the
non-metropolitan county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
but not from the
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
. In the same year
Warrington (God giveth the increase) , image_skyline = Warrington Town Hall.jpg , imagesize = 280px , image_caption = Warrington Town Hall , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_siz ...

Warrington
became a unitary authority and was no longer part of the non-metropolitan county of
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...

Cheshire
.


Geography


Divisions and environs

Lancashire, the
shire county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
controlled by the county council is divided into local government districts,
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county to ...
,
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and ...
, Fylde,
Hyndburn Hyndburn is a local government district with borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in prac ...
,
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...

Lancaster
,
PendlePendle may refer to: * Borough of Pendle in Lancashire, England ** Pendle Borough Council, governing the borough ** Pendle (UK Parliament constituency) * Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England ** Forest of Pendle, hilly landscape surrounding the hill * ...
,
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
,
Ribble Valley Ribble Valley is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status within the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, England. The total population of the non-metropolitan district at the 2011 Census was 57,132. Its counc ...
, Rossendale,
South Ribble South Ribble is a non-metropolitan district Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially "shire districts", are a type of Districts of England, local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan county ...
,
West Lancashire West Lancashire is a non-metropolitan district with borough status in the United Kingdom, borough status in Lancashire, England. Its council is based in Ormskirk, and the largest town is Skelmersdale. At the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Ce ...
, and Wyre.Vision of Britain
– Divisions of Lancashire
Blackpool Blackpool is a large town and seaside resort on the north west coast of England. The town is on the Irish Sea, between the River Ribble, Ribble and River Wyre, Wyre estuaries, west of Preston, Lancashire, Preston, north of Liverpool, nort ...
and
Blackburn with Darwen Blackburn with Darwen is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Lancashire, North West England. It consists of the town of Blackburn and the market town of Darwen including other villages around the two towns. Formation It ...
are unitary authority, unitary authorities that do not come under county council control. The Lancashire Constabulary covers the shire county and the unitary authorities. The ceremonial county, including the unitary authorities, borders Cumbria, North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside in the
North West England North West England is one of nine official and consists of the of , , , and . The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the in the United Kingdom, after the and . The largest settlements are and . Subdivisions The o ...

North West England
region.


Geology, landscape and ecology

The highest point of the modern county council area is Gragareth, near Whernside, which reaches a height of 627 m (2,057 ft). Green Hill (Lancashire), Green Hill near Gragareth has also been cited as the Peak bagging, "county" top. of the modern council area. However, the highest point in the historic County Palatine is Coniston Old Man in the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, i ...

Lake District
at 803 m (2,634 ft), which is regarded as the County Top by those who feel the
Local Government Act 1972 The Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the of the , the and the . It alone possesses and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodi ...
(enacted 1974) did not abolish the historic county borders of Lancashire. Lancashire rivers drain westwards from the Pennines into the
Irish Sea The Irish Sea or , gv, Y Keayn Yernagh, sco, Erse Sie, gd, Muir Èireann , Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster ...
. Rivers in Lancashire include the Ribble, River Wyre, Wyre and River Lune, Lune. Their tributaries are the River Calder, Lancashire, Calder, River Darwen, Darwen, River Douglas, Lancashire, Douglas, River Hodder, Hodder, and River Yarrow (Lancashire), Yarrow. The River Irwell, Irwell has its source in Lancashire. To the west of the county are the West Lancashire Coastal Plain and the Fylde coastal plain north of the Ribble and Alt Estuaries, Ribble Estuary. Further north is
Morecambe Bay Morecambe Bay is a large estuary in northwest England, just to the south of the . It is the largest expanse of intertidal s and in the , covering a total area of . In 1974, the second largest gas field in the UK was discovered west of Blackpool ...
. Apart from the coastal resorts, these areas are largely rural with the land devoted to vegetable crops. In the northwest corner of the county, straddling the border with Cumbria, is the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), characterised by its limestone pavements and home to the Leighton Moss nature reserve. To the east of the county are upland areas leading to the Pennines. North of the Ribble is Beacon Fell Country Park and the Forest of Bowland, another AONB. Much of the lowland in this area is devoted to dairy farming and cheesemaking, whereas the higher ground is more suitable for sheep, and the highest ground is uncultivated moorland. The valleys of the River Ribble and its tributary the Calder form a large gap to the west of the Pennines, overlooked by Pendle Hill. Most of the larger Lancashire towns are in these valleys South of the Ribble are the West Pennine Moors and the Forest of Rossendale where former cotton mill towns are in deep valleys. The
Lancashire Coalfield The Lancashire Coalfield in North West England North West England is one of nine official regions of England and consists of the ceremonial counties of England, adminstrative counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and ...
, largely in modern-day
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
, extended into
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
and to Ormskirk,
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In th ...
,
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...
and
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle, Lancashire, England. 2.5 miles northeast of Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and west of L ...
in Lancashire.


Green belt

Lancashire contains Green belt (United Kingdom), green belt interspersed throughout the county, covering much of the southern districts and towns throughout the
Ribble Valley Ribble Valley is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status within the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, England. The total population of the non-metropolitan district at the 2011 Census was 57,132. Its counc ...
, West Lancashire and The Fylde coastal plains to prevent convergence with the nearby Liverpool Urban Area, Merseyside and Greater Manchester Urban Area, Greater Manchester conurbations. Further pockets control the expansion of Lancaster, and surround the Blackpool urban area, as part of the western edge of the North West Green Belt. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt, the portion by Burnley also abutting the Forest of Pendle Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.


Politics


Parliamentary constituencies


County Council

Lancashire County Council is based in County Hall, Preston, County Hall in Preston. Built as a home for the county administration, the Quarter Sessions and Lancashire Constabulary, it opened on 14 September 1882. Lancashire local elections, Local elections for 84 councillors from 84 divisions are held every four years. The Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party currently form a majority on Lancashire County Council.


Duchy of Lancaster

The Duchy of Lancaster is one of two Duchies in England, royal duchies in England. It has landholdings throughout the region and elsewhere, operating as a property company, but also exercising the right of the Crown in the County Palatine of Lancaster. While the administrative boundaries changed in the 1970s, the county palatine boundaries remain the same as the Historic Counties of England, historic boundaries. As a result, the High Sheriffs for Lancashire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside are appointed "within the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster". The High Sheriff is an ancient county officer, but is now a largely ceremonial post. High Shrievalties are the oldest secular titles under the Crown, in England and Wales. The High Sheriff is the representative of the monarch and is the "Keeper of The Queen's Peace" in the county, executing judgements of the High Court. The Duchy administers ''bona vacantia'' within the County Palatine, receiving the property of persons who die intestate and where the legal ownership cannot be ascertained. There is no separate
Duke of Lancaster The Dukedom of Lancaster is an extinct Peerage of England, English peerage. It was created three times during the Middle Ages but finally merged in the Crown when Henry V of England, Henry V succeeded to the throne in 1413. Despite the extinctio ...

Duke of Lancaster
; the title merged into the Crown with the ascension of Henry V of England, Henry V. Rather, the Duchy is administered by the Queen in Right of the Duchy of Lancaster. A separate court system for the county palatine was abolished by Courts Act 1971. A particular form of The Loyal Toast, 'The Queen, Duke of Lancaster' is in regular use in the county palatine. Lancaster serves as the
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
of the county palatine.


Economy

Lancashire in the 19th century was a major centre of economic activity, and hence one of wealth. Activities included coal mining, textile production, particularly that which used cotton, and fishing. Preston Docks, an industrial port are now disused for commercial purposes. Lancashire was historically the location of the port of
Liverpool Liverpool is a and in , England. With a population of in 2019, it is the , and its is the fifth largest in the with a population of 2.24 million. Situated on the eastern side of the , Liverpool historically lay within the ancien ...

Liverpool
while
Barrow-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness is a town in Cumbria, North-West England. Historic counties of England, Historically part of Lancashire, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with Dalton-in-Furness Urban District in 1974 to form the Ba ...
is famous for shipbuilding. As of 2013, the largest private sector industry is the defence industry with BAE Systems Military Air Solutions division based in Warton, Fylde, Warton on the Fylde coast. The division operates a manufacturing site in Samlesbury. Other defence firms include BAE Systems Global Combat Systems in Chorley, Ultra Electronics in Fulwood, Lancashire, Fulwood and Rolls-Royce plc in
Barnoldswick Barnoldswick (pronounced or ) is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle in the county of Lancashire, England. It lies near the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstandi ...
. The nuclear power industry has a plant at Springfields, Salwick operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Westinghouse and Heysham nuclear power station is operated by British Energy. Other major manufacturing firms include Leyland Trucks, a subsidiary of Paccar building the DAF Trucks, DAF truck range. Other companies with a major presence in Lancashire include: * Airline Network, an internet travel company with headquarters in Preston. * Baxi, a heating equipment manufacturer has a large manufacturing site in Bamber Bridge. * Crown Paints, a major paint manufacturer based in Darwen. * Enterprise plc, one of the UK's leading support services based in Leyland. * Hanson plc, a building supplies company operates the Accrington brick works. * Hollands Pies, a major manufacturer of baked goods based in Baxenden near Accrington. * National Savings and Investments, the state-owned savings bank, which offers Premium Bonds and other savings products, has an office in Blackpool. * Thwaites Brewery, a regional brewery founded in 1807 by Daniel Thwaites in
Blackburn Blackburn is a large industrial town located in Lancashire, England, north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the River Ribble, Ribble Valley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and boxing the compass, NNW of Manchester. Bla ...

Blackburn
. * Xchanging, a company providing business process outsourcing services, with operations in Fulwood. * Fisherman's Friend, a confection company, famous for making strong mints and lozenges, based in Fleetwood. The Foulnaze cockle (bivalve), cockle fishery is in Lytham. It has only opened the coastal cockle beds three times in twenty years; August 2013 was the last of these openings.


Enterprise zone

The creation of Lancashire Enterprise Zone was announced in 2011. It was launched in April 2012, based at the airfields owned by BAE Systems in Warton and Samlesbury. Warton Aerodrome covers and Samlesbury Aerodrome is 74 hectares. Development is coordinated by Lancashire Enterprise Partnership, Lancashire County Council and BAE Systems. The first businesses to move into the zone did so in March 2015, at Warton. In March 2015 the government announced a new enterprise zone would be created at Blackpool Airport, using some airport and adjoining land. Operations at the airport will not be affected.


Economic output

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire at basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling.


Education

Lancashire has a mostly comprehensive system with four state grammar schools. Not including sixth form colleges, there are 77 state schools (not including Burnley's new schools) and 24 independent schools. The Clitheroe area has secondary modern schools. Sixth form provision is limited at most schools in most districts, with only Fylde and Lancaster districts having mostly sixth forms at schools. The rest depend on FE colleges and sixth form colleges, where they exist. South Ribble has the largest school population and Fylde the smallest (only three schools). Burnley's schools have had a new broom and have essentially been knocked down and started again in 2006. There are many Church of England and Catholic faith schools in Lancashire. Lancashire is home to four universities: Lancaster University, the University of Central Lancashire, Edge Hill University and the Lancaster campus of the University of Cumbria. Seven colleges offer higher education courses.


Transport


Road

The Lancashire economy relies strongly on the M6 motorway which runs from north to south, past Lancaster and Preston. The M55 motorway, M55 connects Preston to Blackpool and is 11.5 miles (18.3 km) long. The M65 motorway from
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle, Lancashire, England. 2.5 miles northeast of Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and west of L ...
, connects Burnley, Accrington, Blackburn to Preston. The M61 motorway, M61 from Preston via
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In th ...
and the M66 motorway, M66 starting inside the county boundary near Edenfield, provide links between Lancashire and Manchester, and the trans-Pennine M62 motorway, M62. The M58 motorway, M58 crosses the southernmost part of the county from the M6 near Wigan to Liverpool via Skelmersdale. Other major roads include the east–west A59 road, A59 between Liverpool in Merseyside and Skipton in North Yorkshire via Ormskirk, Preston and Clitheroe, and the connecting A565 road, A565 to
Southport Southport is a large seaside resort, seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the United Kingdom Census 2001, 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the List of North West England cities and metropolitan areas by population, elev ...
; the A56 road, A56 from Ramsbottom to Padiham via Haslingden and from Colne to Skipton; the A585 road, A585 from Kirkham, Lancashire, Kirkham to Fleetwood; the A666 road, A666 from the A59 north of Blackburn to Bolton via
Darwen Darwen is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hint ...

Darwen
; and the A683 from Heysham to Kirkby Lonsdale via Lancaster.


Rail

The West Coast Main Line provides direct rail links with London, Glasgow and other major cities, with stations at and . East-west connections are carried via the East Lancashire Line between Blackpool North railway station, Blackpool and via , Preston, , and Burnley Central railway station, Burnley. The Ribble Valley Line runs from to via and Blackburn. There are connecting lines from Preston to and Bolton, and from Lancaster to , Heysham Port railway station, Heysham and .


Air

Blackpool Airport are no longer operating domestic or international flights, but it is still the home of flying schools, private operators and North West Air Ambulance. Manchester Airport is the main airport in the region. Liverpool John Lennon Airport is nearby, while the closest airport to the Pendle Borough is Leeds Bradford International Airport, Leeds Bradford. There is an operational airfield at Warton Aerodrome, Warton near Preston where there is a major assembly and test facility for BAE Systems.


Ferry

Heysham offers ferry services to Ireland and the Isle of Man. As part of its industrial past, Lancashire gave rise to an extensive network of canals, which extend into neighbouring counties. These include the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Lancaster Canal, Sankey Canal, Bridgewater Canal, Rochdale Canal, Ashton Canal and Manchester Ship Canal.


Bus

Several bus companies run bus, bus services in the Lancashire area serving the main towns and villages in the county with some services running to neighbouring areas,
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a ...

Cumbria
,
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
,
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
and
West Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a and in . It is an inland and, in relative terms, upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in the moors of the . West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of t ...

West Yorkshire
. Some of these include: * Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire * Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire * Stagecoach Manchester * Go North West * Preston Bus * Diamond North West


Demography

The major settlements in the ceremonial county are concentrated on the Fylde coast (the Blackpool Urban Area), and a number of notable settlements along west to east of the M65 motorway, M65: including the city of
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
and towns of
Blackburn Blackburn is a large industrial town located in Lancashire, England, north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the River Ribble, Ribble Valley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and boxing the compass, NNW of Manchester. Bla ...

Blackburn
,
Darwen Darwen is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hint ...

Darwen
,
Accrington Accrington is a town in the Hyndburn borough of Lancashire, England. It lies about east of Blackburn, west of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston, north of Manchester city centre and is situated on the mostly culverted River Hyndbu ...
,
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...
, Padiham, Brierfield, Lancashire, Brierfield,
Nelson Nelson may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Nelson (1918 film), ''Nelson'' (1918 film), a historical film directed by Maurice Elvey * Nelson (1926 film), ''Nelson'' (1926 film), a historical film directed by Walter Summers * Nelson (opera), ''Ne ...
and
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle, Lancashire, England. 2.5 miles northeast of Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and west of L ...
. South of Preston are the towns of Leyland, Lancashire, Leyland and
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In th ...
; the three formed part of the Central Lancashire New Town designated in 1970. The north of the county is predominantly rural and sparsely populated, except for the city of
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...
and town of Morecambe which form a Lancaster/Morecambe Built-up area, large conurbation of almost 100,000 people. Lancashire is home to a significant British Asian, Asian population, numbering over 70,000 and 6% of the county's population, and concentrated largely in the former cotton mill towns in the south east.


Population change


Settlements

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.


Areas

:† ''– part of the
West Riding of Yorkshire The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North ...
until 1974'' :''This table does not form an extensive list of the settlements in the ceremonial county. More settlements can be found at :Towns in Lancashire, :Villages in Lancashire, and :Civil parishes in Lancashire.''


Historic areas

Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of
West Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a and in . It is an inland and, in relative terms, upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in the moors of the . West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of t ...

West Yorkshire
,
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...

Cheshire
,
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
,
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
and
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a ...

Cumbria
:Vision of Britain
– Lancashire ancient county boundaries
Chandler, J., ''Local Government Today'', (2001)Youngs. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume 2. Northern England. Boundary changes to occur before 1974 include: *
Todmorden Todmorden ( ; ) is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Upper Calder Valley in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England. It is north-east of Manchester, south-east of Burnley and west of Halifax, West Yorkshire, Hal ...

Todmorden
(split between Lancashire and Yorkshire) entirely to West Riding of Yorkshire in 1889 *Mossley (split between Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cheshire) entirely to Lancashire in 1889 *Stalybridge, entirely to Cheshire in 1889 *the former county boroughs of Manchester and Warrington both extended south of the Mersey into historic Cheshire (areas such as
Wythenshawe Wythenshawe () is a suburb of south Manchester, England. Historic counties of England, Historically in Cheshire, Wythenshawe was transferred in 1931 to the City of Manchester, which had begun building a massive housing estate there in the 1920s. ...
and Latchford, Cheshire, Latchford) *correspondingly, the former county borough of Stockport extended north into Lancashire County Palatine, historic Lancashire, including areas such as Reddish and the Four Heatons, Heatons (Heaton Chapel, Heaton Mersey, Heaton Moor and Heaton Norris).


Symbols

The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower found on the county's heraldic badge and flag. The rose was a symbol of the House of Lancaster, immortalised in the verse "In the battle for England's head/House of York, York was white, Lancaster red" (referring to the 15th-century Wars of the Roses). The traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was not officially registered. When an attempt was made to register it with the Flag Institute it was found that it was officially registered by Montrose, Angus, Montrose in Scotland, several hundred years earlier with the Lyon Office. Flag of Lancashire, Lancashire's official flag is registered as a red rose on a gold field.


Sport


Cricket

Lancashire County Cricket Club has been one of the most successful county cricket teams, particularly in the one-day cricket, one-day game. It is home to England cricket team members James Anderson (cricketer), James Anderson and Jos Buttler. The County Ground, Old Trafford,
Trafford Trafford is a of , , with an estimated population of 235,493 in 2017. It covers Retrieved on 13 December 2007. and includes the area of and the towns of , , , and . The borough was formed in 1974 as a merger of the s of Altrincham, , ...
has been the home cricket ground of LCCC since 1864. Local cricket leagues include the Lancashire League (cricket), Lancashire League, the Central Lancashire League and the North Lancashire and Cumbria League. Since 2000, the designated England and Wales Cricket Board, ECB ECB Premier Leagues, Premier League for Lancashire has been the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition.


Football

Football in Lancashire is governed by the Lancashire County Football Association which, like most county football associations, has boundaries that are aligned roughly with the Historic Counties of England, historic counties. The Manchester Football Association and Liverpool County Football Association operate in
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Manchester, City of Salford, Salford, Metropolitan Borough ...

Greater Manchester
and
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
. Lancashire clubs were prominent in the formation of the English Football League, Football League in 1888, with the league being officially named at a meeting in Manchester. Of the twelve founder members of the league, six were from Lancashire: Accrington F.C., Accrington, Blackburn Rovers F.C., Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers F.C., Bolton Wanderers, Burnley F.C., Burnley, Everton F.C., Everton, and Preston North End F.C., Preston North End. The Football League now operates out of Preston. The National Football Museum was founded at Deepdale,
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
in 2001, but moved to Manchester in 2012. Seven professional full-time teams were based in Lancashire at the start of the 2018–2019 season: * Premier League: Burnley F.C., Burnley * Football League Championship, Championship: Blackburn Rovers F.C., Blackburn Rovers and Preston North End F.C., Preston North End * Football League One, League One: Accrington Stanley F.C., Accrington Stanley, Blackpool F.C, Blackpool and Fleetwood Town F.C., Fleetwood Town * Football League Two, League Two: Morecambe F.C., Morecambe The county's most prominent football rivalries are the East Lancashire derby between Blackburn Rovers and Burnley, and the West Lancashire derby between Blackpool and Preston North End. A further nine professional full-time teams lie within the historical borders of Lancashire but outside of the current ceremonial county. These include the Premier League clubs Everton F.C., Everton, Liverpool F.C., Liverpool, Manchester City F.C., Manchester City and Manchester United F.C., Manchester United.


Rugby League

Along with Yorkshire and Cumberland, Lancashire is recognised as the heartland of Rugby League. The county has produced many successful top flight clubs such as St Helens R.F.C., St. Helens, Wigan Warriors, Wigan, Warrington Wolves, Warrington, Oldham RLFC, Oldham, Salford Red Devils, Salford and Widnes Vikings, Widnes. The county was once the focal point for many of the sport's professional competitions including the Rugby league county leagues, Lancashire League competition which ran from 1895 to 1970, and the Rugby league county cups, Lancashire County Cup which ran until 1993. Rugby League has also seen a representative fixture between Rugby League War of the Roses, Lancashire and Yorkshire contested 89 times since its inception in 1895. In recent times there were several rugby league teams that are based within the ceremonial county which include Blackpool Panthers, East Lancashire Lions, Blackpool Sea Eagles, Bamber Bridge RLFC, Leyland Warriors, Chorley Panthers, Blackpool Stanley, Blackpool Scorpions and Adlington Rangers.


Archery

There are many archery clubs located within Lancashire. In 2004 Lancashire took the winning title at the Inter-counties championships from
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a Historic counties of England, historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison with other English cou ...

Yorkshire
who had held it for 7 years.


Wrestling

Lancashire has a long history of catch wrestling, wrestling, developing its own style called Lancashire wrestling, with many clubs that over the years have produced many renowned wrestlers. Some of these have crossed over into the mainstream world of professional wrestling, including Shak Khan, Billy Riley, Davey Boy Smith, Darren Matthews, William Regal, Wade Barrett and the Tom Billington, Dynamite Kid.


Music


Folk music

Lancashire has a long and highly productive tradition of music making. In the early modern era the county shared in the national tradition of balladry, including perhaps the finest border ballad, "The Ballad of Chevy Chase", thought to have been composed by the Lancashire-born minstrel Richard Sheale. The county was also a common location for folk songs, including "The Lancashire Miller", "Warrington Ale" and "The soldier's farewell to Manchester", while Liverpool, as a major seaport, was the subject of many sea shanties, including "The Leaving of Liverpool" and "Maggie May (traditional song), Maggie May", beside several local Wassailing songs.D. Gregory, '"The Songs of the People for Me'': The Victorian Rediscovery of Lancashire Vernacular Song', ''Canadian Folk Music/Musique folklorique canadienne'', 40 (2006), pp. 12–21. In the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
changing social and economic patterns helped create new traditions and styles of folk song, often linked to migration and patterns of work. These included processional dances, often associated with rushbearing or the Wakes Week festivities, and types of step dance, most famously clog dancing.''Lancashire Folk'', http://www.lancashirefolk.co.uk/Morris_Information.htm , retrieved 16 February 2009.G. Boyes, ''The Imagined Village (book), The Imagined Village: Culture, Ideology, and the English Folk Revival'' (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), 0-71902-914-7, p. 214. A local pioneer of folk song collection in the first half of the 19th century was Shakespearean scholar James Orchard Halliwell, but it was not until the second folk revival in the 20th century that the full range of song from the county, including industrial folk song, began to gain attention. The county produced one of the major figures of the revival in Ewan MacColl, but also a local champion in Harry Boardman, who from 1965 onwards probably did more than anyone to popularise and record the folk song of the county. Perhaps the most influential folk artists to emerge from the region in the late 20th century were Liverpool folk group The Spinners (UK band), The Spinners, and from Manchester folk troubadour Roy Harper (singer), Roy Harper and musician, comedian and broadcaster Mike Harding. The region is home to numerous folk clubs, many of them catering to Irish folk music, Irish and Scottish folk music. Regular folk festivals include the Fylde Folk Festival at Fleetwood.


Classical music

Lancashire had a lively culture of choral and classical music, with very large numbers of local church choirs from the 17th century, leading to the foundation of local choral societies from the mid-18th century, often particularly focused on performances of the music of Handel and his contemporaries. It also played a major part in the development of Brass band (British style), brass bands which emerged in the county, particularly in the textile and coalfield areas, in the 19th century. The first open competition for brass bands was held at Manchester in 1853, and continued annually until the 1980s. The vibrant brass band culture of the area made an important contribution to the foundation and staffing of the The Hallé, Hallé Orchestra from 1857, the oldest extant professional orchestra in the United Kingdom. The same local musical tradition produced eminent figures such as Sir William Walton (1902–88), son of an Oldham choirmaster and music teacher, Sir Thomas Beecham (1879–1961), born in St. Helens, who began his career by conducting local orchestras and Alan Rawsthorne (1905–71) born in Haslingden. The conductor David Atherton, co-founder of the London Sinfonietta, was born in Blackpool in 1944. Lancashire also produced more populist figures, such as early musical theatre composer Leslie Stuart (1863–1928), born in Southport, who began his musical career as organist of Salford Cathedral. More recent Lancashire-born composers include Hugh Wood (1932– Parbold), Sir Peter Maxwell Davies (1934–2016, Salford), Sir Harrison Birtwistle (1934–, Accrington), Gordon Crosse (1937–, Bury),John McCabe (composer), John McCabe (1939–2015, Huyton), Roger Smalley (1943–2015, Swinton), Nigel Osborne (1948–, Manchester), Steve Martland (1954–2013, Liverpool), Simon Holt (1958–, Bolton) and Philip Cashian (1963–, Manchester). The Royal Manchester College of Music was founded in 1893 to provide a northern counterpart to the London musical colleges. It merged with the Northern College of Music (formed in 1920) to form the Royal Northern College of Music in 1972.


Popular music

Liverpool Liverpool is a and in , England. With a population of in 2019, it is the , and its is the fifth largest in the with a population of 2.24 million. Situated on the eastern side of the , Liverpool historically lay within the ancien ...

Liverpool
, both during its time in Lancashire and after being moved to the new county of
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
, has produced a number of successful musicians. This includes pop stars such as Frankie Vaughan and Lita Roza, as well as rock stars such as Billy Fury, who is considered to be one of the most successful British rock, British rock and roll stars of all time.P. Frame, ''Pete Frame's Rockin' Around Britain: Rock'n'Roll Landmarks of the UK and Ireland'' (London: Music Sales Group, 1999), , pp. 72–6. Many Lancashire towns had vibrant skiffle scenes in the late 1950s, out of which a culture of Beat (music), beat groups emerged by the early 1960s, particularly around Liverpool and
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England and Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country's List of English districts by population, fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018) and li ...

Manchester
. It has been estimated that there were at least 350 bands—including the Beatles—active in and around Liverpool during this era, playing ballrooms, concert halls, and clubs. A number of Liverpool performers followed the Beatles into the charts, including Gerry & the Pacemakers, The Searchers (band), the Searchers, and Cilla Black. The first musicians to break through in the UK who were not from Liverpool or managed by Beatles manager Brian Epstein were Manchester's Freddie and the Dreamers, with Herman's Hermits and the Hollies also hailing from Manchester. The Beatles led a movement by various beat groups from the region which culminated in the British Invasion of the US, which in turn made a major contribution to the development of modern rock music.V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, ''All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul'' (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), , pp. 1316–7. After the decline of beat groups in the late 1960s, the centre of rock culture shifted to London, and there were relatively few Lancashire bands who achieved national prominence until the growth of a disco scene and the punk rock revolution in the mid-and-late 1970s. The towns of
Accrington Accrington is a town in the Hyndburn borough of Lancashire, England. It lies about east of Blackburn, west of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston, north of Manchester city centre and is situated on the mostly culverted River Hyndbu ...
,
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...
,
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In th ...
, Clitheroe,
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle, Lancashire, England. 2.5 miles northeast of Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and west of L ...
, Lytham St Annes, Morecambe,
Nelson Nelson may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Nelson (1918 film), ''Nelson'' (1918 film), a historical film directed by Maurice Elvey * Nelson (1926 film), ''Nelson'' (1926 film), a historical film directed by Walter Summers * Nelson (opera), ''Ne ...
, Ormskirk and Skelmersdale are referenced in the 1991 song, It's Grim Up North by the band the KLF as well as the cities of
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...
and
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
.


Cuisine

Lancashire is the origin of the Lancashire hotpot, a casserole dish traditionally made with Lamb and mutton, lamb. Other traditional foods from the area include: * Black peas, also known as parched peas: popular in
Darwen Darwen is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hint ...

Darwen
,
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; the third largest in England afte ...

Bolton
and
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
. * Bury black pudding has long been associated with the county. The most notable brand, Chadwick's Original Bury Black Puddings, are still sold on Bury Market, and are manufactured in Rossendale Valley, Rossendale. * Butter cake: slice of bread and butter. * Butter pie: a savoury pie containing potatoes, onion and butter. Usually associated with
Preston Preston is a place name, surname and given name that may refer to: Places England *Preston, Lancashire, an urban settlement **The City of Preston, Lancashire, a borough and non-metropolitan district which contains the settlement **County Borou ...
. * Clapbread: a thin Staffordshire oatcake, oatcake made from unleavened dough cooked on a griddle. * Chorley cakes: from the town of
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In th ...
. * Eccles cakes are small, round cakes filled with currants and made from flaky pastry with butter, originally made in Eccles. * Faggot (food), Faggot: savoury duck * Fag pie: pie made from chopped dried figs, sugar and lard. Associated with
Blackburn Blackburn is a large industrial town located in Lancashire, England, north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the River Ribble, Ribble Valley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and boxing the compass, NNW of Manchester. Bla ...

Blackburn
and
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...
, where it was the highlight of ''Fag Pie Sunday'' (Lent, Mid-Lent Sunday). * Fish and chips: the first fish and chip shop in northern England opened in Mossley, near Oldham, around 1863. * Frog-i'-th'-'ole pudding: now known as "toad in the hole" * Frumenty: sweet porridge. Once a popular dish at Lancashire festivals, such as Christmas and Easter Monday. * Goosnargh cakes: small flat shortbread biscuits with coriander or caraway seeds pressed into the biscuit before baking. Traditionally baked on feast days like Shrove Tuesday. * Jannock: cake or small loaf of oatmeal. Allegedly introduced to Lancashire (possibly
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; the third largest in England afte ...

Bolton
) by Weaver (occupation), weavers of Flemish people, Flemish origin. * Lancashire cheese has been made in the county for several centuries. Beacon Fell Traditional Lancashire Cheese has been awarded EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. * Lancashire Flat Cake: A lemon flavoured sponge cake, traditionally made with a couple too many eggs, best eaten after being chilled. * Lancashire oatcake, resembling a large oval pancake, eaten either moist or dried * Lancashire Sauce, a lightly spiced mustard produced by the Entwistle family of Bury * "Stew and hard": a beef and cowheel stew with dried Lancashire oatcake * Nettle porridge: a common starvation diet in Lancashire in the early 19th century. Made from boiled stinging nettles and sometimes a handful of meal. * Ormskirk gingerbread: local delicacy that was sold throughout South Lancashire. * Parkin (cake), Parkin: a ginger cake with oatmeal. * Pobs or pobbies: bread and milk. * Potato hotpot: a variation of the Lancashire Hotpot without meat that is also known as ''fatherless pie''. * Ran Dan: barley bread. A last resort for the poor at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. * Rag pudding: traditional suet pudding filled with minced meat, originating in
Oldham Oldham is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, amid the Pennines and between the rivers River Irk, Irk and River Medlock, Medlock, southeast of Rochdale and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropolitan ...

Oldham
. * Sad cake: a traditional cake that may be a variation of the more widely known
Chorley Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In th ...
cake that was once common around Burnley. * Throdkins: a traditional breakfast food of the Fylde. * Uncle Joe's Mint Balls: traditional Mints (candy), mints produced by William Santus & Co. Ltd. in
Wigan Wigan ( ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Man ...
.


Places of interest

The following are places of interest in the ceremonial county: Haigh Hall https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HH_icon.svg File:Ashton Memorial upper levels.jpg, Ashton Memorial, Lancaster File:Bank Hall Daffodils.jpeg, Bank Hall, Bretherton, a Jacobean mansion house, awaiting restoration. Home to Lancashire's oldest Taxus baccata, Yew tree and one of the two fallen Sequoioideae, sequoia in the UK. File:Blackpool Tower 05082017 (cropped).jpg, Blackpool Tower, completed in 1894 File:Clitheroe Castle.JPG, Clitheroe Castle File:Rivington pike.jpg, Rivington Pike, near Horwich, atop the West Pennine Moors, is one of the most popular walking destinations in the county; on a clear day the whole of the county can be viewed from here. File:Queen Street Mill - Weaving Shed - geograph.org.uk - 528579.jpg, Queen Street Mill, the world's only surviving steam-driven cotton weaving shed, located in
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...


Filmography

''Whistle Down the Wind (film), Whistle Down the Wind'' (1961) was directed by Bryan Forbes, set at the foot of Worsaw Hill and in
Burnley Burnley () is a town in Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county tow ...
, and starred local Lancashire schoolchildren. The tunnel scene was shot on the old Bacup-Rochdale railway line, location 53°41'29.65"N, 2°11'25.18"W, off the A6066 (New Line) where the line passes beneath Stack Lane. The tunnel is still there, in use as an industrial unit but the railway has long since been removed. ''Funny Bones'' (1995) was set mostly in Blackpool, after opening scenes in Las Vegas.


See also

* Custos Rotulorum of Lancashire - Keepers of the Rolls * Healthcare in Lancashire * High Sheriff of Lancashire * Grade I listed buildings in Lancashire * Grade II* listed buildings in Lancashire * Lancashire (UK Parliament constituency) - Historical list of MPs for Lancashire constituency * Lancashire dialect * Lancashire Police * Lancashire Police and Crime Commissioner * List of collieries in Lancashire since 1854 * List of mining disasters in Lancashire * Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire * Scheduled monuments in Lancashire


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Crosby, A. (1996). ''A History of Cheshire.'' (The Darwen County History Series.) Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. . * Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987). ''The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 1: Physique, Prehistory, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Domesday).'' Oxford: Oxford University Press. . * Morgan, P. (1978). ''Domesday Book Cheshire: Including Lancashire, Cumbria, and North Wales''. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. . * Phillips A. D. M., and Phillips, C. B. (2002), ''A New Historical Atlas of Cheshire''. Chester, UK: Cheshire County Council and Cheshire Community Council Publications Trust. . * Sylvester, D. (1980). ''A History of Cheshire''. (The Darwen County History Series). (2nd Edition.) London and Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. .


Further reading

* Farrer and Brownbill, ''The Victoria County History, Victoria history of the county of Lancaster'
Vol 1
(1906)
Vol 2
(1908)
Vol 3
(1907)
Vol 4
(1911)
Vol 5
(1911)
Vol 6
(1911)
Vol 7
(1911); London: Constable.


External links

*
Lancashire On Line Parish Clerk
an active project to transcribe and publish records of Births, Marriages and Deaths in Lancashire from the time records began in Edward VIths reign *:gutenberg:15271, Traditions of Lancashire, Volume 1 (of 2), by John Roby
Lancashire Lantern
The Lancashire Life and Times E-Resource network
Lancashire Archives' online catalogue
- over 1 million descriptions of unique historical documents, accessible to the public, which tell the county's story
Website of the film 'Catch - the hold not taken', a look at the cultural significance of wrestling in LancashireLancashire County Council
– MARIO (Mapping portal)
Map of Lancashire

Government Office for the North WestNorth West Regional MinisterLancashire Online ForumsImages of Lancashire
at the English Heritage Archive
Lancashire Enterprise Zone
{{Authority control Lancashire Non-metropolitan counties Counties of England established in 1182 North West England NUTS 2 statistical regions of the United Kingdom