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is the third largest island of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
's five main islands and the most southerly of the four largest islands (excluding
Okinawa is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...

Okinawa
). In the past, it has been known as , and . The historical regional name referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands. In the 8th-century
Taihō Code The was an administrative reorganisation enacted in 703 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period. It was historically one of the . It was compiled at the direction of Prince Osakabe, Fujiwara no Fuhito and Awata no Mahito.Louis Frédéric, Nu ...
reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region. , Kyushu has a population of 14,311,224 and covers .


Geography

The island is mountainous, and Japan's most active volcano,
Mt Aso
Mt Aso
at , is on Kyushu. There are many other signs of tectonic activity, including numerous areas of
hot spring A hot spring, hydrothermal spring, or geothermal spring is a spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of w ...

hot spring
s. The most famous of these are in
Beppu is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a per ...
, on the east shore, and around Mt. Aso in central Kyushu. The island is separated from
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the n ...
by the
Kanmon Straits The or the Straits of Shimonoseki is the stretch of water separating Honshu and Kyushu, two of Japan's four main islands. On the Honshu side of the strait is Shimonoseki (, which contributed "Kan" () to the name of the strait) and on the Kyushu ...
. Being the nearest island to the
Asian continent Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...

Asian continent
, historically it is the gateway to Japan. The name ''Kyūshū'' comes from the nine ancient provinces of
Saikaidō Saikaidō. is a Japanese geographical term. It means both an ancient division of the country and the main road running through it. Saikaido was one of the main Circuit (subnational entity), circuits of the Gokishichidō system, which was original ...

Saikaidō
situated on the island: Chikuzen, Chikugo,
Hizen Image:Provinces of Japan-Hizen.svg, 300px, Map of Japanese provinces (1868) with Hizen Province highlighted was an old provinces of Japan, old province of Japan in the area of the Saga Prefecture, Saga and Nagasaki Prefecture, Nagasaki prefectur ...
, Higo, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Osumi, and Satsuma. Today's is a politically defined region that consists of the seven
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...

prefecture
s on the island of Kyushu (which also includes the former Tsushima and Iki as part of Nagasaki), plus
Okinawa Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...
to the south: * Northern Kyushu **
Fukuoka Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Th ...
**
Kumamoto Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. Kumamoto Prefecture has a population of 1,748,134 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 7,409 Square kilometre, km² (2,860 sq mi). Kumamoto Prefecture borders ...
**
Nagasaki Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. Nagasaki Prefecture has a population of 1,314,078 (1 June 2020) and has a geographic area of 4,130 Square kilometre, km2 (1,594 sq mi). Nagasaki Prefecture borders S ...
**
Ōita Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
**
Saga Prefecture#REDIRECT Saga Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. Saga Prefecture has a population of 809,248 (1 August 2020) and has a geographic area of 2,440 Square kilometre, km² (942 sq mi). Saga ...
* Southern Kyushu **
Kagoshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
**
Miyazaki Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. Miyazaki Prefecture has a population of 1,073,054 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 7,735 Square kilometre, km2 (2,986 sq mi). Miyazaki Prefecture borders ...
*
Okinawa is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...

Okinawa
**
Okinawa Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...


Population

Kyushu has 10.3 percent of the population of Japan. Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of
Fukuoka is the sixth-largest city in Japan, the second-largest port city after Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous Municipalities of Japan, municipality of Japan. It is the ...

Fukuoka
and
Kitakyushu is a Cities of Japan, city located in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. As of June 1, 2019, Kitakyushu has an estimated population of 940,978, making it the second-largest city in both Fukuoka Prefecture and the island of Kyushu after the city of Fuku ...
, with population corridors stretching southwest into
Sasebo is a core city In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built ...
and
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. ...

Nagasaki
and south into
Kumamoto is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan. , the city has an estimated population of 738,907 and a population density of 1,893 people per km2. The total area is 390.32 km2. had a populatio ...
and
Kagoshima is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" ...

Kagoshima
. Except for Oita and Miyazaki, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Politically, Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the
Liberal Democratic Party Several political party, political parties from around the world have been called the Liberal Democratic Party or Liberal Democrats. These parties usually follow a liberal democracy, liberal democratic ideology. Active parties Former parties ...
. Per Japanese census data, the Kyushu region's population with
Ryukyu Islands The , also known as the or the , are a chain of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Ryukyu Islands
(
Okinawa is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...

Okinawa
and
Kagoshima is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" ...
Prefectures) has experienced a large population decline since around 2000 whose population decline has softened mainly due to relatively high birth rate of
Ryukyuans The , also Lewchewan or Loochooan, are an East Asian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set ...
both within the Ryukyuan lands (
Okinawa is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...

Okinawa
and
Kagoshima is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" ...
) and throughout the Kyushu region. The Ryukyuans are an indigenous minority group in Japan. Historical populations with
Ryukyu Islands The , also known as the or the , are a chain of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Ryukyu Islands
Historical populations without
Ryukyu Islands The , also known as the or the , are a chain of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Ryukyu Islands


Designated cities

*
Fukuoka is the sixth-largest city in Japan, the second-largest port city after Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous Municipalities of Japan, municipality of Japan. It is the ...

Fukuoka
(population: 1,588,924) *
Kitakyushu is a Cities of Japan, city located in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. As of June 1, 2019, Kitakyushu has an estimated population of 940,978, making it the second-largest city in both Fukuoka Prefecture and the island of Kyushu after the city of Fuku ...
(population: 940,978) *
Kumamoto is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan. , the city has an estimated population of 738,907 and a population density of 1,893 people per km2. The total area is 390.32 km2. had a populatio ...
(population: 738,907)


Core cities

*
Kagoshima is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" ...

Kagoshima
* Ōita *
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. ...

Nagasaki
* Miyazaki *
Naha is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; t ...
*
Kurume is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...
*
Sasebo is a core city In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built ...
*
Saga Sagas are prose Prose is a form of written (or spoken) language that usually exhibits a natural speech, natural flow of speech and Syntax, grammatical structure—an exception is the narrative device stream of consciousness. The word "prose" f ...


Economy and environment

Parts of Kyushu have a
subtropical climate The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical zone, geographical and Köppen climate classification, climate zones located to the north and south of the tropics, Torrid Zone. Geographically part of the Geographical zone#Temperate zones, ...
, particularly
Miyazaki prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. Miyazaki Prefecture has a population of 1,073,054 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 7,735 Square kilometre, km2 (2,986 sq mi). Miyazaki Prefecture borders ...
and
Kagoshima prefecture is a prefecture of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
. Major agricultural products are
rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

rice
,
tea Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured A cure is a completely effective treatment for a disease. Cure, or similar, may also refer to: Places * Cure (river), a river in France * Cures, Sabinum, an ...

tea
,
tobacco Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defini ...

tobacco
,
sweet potatoes The sweet potato or sweetpotato (''Ipomoea batatas'') is a dicotyledon 200px, Young castor oil plant showing its prominent two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), that differ from the adult leaves. The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more ...

sweet potatoes
, and
soy The soybean or soya bean (''Glycine max'') is a species of legume native to East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, ...
; also,
silk Silk is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all o ...

silk
is widely produced. The island is noted for various types of
porcelain Porcelain () is a ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, ...

porcelain
, including Arita, Imari, Satsuma, and Karatsu.
Heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one ...
is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu, Nagasaki, and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles, semiconductors, metal processing, shipbuilding...etc. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu. The springs are the site of occurrence of certain
extremophile An extremophile (from Latin ' meaning "extreme" and Greek ' () meaning "love") is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the ...
microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
s, which are capable of surviving in extremely hot environments.


Education

Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: * National universities **
Kyushu University , abbreviated to , is a Japanese national university located in Fukuoka, in the island of Kyushu. It was the 4th Imperial Universities in Japan, ranked as 4th in 2020 Times Higher Education Japan University Rankings, and selected as a Top ...

Kyushu University
– One of seven former "Imperial Universities" **
Kyushu Institute of Technology is one of the 87 Japanese national university, national universities in Japan. Located in Fukuoka Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, it is dedicated to education and research in the fields of science and technology. It is often abbreviated to KI ...
**
Saga University ; abbreviated as or , is a national universityA national university is generally a university created or managed by a government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. National University may re ...
**
Nagasaki University is a national universityA national university is generally a university created or managed by a government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. National University may refer to: * National Uni ...
**
Kumamoto University , abbreviated to ''Kumadai'' (熊大), is a Japanese national university located in Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. Kumamoto Prefecture has a population of 1,748,13 ...
**
Fukuoka University of Education (UTEF) is a national universityA national university is generally a university created or managed by a government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. National University may refer to: * Nation ...
**
Oita University is a national university in Ōita, Ōita, Ōita, Ōita Prefecture, Japan. It was established in 1949, and in 2003 absorbed Oita Medical University, which had been established in 1976.http://www.oita-u.ac.jp/english/chronology.html The university of ...
** Miyazaki University **
Kagoshima University , or is a Japanese national university located in Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Faculties * Faculty of Law, Economics and the Humanities * Faculty of Education * Faculty of Science * Faculty of Medicine * Facult ...
**
National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya is a Japanese national university, national university in Kanoya, Kagoshima, Japan, founded in 1981. Four alumni participated in the swimming and volleyball events in the 2008 Summer Olympics, Beijing Olympics, including 2004 Summer Olympics, At ...
** University of the Ryukyus * Universities run by local governments ** University of Kitakyushu ** Kyushu Dental College ** Fukuoka Women's University ** Fukuoka Prefectural University ** Nagasaki Prefectural University ** Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences ** Prefectural University of Kumamoto ** Miyazaki Municipal University ** Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University **
Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, p ...
* Major private universities **
Fukuoka University Fukuoka University is a private research university located in Fukuoka is the sixth-largest city in Japan, the second-largest port city after Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the ...
– University with the largest number of students in Kyushu **
Kumamoto Gakuen University
Kumamoto Gakuen University
**
Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University , commonly referred to as APU, is one of the top international private institutions in Japan. Ritsumeikan APU was established in April of 2000 in Beppu, Ōita Prefecture, Ōita, Japan. APU was created through t ...
**
Seinan Gakuin University is a Christian university in Fukuoka Prefecture, Fukuoka, Japan. Seinan Gakuin, founded in 1916 by Rev. C. K. Dozier, a Southern Baptist missionary from the United States, includeSamidori Day NurseryKyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 ** University of Occupational and Environmental Health **
Kurume University is a private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grant (money), grants. Depending on their location, private universities m ...


Transportation

Kyushu is linked to the larger island of
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the n ...
by the
Kanmon Railway Tunnel The was the first undersea tunnel in Japan. It goes underneath the Kanmon Straits, connecting the islands of Honshu and Kyushu. It is an important link in the Japanese rail network. Its construction began in 1936, and it was completed in November ...
, which carries the non-
Shinkansen The , colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specia ...

Shinkansen
trains of the
Kyushu Railway Company The , also referred to as , is one of the seven constituent companies of Japan Railways Group The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as , consists of seven for-profit stock companies that took over most of the assets and Operation ...
, and the newer Shin-Kanmon Tunnel carrying the
San'yō Shinkansen The is a line of the Japanese Shinkansen high-speed rail network, connecting Shin-Ōsaka Station, Shin-Osaka in Osaka with Hakata Station in Fukuoka, the two largest cities in western Japan. Operated by the West Japan Railway Company (JR West), i ...
. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company and
West Japan Railway Company , also referred to as , is one of the Japan Railways Group The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as , consists of seven for-profit stock companies that took over most of the assets and Operations management, operations of the gove ...
, as well as a variety of smaller companies such as Amagi Railway and Nishi-Nippon Railroad, Nishitetsu Railway. Kyushu Shinkansen trains also operate between major cities on the island, such as
Fukuoka is the sixth-largest city in Japan, the second-largest port city after Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous Municipalities of Japan, municipality of Japan. It is the ...

Fukuoka
and
Kagoshima is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" ...

Kagoshima
, with an additional route under construction between
Fukuoka is the sixth-largest city in Japan, the second-largest port city after Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous Municipalities of Japan, municipality of Japan. It is the ...

Fukuoka
and
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. ...

Nagasaki
expected to be in operation from 2023. Kyushu is also known for its scenic train services, such as the Limited Express Yufuin no Mori and Limited Express Kawasemi Yamasemi. The Kanmon Bridge and Kanmon Roadway Tunnel also connect the island with Honshu, allowing for vehicular transport between the two. The Kyushu Expressway spans the length of the island, linking the Higashikyushu Expressway and Ibusuki Skyline, connecting major cities such as
Fukuoka is the sixth-largest city in Japan, the second-largest port city after Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous Municipalities of Japan, municipality of Japan. It is the ...

Fukuoka
and
Kumamoto is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan. , the city has an estimated population of 738,907 and a population density of 1,893 people per km2. The total area is 390.32 km2. had a populatio ...
along the way. There are also many quiet country roads, including popular tourist routes such as the Nichinan, Miyazaki, Nichinan coast road and the Aso Panorama Line in
Kumamoto Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. Kumamoto Prefecture has a population of 1,748,134 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 7,409 Square kilometre, km² (2,860 sq mi). Kumamoto Prefecture borders ...
. Bus services are available and cover 2,400 routes within Kyushu's cities, connecting many other destinations. Several passenger and car ferry services connect both northern and southern Kyushu with main port cities on the main island of Honshu (Kobe, Osaka, Tokyo) and Shikoku.


See also

* Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of Northern Kyūshū * Geography of Japan *Group Kyushu * Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise which is based on Kyushu *Japanese archipelago * Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū * Kyushu National Museum * Kyushu Japanese, Kyushu dialects, Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect *List of regions in Japan * Northern Kyushu, Southern Kyushu *United States Fleet Activities Sasebo *Western Army (Japan)


Notes


References

* Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005)
''Japan encyclopedia.''
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ; {{DEFAULTSORT:Kyushu Kyushu region Islands of Japan Japanese archipelago