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, anthem = ''
Maju dan Sejahtera In Basque mythology, Sugaar (also Sugar, Sugoi, Suarra, Maju) is the male half of a pre-Christianity, Christian Basque people, Basque deity associated with storms and thunder. He is normally imagined as a dragon or Serpent (symbolism), serpent. Unl ...
''

, image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name =
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, subdivision_type1 = Administrative areas , subdivision_name1 = , established_title = Establishment , established_date = 1857 , established_title2 = City status , established_date2 = 1 February 1972 , established_title3 = Transferred to federal jurisdiction , established_date3 = 1 February 1974 , government_type = Federal administration
with
local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government ...
, governing_body =
Kuala Lumpur City Hall The Kuala Lumpur City Hall ( ms, Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur, abbreviated DBKL) is the city council A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city A city is a large human settlement.G ...
, leader_title =
Mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...
, leader_name = Mahadi bin Che Ngah , total_type = Federal territory , area_footnotes = , area_total_km2 = 243 , area_metro_km2 = 2,243.27 , elevation_footnotes = , elevation_m = 66 , population_total = 1,782,500 , population_as_of = 2019 est. , population_rank =
1st First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
, population_footnotes = , population_density_km2 = 7,802 , population_urban = , population_metro = 7,564,000 , population_density_metro_km2 = 2,708 , population_blank1_title =
Demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...
, population_blank1 = KL-ite / Kuala Lumpurian , postal_code_type =
Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal ...
, postal_code = 50000 to 60000 , imagesize = 275px , timezone = MST , utc_offset = +8 , blank_name =
Mean solar time planet like the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. ...
, blank_info = UTC+06:46:46 , blank1_name = Area code(s) , blank1_info = 03 , blank2_name =
Vehicle registration Motor vehicle registration is the registration of a motor vehicle with a government authority, either compulsory or otherwise. The purpose of motor vehicle registration is to establish a link between a vehicle and an owner or user of the vehicle. Th ...
, blank2_info = V and W (except taxis)
HW (for taxis only) , blank3_name =
ISO 3166-2 ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 ISO 3166 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrolog ...
, blank3_info = MY-14 , demographics_type2 = City Index , demographics2_title1 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
, demographics2_info1 = 0.867 (very high) (
1st First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
) , demographics2_title2 =
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the ...
, demographics2_info2 = RM 244,210 million ($59,831 million) ( 2nd) , demographics2_title3 = Per capita , demographics2_info3 = RM 129,472 ($31,720) (
1st First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
) , blank5_name =
Official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

Official language
(s) , blank5_info =
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
English , website =
, image_seal = Seal of Kuala Lumpur.svg , image_blank_emblem = , blank_emblem_size = 280px , blank_emblem_type =
Logo A logo (abbreviation of logotype; ) is a graphic Graphics () are visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex network which connects several biologically rel ...

Logo
Kuala Lumpur (), officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur) and colloquially referred to as KL, is a
federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national government. A federal territory is an area that is part of a federation but not part of any federated state A federated ...
and the
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capita ...
of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
. It is the largest city in Malaysia, covering an area of with an estimated population of 1.73 million .
Greater Kuala Lumpur Greater Kuala Lumpur is the geographical term that determines the boundaries of Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. Though similar to the term "Klang Valley", there remains a variation between the two. It is similar to Greater London and Greate ...
, also known as the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
, is an
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
of 7.564 million people . It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, both in population and economic development. The city serves as the cultural, financial, and economic centre of Malaysia. It is also home to the
Parliament of Malaysia The Parliament of Malaysia ( ms, Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives, Literal translation, lit. "People's A ...
, and the Istana Negara, the official residence of the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Literal translation, lit. "He Who is Made Lord"), Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, Paramount Ruler or King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Mal ...
(monarch of Malaysia). Kuala Lumpur first developed around 1857 as a town serving the
tin mines Tin mining began early in the Bronze Age, as bronze is a copper-tin alloy. Tin is a relatively rare element in the Earth’s crust, with approximately 2 ppm (parts per million), compared to iron with 50,000 ppm. History Tin extraction and use can ...
of the region and served as the capital of
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
from 1880 until 1978. Kuala Lumpur was the founding capital of the
Federation of Malaya The Federation of Malaya ( ms, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley ...
and its successor Malaysia, and the city remained the seat of the executive and judicial branches of the
Malaysian federal government The Government of Malaysia, officially the Federal Government of Malaysia ( ms, Kerajaan Persekutuan Malaysia), is based in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya with the exception of the legislative branch, which is located in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysi ...
until these were relocated to
Putrajaya Putrajaya (), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a countr ...

Putrajaya
in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three
federal territories of Malaysia The federal territories ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan) in Malaysia comprise three territories: Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan, governed directly by the Government of Malaysia, federal government of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital ...
,Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2007). ''Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction''. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications.
enclaved An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...
within the state of
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
, on the central west coast of
Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Malaysia''), also known as West Malaysia or the Malaysian Peninsula, formerly known as Malaya (disambiguation), Malaya, is the part of Malaysia which occupies the southern half of the Ma ...
. Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the
1998 Commonwealth Games The 1998 Commonwealth Games ''(Malay language, Malay: Sukan Komanwel 1998)'', officially known as the XVI Commonwealth Games ''(Malay: Sukan Komanwel ke-16)'', was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by seve ...
and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades and is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, or the Petronas Twin Towers ( ms, Menara Petronas, or ), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pu ...

Petronas Towers
, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. It has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as
mass rapid transit Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
(MRT),
light rapid transit – Kelana Jaya Line – Wenhu Line A medium-capacity system (MCS), also known as light rapid transit or light metro, is a rail transport system with a capacity greater than light rail, but less than typical heavy-rail rapid transit. MCS’s tr ...
(LRT),
monorail A monorail is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles inclu ...

monorail
,
commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent s or s. Generally commuter rail systems are considered , using electrified or diesel trains. Distance charges or may be use ...
, public buses, hop on & hop off buses (free of charge) and
airport rail link An airport rail link is a service providing passenger rail transport from an airport to a nearby city by main line (railway), mainline or commuter rail, commuter trains, rapid transit, people mover, or light rail. Direct links operate straight ...
s. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, the 6th most-visited city in the world in 2019. The city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur ranks 70th in the world and second in Southeast Asia for
Economist Intelligence Unit The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is the research and analysis division of the Economist Group The Economist Group (legally The Economist Newspaper Limited) is a media company headquartered in London London is the capital city, capita ...

Economist Intelligence Unit
's
Global Liveability Ranking The Global Liveability Ranking is an annual assessment published by the Economist Intelligence Unit The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is the research and analysis division of Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services thro ...
and ninth in ASPAC and second in Southeast Asia for
KPMG KPMG International Limited (or simply KPMG) is a British-Dutch multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple ...

KPMG
's Leading Technology Innovation Hub 2021. Kuala Lumpur was named
World Book CapitalThe success of World Book and Copyright Day, launched in 1996, encouraged UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a ...
2020 by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
.


Etymology

Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
; ''Kuala'' is the point where two rivers join together or an
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
, and ''lumpur'' means "mud". One suggestion is that it was named after Sungai Lumpur ("muddy river"); in the 1820s Sungai Lumpur was the most important tin-producing settlement up the
Klang River Klang River ( Malay: ''Sungai Klang'') is a river which flows through Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast ...
. However this derivation does not account for this: Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of
Gombak River The Gombak River ( ms, Sungai Gombak) is a river which flows through Selangor and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. It is a tributary of the Klang River. The point where it meets the Klang River is the origin of Kuala Lumpur's name. Gombak River was used ...
and Klang River, and therefore should be named Kuala Gombak, since ‘’kuala’’ means the point where one river joins a larger one, or the sea. Some have argued that Sungai Lumpur in fact extended down to the confluence and therefore the point where it joined the Klang River would be Kuala Lumpur,Abdul-Razzaq Lubis, 'Sutan Puasa: The Founder of Kuala Lumpur', ''Journal of Southeast Asian Architecture'' (12), National University of Singapore, September 2013. although this Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River upstream from the Gombak confluence, or perhaps located to the north of the area. It has also been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was originally named Pengkalan Lumpur ("muddy landing place") in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu ("stone landing place"), but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another theory says that it was initially a
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, Brit ...

Cantonese
word, ''lam-pa'', meaning 'flooded jungle' or 'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes. The name may also be a corrupted form of an earlier forgotten name.


History


Early years

Nobody specifically knows who founded or named Kuala Lumpur.
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
miners were involved in tin mining up the
Selangor River Selangor River ( ms, Sungai Selangor) is a major river in Selangor, Malaysia. It runs from Kuala Kubu Bharu in the east and empties into the Straits of Malacca at Kuala Selangor in the west.http://www.utusanborneo.com.my/content/pencemaran-sungai-s ...
in the 1840s about north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, and
Mandailing The Mandailing is a traditional cultural group in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographica ...
Sumatrans led by and Sutan Puasa were also involved in tin mining and trade in the
Ulu Klang Ulu Klang (alternately Hulu Klang, Hulu Kelang or Ulu Kelang, is a mukim A mukim is a type of administrative division used in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The word ''mukim'' is a loanword in English language, English. However, it wa ...
region before 1860, and Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century, or possibly earlier. Kuala Lumpur was originally a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of the Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang (
Klang River Klang River ( Malay: ''Sungai Klang'') is a river which flows through Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast ...
). Kuala Lumpur became established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of
Lukut Lukut (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke the Jaw ...
, raised funds from
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been liste ...

Malacca
n Chinese businessmen to hire Chinese miners from
Lukut Lukut (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke the Jaw ...
to open new
tin Tin is a with the Sn (from la, ) and  50. Tin is a silvery-colored metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force and a bar of tin can be bent by hand with little effort. When bent ...

tin
mines there. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued on foot to Ampang, where they opened the first mine. Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat, and therefore became a collection and dispersal point serving the tin mines. Despite a high death toll from the
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
l conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines succeeded, and exported the first tin in 1859. At that time, Sutan Puasa was already trading near Ampang. Two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze, arrived in Kuala Lumpur and set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin. The town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop around Old Market Square ( Medan Pasar), with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu (the destinations became the names of these roads), where miners had also begun to settle in, and
Petaling The Petaling District is a district located in the heart of in , not to be confused with the city of located in it, nor the ' of Petaling within Petaling Jaya City Council within Petaling district. The district of Petaling was established on ...

Petaling
and Damansara. The miners formed gangs and the gangs frequently fought in this period, particularly factions of Kuala Lumpur and Kanching, mainly over control of the best tin mines. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of
Kapitan Cina Kapitan Cina, also spelled Kapitan China or Capitan China (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
(Chinese headman) by the Malay chief, and Hiu Siew, the early Chinese trader, became the first Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur. The third Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur,
Yap Ah Loy Kapitan China Yap Ah Loy (; Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: ''Ya̍p Â-lòi''); 14 March 1837 – 15 April 1885), also known as Yap Tet Loy and Yap Mao Lan, is an important figure of early Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , ...

Yap Ah Loy
, was appointed in 1868. Important Malay figures of early Kuala Lumpur also included Haji Mohamed Tahir, who became the Dato Dagang ("chief of traders"). The Minangkabaus of Sumatra became another important group who traded and established tobacco plantations in the area. Notable Minangkabaus included their headman, Dato' Sati, Utsman Abdullah, and Haji Mohamed Taib, who was involved in the early development of . The Minangkabaus were also significant socio-religious figures, for example Utsman bin Abdullah was the first kadi of Kuala Lumpur, as well as Muhammad Nur bin Ismail.


Beginning of modern Kuala Lumpur

Early Kuala Lumpur was a small town that suffered from many social and political problems – the buildings were made of wood and ‘’ atap’’, (palm frond
thatching Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, Phragmites, water reed, Cyperaceae, sedge (''Cladium mariscus''), Juncus, rushes, Calluna, heather, or palm branches, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away f ...
). The buildings were prone to catching on fire, and due to a lack of proper sanitation the town was plagued with diseases. It also suffered from a constant threat of flooding due to its location. The town became embroiled in the
Selangor Civil War The Klang War or Selangor Civil War was a series of conflicts that lasted from 1867 to 1874 in the Malay state of Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of ...
in part over control of revenue from the tin mines. Yap Ah Loy allied himself with , and the rival Chinese gang allied themselves with Raja Mahdi. Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa also switched sides to Raja Mahdi, and Kuala Lumpur was captured in 1872 and burnt to the ground. Yap escaped to Klang where he assembled another fighting force and recaptured Kuala Lumpur in March 1873, defeating Raja Mahdi’s forces with the help of fighters from
Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, ...

Pahang
. The war and other setbacks, such as dropping tin prices, led to a slump. A major outbreak of
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
caused many to flee. The slump lasted until late 1879, when rising prices for tin allowed the town to recover. In late 1881, the town was severely flooded, after a fire that had destroyed the entire town in January. The town was rebuilt a few times and thrived, due in large part to the tenacity and persistence of Yap Ah Loy. Yap, together with
Frank Swettenham Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham (28 March 1850 – 11 June 1946) was a British colonial administrator who became the first Resident general A resident minister, or resident for short, is a authoritative general required to take up permanent ...
who was appointed the Resident in 1882, were the two most important figures of early Kuala Lumpur with Swettenham credited with its rapid growth and development and its transformation into a major urban centre. The early Chinese and Malay settled along the east bank of the Klang River. The Chinese mainly settled around the commercial centre of Market Square. The Malays, and later Indian
Chettiar Chettiar (also spelt as Chetti and Chetty) is a title used by many mercantile, traders, weaving, Agriculture, agricultural and land owning castes in South India, especially in the States and union territories of India, states of Andhra Pradesh ...
s and Muslims, resided in the Java Street area, now
Jalan Tun Perak Jalan Tun Perak, formerly Jalan Mountbatten (1961–1981) Mountbatten Road (1946–1961) and Java Street (1889–1946), is a major road located in the historic centre of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was a major commercial street of early Kuala Lump ...
. In 1880, the colonial administration moved the state capital of Selangor from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur, and British Resident
William Bloomfield Douglas William Bloomfield Douglas (25 September 1822 – 5 March 1906), generally known as "Bloomfield Douglas" or "Captain Douglas", was a Welsh people, Welsh naval officer and public servant. During his career, he served in various positions in South A ...
decided to locate the government buildings and living quarters to the west of the river. Government offices and a new police headquarters were built on Bukit Aman, and the Padang initially created for police training. The Padang, now known as , would later become the centre of the British administrative offices when the colonial government offices moved to the
Sultan Abdul Samad Building The Sultan Abdul Samad Building ( Malay: Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad) is a late-nineteenth century building located along Jalan Raja in front of the Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square) and the Royal Selangor Club in Kuala Lumpur , anthem ...

Sultan Abdul Samad Building
in 1897.
Frank Swettenham Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham (28 March 1850 – 11 June 1946) was a British colonial administrator who became the first Resident general A resident minister, or resident for short, is a authoritative general required to take up permanent ...
, on becoming the British Resident, began improving the town by cleaning up the streets. He also stipulated in 1884 that buildings should be constructed of brick and tile so that they would be less flammable, and that the town be rebuilt with wider streets to reduce fire risk.
Kapitan Capitan and Kapitan are equivalents of the English Captain in other European languages. Capitan, Capitano, and Kapitan may also refer to: Places in the United States *Capitan, Louisiana, an unincorporated community *Capitan, New Mexico, a village ...
Yap Ah Loy bought a sprawling piece of real estate to set up a brick factory for the rebuilding of Kuala Lumpur, the
eponymous An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or which someone or something is, or is believed to be, named. The adjectives derived from eponym include ''eponymous'' and ''eponymic''. Word usage The term ''eponym'' functions in multiple ...

eponymous
Brickfields Brickfields is a neighbourhood (as well as an administrative zone) located on the western flank central Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is known as Kuala Lumpur's ''Little India (location), Little India'' due to the high percentage of Malaysian Ind ...
. Demolished ''atap'' buildings were replaced with brick and tile buildings, and many of the new brick buildings had "
five-foot way A five-foot way (Malay language, Malay/Indonesian language, Indonesian: ''kaki lima'') is a roofed continuous walkway commonly found in front of shops in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia which may also be used for commercial activity. The name ref ...
s" and Chinese carpentry work. This resulted in a distinct eclectic shop house architecture typical to this region. Kapitan Yap Ah Loy expanded road access, linking tin mines with the city with the main arterial routes of the present , Pudu Road and
Petaling Street Petaling Street ( Malay: ''Jalan Petaling'', Simplified Chinese Simplification, Simplify, or Simplified may refer to: Mathematics Simplification is the process of replacing a mathematical expression by an equivalent one, that is simpler (usual ...

Petaling Street
. As Chinese Kapitan, he held wide powers on a par with
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
community leaders. Law reforms were implemented and new legal measures introduced to the assembly. Yap also presided over a
small claims court Small-claims courts have limited jurisdiction to hear civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platfo ...
. With a police force of six, he was able to uphold the rule of law, constructing a prison that could accommodate sixty prisoners at a time. Yap Ah Loy also built Kuala Lumpur's first school and a major tapioca mill in
Petaling Street Petaling Street ( Malay: ''Jalan Petaling'', Simplified Chinese Simplification, Simplify, or Simplified may refer to: Mathematics Simplification is the process of replacing a mathematical expression by an equivalent one, that is simpler (usual ...

Petaling Street
, in which the Selangor's
Sultan Abdul Samad Sultan Abdul Samad ibni Almarhum Raja Abdullah (Jawi alphabet, Jawi: سلطان عبد السماد ابن المرحوم راج عبد الله ; born Raja Abdul Samad bin Raja Abdullah, 1804 - 6 February 1898) was the fourth Sultan of Selango ...
held an interest. A
railway line Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and thei ...
between Kuala Lumpur and Klang, initiated by Swettenham and completed in 1886, increased access and resulted in rapid growth. The population grew from 4,500 in 1884 to 20,000 in 1890. As development intensified in the 1880s, putting pressure on sanitation, waste disposal and other health measures. A Sanitary Board created on 14 May 1890 was responsible for sanitation, road upkeep, street lighting, and other functions. This would eventually become the Kuala Lumpur Municipal Council. In 1896, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed
Federated Malay States )Under God's Protection , capital = Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption ...
.


20th century–present

Kuala Lumpur expanded considerably in the 20th century. It was in 1895, but was extended to encompass in 1903. By the time it became a municipality in 1948 it had expanded to , and then to in 1974 as a Federal Territory. The development of a
rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much" ...

rubber
industry in Selangor fueled by the demand for car tyres in the early 20th century led to a boom, and the population of Kuala Lumpur increased from 30,000 in 1900 to 80,000 in 1920. The commercial activities of Kuala Lumpur had been run to a large extent by Chinese businessmen such as
Loke Yew Loke Yew (), born Wong Loke Yew, CMG CMG may refer to: Companies * Capitol Music Group, a music label * China Media Group, the predominant state radio and television broadcaster in the PRC * China Media Group Co., Ltd., publicly listed Chines ...

Loke Yew
, who was then the richest and most influential Chinese in Kuala Lumpur. The growth of the rubber industry led to an influx of foreign capital and planters, with new companies and industries becoming established in Kuala Lumpur, and other companies previously based elsewhere also found a presence here. During World War II, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the
Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the ...
on 11 January 1942. Despite suffering little damage during the course of the battle, the wartime occupation of the city resulted in significant loss of lives; at least 5,000 Chinese were killed in Kuala Lumpur in just a few weeks of occupation by Japanese forces, and thousands of Indians were sent as
forced labour Forced labour, or unfree labour, is any work relation, especially in modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeolog ...
to work on the
Burma Railway The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway, the Thai–Burma Railway and similar names, is a railway between Ban Pong District, Ban Pong, Thailand and Thanbyuzayat, Burma, built by the Empire of Japan from 19 ...

Burma Railway
where many died. They occupied the city until 15 August 1945, when the commander in chief of the
Japanese Seventh Area Army The was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperi ...
in Singapore and Malaysia,
Seishirō Itagaki was a Japanese military officer and politician who served as a general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a mi ...

Seishirō Itagaki
, surrendered to the British administration following the
atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The United States detonated two nuclear weapons A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive fo ...
. Kuala Lumpur grew during the war, and continued after the war during the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960), during which Malaya was preoccupied with a
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communist
insurgency and New Villages were established on the outskirts of the city. The first municipal election in Kuala Lumpur was held on 16 February 1952. An ''ad hoc'' alliance between the Malay UMNO and Chinese Malayan Chinese Association, MCA party candidates won a majority of the seats, and this led to the formation of the Alliance Party (Malaysia), Alliance Party (later the Barisan Nasional). On 31 August 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from British rule. The British flag was lowered and the Malayan flag raised for the first time at the Padang at midnight on 30 August 1957, and on the morning of 31 August, the ceremony for the Malayan Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence was held at the Merdeka Stadium by the first Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman. Kuala Lumpur remained the capital after the Malaysia Day, formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. The Malaysian Houses of Parliament were completed at the edge of the Lake Gardens, Kuala Lumpur, Lake Gardens in 1963. Kuala Lumpur had seen a number of civil disturbances over the years. A riot in 1897 was a relatively minor affair that began with the confiscation of faulty ''dacing'' (a scale used by traders), and in 1912, a more serious disturbance called the ''Queue (hairstyle), tauchang'' riot began during the Chinese New Year with the cutting of pigtails and ended with rioting and factional fighting lasting a number of days. The worst rioting on record in Malaysia, however, occurred on 13 May 1969, when race riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur. The so-called 13 May Incident included violent conflicts between members of the Malaysian Malays, Malay and the Malaysian Chinese, Chinese communities, the result of Malaysian dissatisfaction with their socio-political status. The riots caused the deaths of 196 people, according to official figures, and led to major changes in the country's economic policy to promote and prioritise Malay economic development over that of other ethnicities. Kuala Lumpur achieved Cities of Malaysia, city status on 1 February 1972, becoming the first settlement in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence. Later, on 1 February 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a Federal territories (Malaysia), federal territory. Kuala Lumpur ceased to be the capital of
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam was declared the new state capital. On 14 May 1990, Kuala Lumpur celebrated the centennial of the local council. The new federal territory Flag of Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur flag and anthem were introduced. On 1 February 2001,
Putrajaya Putrajaya (), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a countr ...

Putrajaya
was declared a Federal Territory, as well as the seat of the federal government. The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to
Putrajaya Putrajaya (), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a countr ...

Putrajaya
. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its Parliament of Malaysia, legislative function, and remained the home of the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Literal translation, lit. "He Who is Made Lord"), Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, Paramount Ruler or King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Mal ...
(Constitutional King). From the 1990s onwards, major urban developments in the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
extended the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. This area, known as
Greater Kuala Lumpur Greater Kuala Lumpur is the geographical term that determines the boundaries of Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. Though similar to the term "Klang Valley", there remains a variation between the two. It is similar to Greater London and Greate ...
, extends from the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur westward to Port Klang, east to the edge of the Titiwangsa Mountains as well as to the north and south. The area covers other administratively separate towns and cities such as Klang, Shah Alam,
Putrajaya Putrajaya (), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a countr ...

Putrajaya
and others, and is served by the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System. Notable projects undertaken within Kuala Lumpur itself include the development of a new Kuala Lumpur City Centre around Jalan Ampang and the
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, or the Petronas Twin Towers ( ms, Menara Petronas, or ), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pu ...

Petronas Towers
.


Geography

The geography of Kuala Lumpur is characterised by the huge
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
, bordered by the Titiwangsa Mountains in the east, several minor ranges in the north and the south, and the Strait of Malacca in the west. Kuala Lumpur is a
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
term that translates to "muddy confluence" and is located at the confluence of the Klang River, Klang and Gombak River, Gombak rivers. Located in the centre of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur was a territory of Selangor State Government. In 1974, Kuala Lumpur was split off from Selangor to form the first Federal Territories (Malaysia), Federal Territory governed directly by the Malaysian federal government. Its location in the most developed state on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia, which has a wider stretch of flat land than the east coast, has helped it develop faster than other cities in Malaysia. The municipality covers an area of , with an average elevation of .


Climate and weather

Protected by the Titiwangsa Range in the east and Indonesia's Sumatra Island in the west, Kuala Lumpur is sheltered from strong winds and has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification ''Af''), hot, humid and sunny, with abundant rainfall, especially during the Monsoon, northeast monsoon season from October to March. Temperatures tend to remain constant. Maximums hover between and sometimes hit , while minimums hover between and have never fallen below . Kuala Lumpur typically receives at least of rain annually; June and July are relatively dry, but even then rainfall typically exceeds a month. Floods are frequent in Kuala Lumpur after heavy downpours, especially in the city centre, because irrigation structure lags behind the intense development in the city. Smoke from forest fires in nearby Sumatra sometimes casts a haze over the region, and is a major source of pollution, along with open burning, motor vehicle emissions, and construction.


Governance

Kuala Lumpur was administered by a corporation sole called the Federal Capital Commissioner from April 1, 1961, until it was awarded city status in 1972, after which executive power transferred to the Lord Mayor (''Datuk Bandar''). Thirteen mayors have been appointed since then. The current mayor is Datuk Mahadi Che Ngah, who has been in office since October 1, 2020.


Local government

The local administration is carried out by the
Kuala Lumpur City Hall The Kuala Lumpur City Hall ( ms, Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur, abbreviated DBKL) is the city council A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city A city is a large human settlement.G ...
, an agency under the Ministry of the Federal Territories (Malaysia), Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia. It is responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development, and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive power lies with the Mayor of Kuala Lumpur, mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970.


Districts

Kuala Lumpur's eleven Dewan Rakyat, parliamentary constituencies, with estimated population and percentage of the total, are congruent with administrative subdivisions under the authority of the
Kuala Lumpur City Hall The Kuala Lumpur City Hall ( ms, Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur, abbreviated DBKL) is the city council A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city A city is a large human settlement.G ...
authority. These 11 districts can be divided into 29 subdistricts.


Politics

Kuala Lumpur is home to the Malaysian Houses of Parliament, Parliament of Malaysia. The federal Constitution stipulates the three branches of the Malaysian government: the Executive, Judiciary and Legislative branches. The Parliament consists of the Dewan Negara (Upper House / House of Senate) and Dewan Rakyat (Lower House / House of Representatives). List of Kuala Lumpur representatives in the Federal Parliament (Dewan Rakyat)


Economy

Kuala Lumpur and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialised and economically, the fastest-growing region in Malaysia. Despite the relocation of federal government administration to
Putrajaya Putrajaya (), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a countr ...

Putrajaya
, certain government institutions such as Bank Negara Malaysia (''National Bank of Malaysia''), Companies Commission of Malaysia and Securities Commission as well as most embassies and diplomatic missions have remained in the city. The city remains the economic and business hub of the country. Kuala Lumpur is a centre for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is rated the only global city in Malaysia, according to the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). The infrastructure development in the surrounding areas such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport at Sepang, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridor and the expansion of Port Klang further reinforce the economic significance of the city. Bursa Malaysia or the Malaysia Exchange is based in the city and forms one of its core economic activities. As of July 5, 2013, the market capitalisation stood at US$505.67 billion. The gross domestic product (GDP) for Kuala Lumpur is estimated at RM73,536 million in 2008 with an average annual growth rate of 5.9 percent. By 2015, the GDP had reached RM160,388 million, representing 15.1% of the total GDP of Malaysia. – Select "Publication GDP by State 2010–2015.pdf" to download and view data The per capita GDP for Kuala Lumpur in 2013 was RM79,752 with an average annual growth rate of 5.6 percent, and RM94,722 in 2015. Average monthly household income is RM9,073 (~$2,200) as of 2016, growing at a pace of approximately 6% a year. The service sector, comprising finance, insurance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communication, utilities, personal services and government services form the largest component of employment, representing about 83.0 percent of the total. The remaining 17 percent comes from manufacturing and construction. The large service sector is evident in the number of local and foreign banks and insurance companies operating in the city. Kuala Lumpur is poised to become the global Islamic financing hub with an increasing number of financial institutions providing Islamic financing and the strong presence of Gulf financial institutions such as the world's largest Islamic bank, the Al-Rajhi Bank and Kuwait Finance House. Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Company is keen to work with Bursa Malaysia to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds (ETFs), which would help raise Malaysia's profile in the Gulf. The city has a large number of foreign corporations and is also host to many multi national companies' regional offices or support centres, particularly for finance and accounting, and information technology functions. Most of the country's largest companies have their headquarters here, and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes 2000 based in Kuala Lumpur. Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur also has advantages stemming from the high concentration of educational institutions that provide a wide-ranging of courses. Numerous public and private medical specialist centres and hospitals in the city offer general health services, and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment that caters to locals and tourists. There has been growing emphasis on expanding the economic scope of the city in other service activities, such as research and development, which support the rest of the economy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur has been home for years to important research centres such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the Institute of Medical Research. A new financial district for Kuala Lumpur is currently under construction: the Tun Razak Exchange, Tun Razak Exchange (TRX), formerly known as Kuala Lumpur International Financial District (KLIFD). The TRX's landmark and prominent building is The Exchange 106 tower. The 70-acre development will be situated in the heart of Kuala Lumpur and will serve international finance and business opportunities. The new financial hub is a strategic enabler of the Malaysian government's Economic Transformation Programme, Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), an initiative by the Malaysian Government, Malaysian government to turn Malaysia into a World Bank high-income economy, high income economy nation.


Tourism

Tourism plays an important role in the city's service sector, service-driven economy. Many large worldwide hotel chains have a presence in the city. One of the oldest hotels is the Hotel Majestic (Kuala Lumpur), Hotel Majestic. Kuala Lumpur is the List of cities by international visitors, sixth most visited city in the world, with 8.9 million tourists per year. Tourism here is driven by the city's cultural diversity, relatively low costs, and wide gastronomic and shopping variety. Meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions, MICE tourism, which mainly encompasses Convention (meeting), conventions— has expanded in recent years to become a vital component of the industry, and is expected to grow further once the Malaysian government's Economic Transformation Programme kicks in, and with the completion of a new 93,000 square meter-size MATRADE Exhibition and Convention Centre, MATRADE Centre in 2014. The Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation, MATRADE agency is also the owner of the Malaysia International Trade and Exhibition Centre, Malaysia International Trade And Exhibition Centre (MITEC), the largest trade and exhibition centre of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, which is a component of the larger KL Metropolis development situated in the suburb of Segambut. Another notable trend is the increased presence of budget hotels in the city.The major tourist destinations in Kuala Lumpur include the Petronas Towers, Petronas Twin Towers, the Bukit Bintang shopping district, the Kuala Lumpur Tower,
Petaling Street Petaling Street ( Malay: ''Jalan Petaling'', Simplified Chinese Simplification, Simplify, or Simplified may refer to: Mathematics Simplification is the process of replacing a mathematical expression by an equivalent one, that is simpler (usual ...

Petaling Street
(Chinatown), the Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur, Merdeka Square, the Kuala Lumpur railway station, the Malaysian Houses of Parliament, House of Parliament building, the Istana Negara, Jalan Duta, National Palace (''Istana Negara''), the National Museum (Malaysia), National Museum, the Istana Negara, Jalan Istana, Royal Museum, Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, Islamic Arts Museum, Central Market, Kuala Lumpur, Central Market, Kuala Lumpur Bird Park, KL Bird Park, Aquaria KLCC, Kuala Lumpur River of Life, KL River of Life, Saloma Link, the National Monument (Malaysia), National Monument, and religious sites such as the Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque, Thean Hou Temple and Buddhist Maha Vihara, Brickfields, Buddhist Maha Vihara in
Brickfields Brickfields is a neighbourhood (as well as an administrative zone) located on the western flank central Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is known as Kuala Lumpur's ''Little India (location), Little India'' due to the high percentage of Malaysian Ind ...
. Kuala Lumpur plays host to many cultural festivals such as the Thaipusam procession at the Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Kuala Lumpur, Sri Mahamariamman Temple. Every year during the Thaipusam celebration, a silver chariot carrying the statue of Kartikeya, Lord Muruga together with his consort Valli and Teivayanni would be paraded through the city beginning at the temple all the way to in the neighboring Gombak District, Gombak, Selangor. The entertainment hub of the city is mainly centred in the Golden Triangle encompassing'' Jalan P. Ramlee'', ''Jalan Sultan Ismail,'' and Bukit Bintang, Bintang Walk as well as Kuala Lumpur's largest nightlife and entertainment hotspot, TREC KL. Trendy nightclubs, Bar (establishment), bars and Bar (counter), lounges, such as Marini's on 57, Skybar at Traders Hotel, the Beach Club, Espanda, the Hakka Republic Wine Bar & Restaurant, Hard Rock Cafe, the Luna Bar, Nuovo, Rum Jungle, No Black Tie, the Thai Club, Zion Club, Zouk (club), Zouk KL, Club Kyō, Dragonfly KL and many others are located here.


Retail

Kuala Lumpur alone has 66 shopping malls and is the retail and fashion hub of both Malaysia and
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
. Shopping in Malaysia contributed RM7.7 billion (US$2.26 billion) or 20.8 percent of the RM31.9 billion tourism receipts in 2006. Suria KLCC is one of Malaysia's premier upscale shopping destinations due to its location beneath the Petronas Twin Towers. Apart from Suria KLCC, the Bukit Bintang district has the highest concentration of shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur. It includes: Pavilion Kuala Lumpur, Pavilion KL, Fahrenheit 88, Plaza Low Yat, Berjaya Times Square, Lot 10, Sungei Wang Plaza, Starhill Gallery, Quill City, Quill City Mall and Avenue K Shopping Mall, Avenue K. Changkat area of Bukit Bintang hosts various cafes, wikt:alfresco, alfresco dining outlets, illegal activities such as prostitution and more. It is best known as one of the List of red-light districts, red-light districts in Kuala Lumpur. Bangsar district also has a few shopping complexes, including Bangsar Village, Bangsar Shopping Centre, KL Gateway, KL Gateway Mall, Bangsar South, KL Eco City and Mid Valley Megamall. Apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as textiles, fabrics and handicrafts. The Chinatown of Kuala Lumpur, commonly known as
Petaling Street Petaling Street ( Malay: ''Jalan Petaling'', Simplified Chinese Simplification, Simplify, or Simplified may refer to: Mathematics Simplification is the process of replacing a mathematical expression by an equivalent one, that is simpler (usual ...

Petaling Street
, is one of them. Chinatown features many pre-independence buildings with Straits Chinese and colonial architectural influences.Gurstien, P (1985) Malaysia Architecture Heritage Survey – A Handbook, Malaysia Heritage Trust. Page 65 Since 2000, the Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture, Malaysian Ministry of Tourism introduced a mega sale event for shopping in Malaysia. The mega sale event is held three times a year – in March, May and December – in which all shopping malls are encouraged to participate to boost Kuala Lumpur as a leading shopping destination in Asia which has been maintained until present with new mega sales. File:KL - Changkat Bkt Bintang St Patrick's Day 2012.JPG, Bukit Bintang, Changkat Bukit Bintang, an upmarket gastronomy area and red light district in Kuala Lumpur at night. File:Downtown Kuala Lumpur at Night (49125936143).jpg, Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur's retail cluster. File:2016 Kuala Lumpur, Park KLCC i Suria KLCC.jpg, Suria KLCC, located between the Petronas Twin Towers. File:PavilionKLfountain.jpg, Pavilion Kuala Lumpur, Pavilion KL, one of the city's iconic shopping centre. File:Central Market 6 June 2014.JPG, Central Market, Kuala Lumpur, Pasar Seni (Central Market), known for its art and craft souvenirs based on Culture of Malaysia, Malaysian culture. File:The Twins SE Asia 2019 (49171985716).jpg, The Petronas Tower 3, Carigali Tower, Petronas Towers, Petronas Twin Towers, Maxis Tower and Four Seasons Place Kuala Lumpur, Four Seasons Place KL from left.


Demographics

Kuala Lumpur is the most populous city in Malaysia, with a population of 1.76 million in the city proper . It has a population density of , and is the most densely populated administrative district in Malaysia. Residents of the city are colloquially known as KLites. Kuala Lumpur is also the centre of the wider
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
metropolitan area covering Petaling Jaya, Klang, Subang Jaya, Puchong, Shah Alam, and Gombak, with an estimated metropolitan population of 7.25 million . Kuala Lumpur's heterogeneous populace includes the country's three major ethnic groups: the Malaysian Malay, Malays, the Malaysian Chinese, Chinese and the Malaysian Indian, Indians, although the city also has a mix of different cultures including Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Eurasians, Kadazans, Iban people, Ibans and other indigenous races from around Malaysia.


Historical demographics

Historically Kuala Lumpur was a predominantly Chinese city, although more recently the Bumiputera (Malaysia), Bumiputera component of the city has grown substantially and they are now the dominant group. The Kuala Lumpur of 1872 beside the Klang River was described by Frank Swettenham as a "purely Chinese village", although a Malay stockade already existed at Bukit Nanas at that time. By 1875, after participation in the
Selangor Civil War The Klang War or Selangor Civil War was a series of conflicts that lasted from 1867 to 1874 in the Malay state of Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of ...
by Pahang Malays had ended, Swettenham noted Malay quarters near the Chinese area in a sketch map he had drawn. There were said to be 1,000 Chinese and 700 Malays in the town in this period. Many of the Malays may have settled in Kuala Lumpur after the war. The population of Kuala Lumpur had increased to around three thousand in 1880 when it was made the capital of Selangor. A significant component of the Malay population in Kuala Lumpur of this period consisted of Malays recruited by the British in 1880, mostly from rural
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been liste ...

Malacca
, to establish a police force of 2–300, many of whom brought their families. Many of the Malays were originally from the other islands of Malay Archipelago i.e. Sumatra and Java. The Mandailing people, Mandailings, the Minangkabaus, Javanese people, Javanese, and Bugis people, Buginese began arriving in Kuala Lumpur in the 19th century, while the Acehnese people, Acehnese arrived in the late 20th century. In the following decades that saw the rebuilding of the town, it grew considerably with a large influx of immigrants, due in large part to the construction of a railway line in 1886 connecting Kuala Lumpur and Klang. A census in 1891 of uncertain accuracy gave a figure of 43,796 inhabitants, 79% of whom were Chinese (71% of the Chinese were Hakka people, Hakka 客家人), 14% Malay, and 6% Indian. Another perhaps more accurate estimate put the population of Kuala Lumpur in 1890 at 20,000. The rubber boom in the early 20th century led to a further increase in population, from 30,000 in 1900 to 80,000 in 1920. In 1931, 61% of Kuala Lumpur's 111,418 inhabitants were Chinese, and in 1947 63.5%. The Malays however began to settle in Kuala Lumpur in significant numbers, in part due to government employment, as well as the expansion of the city that absorbed the surrounding rural areas where many Malays lived. Between 1947 and 1957 the population of Malays in Kuala Lumpur increased from 12.5 to 15%, while the proportion of Chinese dropped. The process continued after Malayan independence with the growth of a largely Malay civil service, and later the implementation of the Malaysian New Economic Policy, New Economic Policy which encouraged Malay participation in urban industries and business. In 1980 the population of Kuala Lumpur had reached over a million, with 52% Chinese, 33% Malay, and 15% Indian. From 1980 to 2000 the number of Bumiputeras increased by 77%, but the Chinese still outnumbered the Bumiputeras in Kuala Lumpur in the 2000 census at 43% compared to 38%. By the 2010 census, according to the Department of Statistics and excluding non-citizens, the percentage of the Bumiputera (Malaysia), Bumiputera population in Kuala Lumpur had reached around 45.9% (44.7% Malay), with the Chinese population at 43.2% and Indians 10.3%. A notable phenomenon in recent times has been the increased portion of foreign residents in Kuala Lumpur, which rose from 1% of the city's population in 1980 to about 8% in the 2000 census, and 9.4% in the 2010 census. These figures also do not include a significant number of Illegal immigrants in Malaysia, illegal immigrants. Kuala Lumpur's rapid development has triggered a huge influx of low-skilled foreign workers from Indonesia, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia into
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, many of whom enter the country illegally or without proper permits. Birth rates in Kuala Lumpur have declined and resulted in a lower proportion of young people – the proportion of those below 15 years old fell from 33% in 1980 to slightly less than 27% in 2000. On the other hand, the working age group of 15–59 increased from 63% in 1980 to 67% in 2000. The elderly age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4% in 1980 and 1991 to 6% in 2000.


Languages and religions

Kuala Lumpur is pluralistic and religiously diverse. The city has many places of worship catering to the multi-religious population. Islam is practised primarily by the Malays, the Indian Muslim communities and a small number of Chinese Muslims. Mahayana Buddhism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism are practised mainly among the Chinese. Indians traditionally adhere to Hinduism. Some Chinese and Indians also subscribe to Christianity. As of the 2010 Census, the population of Kuala Lumpur was 46.4% Muslim, 35.7% Buddhist, 8.5% Hindu, 5.8% Christians, Christian, 1.4% of unknown affiliations, 1.1% Taoism, Taoist or Chinese folk religion, Chinese religion adherent, 0.6% follower of other religions, and 0.5% non-religious. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three states where less than 50% of the population are self-identified Muslims, the other two being Penang and Sarawak. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 87.4% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (7.9%), Chinese folk religions (2.7%) and Muslims (0.6%). The majority of the Indian population identify as Hindus (81.1%), with a significant minorities of identifying as Christians (7.8%), Muslims (4.9%) and Buddhists (2.1%). The non-Malay ''Bumiputera (Malaysia), bumiputera'' community are predominantly Christians (44.9%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (31.2%) and Buddhists (13.5%). All bumiputera Malays are Muslim; due to the criterion in the Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia, definition of a Malay in the Malaysian constitution that they should adhere to Islam. Malaysian language, Bahasa Malaysia is the principal language in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur residents are generally literate in English, with a large proportion adopting it as their first language. Malaysian English is a widely used. It has a strong presence, especially in business, and is taught as a compulsory language in schools. Yue Chinese, Cantonese and Standard Mandarin, Mandarin are prominent, as they are spoken by the local majority Malaysian Chinese, Chinese population. Another major dialect spoken is Hakka language, Hakka. While Tamil language, Tamil is dominant amongst the local Malaysian Indian, Indian population, other Indian languages spoken by minorities include Telugu language, Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi language, Punjabi, and Hindi language, Hindi. Beside Malay, there are a variety of languages spoken by people of Indonesian descent, such as Minangkabau language, Minangkabau and Javanese language, Javanese.


Cityscape


Architecture

The architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a mixture of old Colonialism, colonial influences, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern architecture, modern, and postmodern architecture. A relatively young city compared with other Southeast Asian capitals such as Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila, most of Kuala Lumpur's notable colonial-era buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings were designed in a number of styles – Mughal architecture, Mughal/Moorish Revival architecture, Moorish Revival, Mock Tudor, Gothic Revival architecture, Neo-Gothic or Grecian-Spanish style or architecture. Most of the styling has been modified to use local resources and adapted to the local climate, which is hot and humid all year around. A significant architect of the early period is Arthur Benison Hubback who designed a number of the colonial-era buildings including the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station and Jamek Mosque. Prior to the Second World War, many shophouses, usually two stories with functional shops on the ground floor and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city centre. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chinese and European traditions. Some of these shophouses have made way for new developments but there are still many standing today in the Medan Pasar Besar (Old Market Square), Petaling Street, Chinatown, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintang and Tengkat Tong Shin areas. Independence coupled with rapid economic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam being the official religion in the country, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local and Islamic flavour arise around the city. Many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the songkok and the Kris, keris. Some of these buildings have Islamic geometric motifs integrated into the designs of the building, due to Islamic restrictions on imitating nature through drawings. Examples of these buildings are Telekom Tower, Maybank Tower (Kuala Lumpur), Maybank Tower, Dayabumi Complex, and the Islamic Centre. Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia and Planetarium Negara, National Planetarium have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with dome and minaret, when in fact they are places of science and knowledge. The
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Petronas Towers
are the tallest twin buildings in the world and the tallest buildings in the country. They were designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art. Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the late-1990s and early-2000s. With economic development, old buildings such as Bok House have been razed to make way for new ones. Buildings with all-glass shells exist throughout the city, with the most prominent examples being the
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, or the Petronas Twin Towers ( ms, Menara Petronas, or ), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pu ...

Petronas Towers
and Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Kuala Lumpur's central business district today has shifted to the Kuala Lumpur city centre (KLCC) where many new and tall buildings with modern and postmodern architecture fill the skyline. According to the World Tallest 50 Urban Agglomeration 2010 Projection by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Kuala Lumpur ranks 10th among cities that have most buildings above 100 metres with a combined height of 34,035 metres from its 244 high rise buildings.


Parks

The Lake Gardens, Kuala Lumpur, Lake Gardens, a botanical garden, was the first recreational park created in Kuala Lumpur. The Malaysian Parliament building is located close by, and Carcosa Seri Negara, which was once the official residence of British colonial administration, is also sited here. The park includes a butterfly park, deer park, orchid garden, a hibiscus garden, and the Kuala Lumpur Bird Park, which is the world's largest aviary bird park. Other parks in the city include the ASEAN Sculpture Garden, KLCC Park, Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, Metropolitan Lake Gardens in Kepong, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Taman Tasik Permaisuri (Queen's Lake Gardens), Bukit Kiara Botanical Gardens, the equestrian park and West Valley Park near TTDI, and Bukit Jalil International Park. There are three forest reserves within the city, the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve in the city centre, the oldest gazetted forest reserve in the country , Bukit Sungai Putih Forest Reserve () and Bukit Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (). Bukit Nanas, in the heart of the city centre, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city. These residual forest areas are home to a number of fauna species, particularly monkeys, treeshrews, pygmy goats, budgerigars, squirrels and birds. There is another park in close vicinity to Kuala Lumpur i.e. Templer Park initiated and opened by Sir Gerald Templer in 1954 during the "Emergency" time.


Education

According to government statistics, Kuala Lumpur has a literacy rate of 97.5% in 2000, the highest rate in any state or territory in Malaysia. In Malaysia, Malay is the language of instruction for most subjects while English is a compulsory subject, but , English is still the language of instruction for mathematics and the natural sciences for certain schools. Some schools provide instruction in Mandarin and Tamil for certain subjects. Kuala Lumpur contains 14 tertiary education institutions, 79 high schools, 155 elementary schools and 136 kindergartens. Several institutions in the city are more than 100 years old — such as Bukit Bintang Girls' School (1893–2000, relocated to Taman Shamelin Perkasa in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Cheras and renamed GIS Garden International school Seri Bintang Utara), the Victoria Institution (1893); Methodist Girls' School (1896); Methodist Boys' School (Kuala Lumpur), Methodist Boys' School (1897); SMK Convent Bukit Nanas, Convent Bukit Nanas (1899), St. John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur, St. John's Institution (1904), Confucian Private Secondary School (1906), Kuen Cheng High School (1908), Tsun Jin High School (1913) and Maxwell School (1917). Kuala Lumpur is home to the University of Malaya (UM). Established in 1949, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region. It was ranked the best university in Malaysia, the 22nd best in Asia, and 3rd in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
in QS World University Rankings 2019. In recent years, the number of international students at the University of Malaya has risen, as a result of increasing efforts made to attract more international students. Other universities located in Kuala Lumpur include Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (TARUC), UCSI University (UCSI), Taylor's University (TULC), International Medical University (IMU), Open University Malaysia (OUM), Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur University (UniKL), Perdana University (PU), Wawasan Open University (WOU), HELP University and the branch campus of the National University of Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, University of Technology Malaysia (UTM). The Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, National Defence University of Malaysia is located at Sungai Besi Army Base, at the southern part of central Kuala Lumpur. It was established to be a major centre for military and defence technology studies. This institution covers studies for the army, navy, and air force. Greater Kuala Lumpur covers an even more extensive selection of universities including several international branches such as Monash University Malaysia Campus, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and Xiamen University Malaysia.


Culture


Arts

Kuala Lumpur is a hub for cultural activities and events in Malaysia. Among the centres is the Muzium Negara, National Museum, which is situated along the Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 1, Mahameru Highway. Its collection comprises artefacts and paintings collected throughout the country. The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, Islamic Arts Museum, which houses more than seven thousand Islamic artefacts including rare exhibits and a library of Islamic art books, is the largest Islamic arts collection in Southeast Asia. The museum's collection not only concentrates on works from the Middle East, but also includes work from elsewhere in Asia, such as China and Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur has a craft complex coupled with a museum that displays a variety of textile, ceramic, metal craft and weaved products. Information on the production process is portrayed in diorama format complete with historical facts, technique and traditionally engineered equipment. Among the processes shown are pottery making, intricate wood carving, silver-smithing, weaving songket cloth, stamping batik patterns on cloth, and boat-making. Royal Selangor has an ultra modern visitor's centre, which allows tours to be conducted through its pewter museum, gallery and factory. In its pewter-smithing workshop, "The School of Hard Knocks", participants are taught to create their own pewter dish using traditional tools and methods.The premier performing arts venue is the Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, Petronas Philharmonic Hall located underneath the
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, or the Petronas Twin Towers ( ms, Menara Petronas, or ), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pu ...

Petronas Towers
. The resident orchestra is the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra (MPO), consisting of musicians from all over the world, and features regular concerts, chamber concerts and traditional cultural performances. The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre (KLPac) in Sentul West and Damansara Performing Arts Centre (DPac) in Damansara Perdana are two of the most established centres in the country for the performing arts, notably theatre, plays, music, and film screening. It has housed many local productions and has been a supporter of local and regional independent performance artists. The Future Music Festival Asia has been held in the city since 2012, featuring local and international artists. The National Art Gallery of Malaysia is located on Jalan Temerloh, off Jalan Tun Razak on a site neighbouring the National Theatre (Istana Budaya) and National Library. The architecture of the gallery incorporates elements of traditional Malay architecture, as well as contemporary modern architecture. The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and is a trustee of the national art heritage. The Petronas Art Gallery, another centre for fine art, is situated in Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC). The Ilham Tower Gallery near Ampang Park LRT station, Ampang Park houses exhibitions of works by local and foreign artists. Kuala Lumpur holds the Malaysia International Gourmet Festival annually. Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week, which includes international brands and local designers. Kuala Lumpur also is becoming the centre for new media, innovation and creative industry development in the region and hosts the international creative industry event Kreative.Asia, which gathers local, regional and international experts in the creative industry who are involved in the creation, development and delivery of interactive content, arts, community and applications. Kuala Lumpur is at the forefront of the convergence of media, art, culture and communications.


Sports and recreation

Kuala Lumpur has numerous parks, gardens and open spaces for recreational purposes. Total open space for recreational and sport facilities land use in the city has increased significantly by 169.6 percent from in 1984 to in 2000. Kuala Lumpur was touted as one of the host cities for the Formula One World Championship from 1999 to 2017. The open-wheel auto racing A1 Grand Prix was held until the series folded in 2009. The Motorcycle Grand Prix races are held at the Sepang International Circuit in Sepang in the neighbouring state of
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
. The Formula One event contributed significantly to tourist arrivals and tourism income to Kuala Lumpur. This was evident during the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Asian financial crisis in 1998. Despite cities around Asia suffering declining tourist arrivals, in Kuala Lumpur tourist arrivals increased from 6,210,900 in 1997 to 10,221,600 in 2000, or 64.6%. In 2015, the Kuala Lumpur Street Circuit was constructed to host the Kuala Lumpur City Grand Prix motor racing event. Association Football, Football is one of the most popular sports in Kuala Lumpur. The Pestabola Merdeka, Merdeka Tournament is mainly held at Stadium Merdeka. The city is also the home of Kuala Lumpur City F.C., Kuala Lumpur City, which plays in the Malaysia Super League. Kuala Lumpur hosted the official Asian Basketball Championship in 1965 ABC Championship, 1965, 1977 ABC Championship, 1977 and 1985 ABC Championship, 1985. The city's basketball supporters cheered Malaysia's national basketball team to a Final Four finish in 1985, the team's best performance to date. Further, the city is home to the Kuala Lumpur Dragons, 2016 Champions of the ASEAN Basketball League. The team plays its home games in the ''MABA Stadium''. KL Grand Prix CSI 5*, a five-star international showjumping equestrian event, is held annually in the city. This annual event draws the world's top riders and their prize horses to Malaysia. Other annual sport events hosted by the city include the KL Tower Run, the KL Tower International BASE Jump Merdeka Circuit and the Kuala Lumpur International Marathon. Kuala Lumpur is also one of the stages of the Tour de Langkawi cycling race. The annual Malaysia Open (badminton), Malaysia Open Super Series badminton tournament is held in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur has a considerable array of international class sports facilities after hosting the
1998 Commonwealth Games The 1998 Commonwealth Games ''(Malay language, Malay: Sukan Komanwel 1998)'', officially known as the XVI Commonwealth Games ''(Malay: Sukan Komanwel ke-16)'', was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by seve ...
. Many of these facilities, including the main stadium (with running track and a football field), hockey stadium and swimming pools located in the National Sports Complex, Malaysia, National Sports Complex at Bukit Jalil while a velodrome and more swimming pools are located in Bandar Tun Razak, next to the Taman Tasik Permaisuri Lake Gardens. There are also football fields, local sports complexes, swimming pools and tennis courts scattered around the suburbs. Badminton and 'Sepak Takraw, takraw' courts are usually included in community halls. The Asian Football Confederation, AFC House—current headquarters of the Asian Football Confederation—is built on a complex in the Kuala Lumpur suburb of Bukit Jalil. Kuala Lumpur has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and the Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil. The city also has numerous large private fitness centres run by Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First, True Fitness and major five-star hotels. Kuala Lumpur is also the birthplace of Hash House Harriers, Hashing, which began in December 1938 when a group of British colonial officers and expatriates, some from the Selangor Club, began meeting on Monday evenings to run, in a fashion patterned after the traditional British Paper Chase (game), Paper Chase or "Hare and Hounds". Kuala Lumpur hosted the 128th IOC Session in 2015 where the IOC elected Beijing as the host city of the 2022 Winter Olympics and Lausanne as the host city of the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics.


Media

Kuala Lumpur daily newspaper, daily, List of business newspapers, business, and digital newspaper, digital papers include
The Malaysian Reserve
', ''The Edge (Malaysia), The Edge'', ''The Star (Malaysia), The Star'', ''New Straits Times'', ''The Sun (Malaysia), The Sun'', ''Malay Mail'', ''Berita Harian'', and ''Harian Metro''. Mandarin and Tamil newspapers are also published daily, for example ''Sin Chew Daily'', ''China Press'', ''Nanyang Siang Pau'' and ''Tamil Nesan'', ''Malaysia Nanban'', and ''Makkal Osai''. Kuala Lumpur is also the headquarters for
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
's state media public broadcasting, public government terrestrial television, terrestrial television stations: TV1 (Malaysia), TV1 and TV2 (Malaysia), TV2, the subsidiaries of Radio Televisyen Malaysia, RTM, TV Alhijrah, a subsidiary of TV Alhijrah, Alhijrah Media Corporation, and Media Prima Berhad, a media corporation that houses the privately held company, private commercial broadcasting, commercial terrestrial television, terrestrial television stations: TV3 (Malaysia), TV3, NTV7, 8TV (Malaysia), 8TV and TV9 (Malaysia), TV9. Programmes are broadcast in
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
, English, Chinese and Tamil language, Tamil. The city is home to the country's main pay television service, Astro (television), Astro, a satellite television service. Kuala Lumpur female diva pop singers include Elizabeth Tan (singer), Elizabeth Tan, Ernie Zakri and :ms:Azira Shafinaz, Azira Shafinaz. Kuala Lumpur has been featured in aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books. Television series set in Kuala Lumpur include ''A Tale of 2 Cities (TV series), A Tale of 2 Cities'' (starring Rui En and Joanne Peh). Movies set in Kuala Lumpur include ''Police Story 3: Super Cop'' (starring Jackie Chan and Michelle Yeoh) and ''Entrapment (film), Entrapment'' (starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones), in which the
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, or the Petronas Twin Towers ( ms, Menara Petronas, or ), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pu ...

Petronas Towers
were depicted in flames for a few seconds. Books set in Kuala Lumpur include ''KL 24/7'' by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin, ''My Life As a Fake'' by Peter Carey (historian), Peter Carey, and ''Democracy (novel), Democracy'' by Joan Didion. A few notable local films featured Kuala Lumpur as background location, such as ''Masam-masam Manis'' (1965), ''Keluarga Si Comat'' (1973), ''Jiwa Remaja'' (1976), ''Abang'' (1981), ''Matinya Seorang Patriot'' (1984), ''Kembara Seniman Jalanan'' (1986), ''Orang Kampung Otak Kimia'' (1988), ''Hati Bukan Kristal'' (1990), ''Mat Som'' (1990), ''Mira Edora'' (1990), ''Femina'' (1993), ''Maria Mariana'' (1996), ''Hanya Kawan'' (1997), ''KLU'' (1999), ''Soal Hati'' (2000), ''KL Menjerit'' (2002), ''Laila Isabella'' (2003), ''Gangster'' (2005), ''Gol & Gincu'' (2005), ''Remp-it'' (2006), ''Cinta'' (2006), ''Anak Halal'' (2007) ''Evolusi KL Drift'' (2008), ''Adnan Sempit'' (2010), ''KL Gangster'' (2011), ''Kepong Gangster'' (2012), ''Lagenda Budak Setan 2: Katerina'' (2012) and ''Kolumpo'' (2013). A few local films featured Kuala Lumpur during the historical era, such as ''1975: Hati Malaya'' (2007), ''Petaling Streets Warrior'' (2011) and ''Tanda Putera'' (2013). Kuala Lumpur is mentioned in many songs by local Malaysian artists, such as "Keroncong Kuala Lumpur'" by P. Ramlee, "Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota" by Saloma, "Chow Kit Road" by Sudirman Arshad, "Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur" by Alleycats (Malaysian rock band), Alleycats, "Streets of Kuala Lumpur" by Murkyway, "K.L." by Vandal, "Kuala Lumpur" by Poetic Ammo, "Anak Dara" by Azmyl Yunor, "KL"' by Too Phat, "Kotarayaku" by Hujan (band), Hujan and Altimet, and "Lagu Untuk Kuala Lumpur" by Tom. Kuala Lumpur was one of the destinations in ''The Amazing Race Asia'' and ''The Amazing Race (American TV series), The Amazing Race''. Video games have also been set in Kuala Lumpur, including three levels of ''Hitman 2: Silent Assassin'' and two tracks in the racing game ''Burnout Dominator''. A reality television, reality game show set in Kuala Lumpur from February until April 2013 was aired on AXN Asia. ''The Apprentice Asia'' was launched on 22 May 2013.


Transportation

As in most other Asian cities, driving is the main commuting choice in Kuala Lumpur. Every part of the city is well connected with highways. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive List of roads in Kuala Lumpur, road network with more transportation development planned. Public transportation covers a variety of transport modes such as bus, Rail transport, rail and taxicab, taxi. Despite efforts to promote public transport, utilisation rates are low, 16 percent of the population in 2006. However, public transport utilisation will increase with the expansion of the rail network, operated by Prasarana Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley via its subsidiaries Rapid Rail and Rapid Bus, using the Rapid KL brand name. Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, Prasarana Malaysia has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur and the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
metropolitan area to increase passenger numbers and improve Kuala Lumpur's public transport system. Prasarana Malaysia has adopted the hub and spoke system to provide greater connectivity, and reduce the need for more buses. Kuala Lumpur Sentral station, KL Sentral was added on 16 April 2001 and served as the new transport hub of the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System.


Urban rail

The KTM Komuter, a
commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent s or s. Generally commuter rail systems are considered , using electrified or diesel trains. Distance charges or may be use ...
service, was introduced in 1995 as the first rail transit system to provide local rail services in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
suburban areas. Services were later expanded to other parts of Malaysia with the introduction of the KTM Komuter Northern Sector, Northern and Southern sectors. KTM Komuter's 175 km (109 mi) network in the Central Sector has 53 stations. It consists of two cross-city routes, namely the Port Klang Line (Tanjung Malim railway station, Tanjung Malim to Port Klang Komuter station, Port Klang) and Seremban Line (Batu Caves Komuter station, Batu Caves to Pulau Sebang/Tampin railway station, Pulau Sebang/Tampin). Transfers between the two main lines can be made at any of the four stations on the central core: Kuala Lumpur Sentral, KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, Kuala Lumpur, Bank Negara Komuter station, Bank Negara and Putra Komuter station, Putra. Light Rapid Transit (LRT) Malaysia is the medium-capacity rail system, medium-capacity rail lines in the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
. The first LRT line was opened in 1996 and the system has since expanded to three lines, which opened in 1998 and 1999. Along with the MRT, the LRT is constructed and owned by the Prasarana, with operating concessions currently run by Rapid KL and Rapid Rail. In 2006, the government announced the Ampang and Sri Petaling lines extension, Sri Petaling Line and Kelana Jaya line extension projects. Unlike the original line, which used the fixed-block signaling block system, signalling block system, the extension uses the communications-based train control (CBTC) signaling system. Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Malaysia is a heavy rail rapid transit system that constitutes the bulk of the railway network in Kuala Lumpur and the rest of the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
. The first section of the MRT opened on 16 December 2016, and the network has since grown rapidly in accordance with Malaysia's aim of developing a comprehensive rail network as the backbone of the country's public transportation system. The network consists of three lines – the MRT Circle Line, looping around Kuala Lumpur, the MRT Kajang Line and the MRT Putrajaya Line, covering a 20 km radius in the southeast–northwest direction from the city centre, will integrate the current rapid transit system and serve high-density areas which are currently not serviced by any rapid transit system. About 90 new stations are planned in this "wheel and spoke" concept, out of which 26 in the city centre will be underground. Ridership capacity will be 2 million passengers per day. The KL Monorail opened on 31 August 2003 with 11 stations running on two parallel elevated tracks. The line is numbered and coloured light green on official transit maps. It connects the KL Sentral transport hub in the south and Titiwangsa station, Titiwangsa in the north with the "Golden Triangle", a commercial, shopping, and entertainment area comprising Bukit Bintang, Imbi, Sultan Ismail, and Raja Chulan. Kuala Lumpur is served by two airports. The main airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) at Sepang, Selangor, which is also the aviation hub of Malaysia, is located about south of city. The other airport is Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, also known as Subang Skypark and served as the main international gateway to Kuala Lumpur from 1965 until KLIA opened in 1998. KLIA connects the city with direct flights to destinations on six continents around the world, and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia Airlines and low-cost carrier, AirAsia. KLIA can be reached using the KLIA Ekspres, an
airport rail link An airport rail link is a service providing passenger rail transport from an airport to a nearby city by main line (railway), mainline or commuter rail, commuter trains, rapid transit, people mover, or light rail. Direct links operate straight ...
service from KL Sentral, which takes twenty-eight minutes and costs RM 55 (roughly US$13.50), while travelling by car or bus via highway will take about an hour but cost a lot less. Direct buses from KLIA to the city centre are plentiful (every 10 to 15 minutes during peak hours), air-conditioned and comfortable with fares ranging from RM 11 (roughly US$2.70) to RM 15 (roughly US$3.70). Air Asia and other low-cost carrier flights do not fly out of KLIA main terminal, but from KLIA2, which is two kilometres from KLIA. KLIA2 is served by an extension of the KLIA Ekspres and by a free shuttle bus service from KLIA. , Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport is only used for chartered and turboprop flights by airlines such as Firefly (airline), Firefly and Malindo Air.


Buses

''Bas Mini KL'' or Kuala Lumpur Mini-Bus Service was one of the oldest and popular
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
public transportation, public bus service, having served Kuala Lumpur and the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
region. The buses were primarily painted pink with a white stripe on the sides, and had a capacity of only 20-30 passengers, due to their smaller size. The buses operated on a commission basis, with service operators paid according to the fares they collected. The mini-bus service was from 23 September 1975 and discontinued on 1 July 1998, to be replaced by the Intrakota bus service and later, Rapid Bus in 2005. Rapid Bus began the first phase of the revamp of its bus network in January 2006, introducing 15 City Shuttle bus routes which serve major areas in the Central Business District (CBD) of Kuala Lumpur. In 2008, Rapid Bus operated 167 routes with 1,400 buses covering 980 residential areas with a ridership of about 400,000 per day. The buses run between four hubs at the edge of the central business district, namely Kuala Lumpur Sentral station, KL Sentral, Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Maluri station, Maluri, and Medan Pasar bus hub, Medan Pasar in the city centre. These bus hubs also serve as rail interchanges, with the exception of Medan Pasar, although it is at a walking distance from Masjid Jamek LRT station. es On June 18, 2020, Rapid Bus released a new feature: real-time location of bus in Google Maps, via collaboration with Google Transit. Effective 10 April 2019, all RapidKL buses are implementing fully cashless journey for all routes by stages, in which the bus accepts Touch n Go card only for user convenience. These systems were fully implemented by May 27, 2019. Almost 170 RapidKL bus routes are covered with the real time feature, which was expanded to the MRT feeder bus service. Rapid Bus is however not the only bus operator in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley. Other bus operators are Selangor Omnibus, Setara Jaya bus, and Causeway Link.


Taxis

In Kuala Lumpur, most taxis have distinctive white and red liveries. Many companies operate and maintain pools of different model of cars in their own brands. Before local car production began, the Mercedes-Benz W123, Mercedes-Benz 200, Mazda Familia, Mazda 323/Ford Laser, Toyota Mark II, Toyota Mark II X80 series and the Opel Kadett were used. Most were scrapped and replaced by List of Proton car models, Protons, but there are still a large number of these models running the roads. Kuala Lumpur is one of the major ASEAN cities with taxis extensively running on natural gas vehicle, natural gas. Taxis can be hailed from Taxicab stand, taxi stands or from the streets. Taxis may be flagged down at any time of the day along any public road outside of the Central Business District (CBD). However, increased usage of ridesharing services like Grab (company), Grab, MyCar and JomRides has resulted in a decrease in taxi use. Nevertheless, the London-based website, LondonCabs.co.uk has claimed that taxis in the city charge passengers high rates, refusing to turn on their meters and offering instead over-priced flat-rate fares, although other passengers refute such claims. The heads of some taxi associations came out and distanced themselves from taxi drivers who had given the taxi industry a bad name, promising the public that not all taxi drivers were like that.


Twin towns – sister cities

Kuala Lumpur is Sister city, twinned with: * Ankara, Turkey * Casablanca, Morocco * Chennai, India * Dubai, United Arab Emirates * Isfahan, Iran * Karachi, Pakistan * London, United Kingdom * Malacca City, Malaysia * Mashhad, Iran


See also

*
Greater Kuala Lumpur Greater Kuala Lumpur is the geographical term that determines the boundaries of Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. Though similar to the term "Klang Valley", there remains a variation between the two. It is similar to Greater London and Greate ...
*
Putrajaya Putrajaya (), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya ( ms, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a countr ...

Putrajaya
* Cyberjaya * Bandar Sri Damansara * Ahmad Fuad Osman, contemporary artist and painter


References


Bibliography

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External links


Official Website of Kuala LumpurThe Official Tourism Website of Malaysia – Malaysia Truly AsiaOfficial Website of Tourism Malaysia CorpOfficial Portal of Kuala Lumpur City Hall

An Insider's Guide to Kuala Lumpur

Pathfinder City
* {{Good article Kuala Lumpur, Capital districts and territories Capitals in Asia Federal Territories in Malaysia Klang Valley Peninsular Malaysia Populated places established in 1857 1857 establishments in Asia Cities in Malaysia