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''Kristallnacht'' () or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November pogrom(s) (german: Novemberpogrome, ), was a
pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising ...
against
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jew
s carried out by the Nazi Party's Sturmabteilung (SA) paramilitary forces along with civilians throughout
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
on 9–10 November 1938. The German authorities looked on without intervening."'German Mobs' Vengeance on Jews", ''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
'', 11 November 1938, cited in
The name ''Kristallnacht'' (literally "Crystal Night") comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings and
synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches ...

synagogue
s were smashed. The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of the German diplomat
Ernst vom Rath Ernst Eduard vom Rath (3 June 1909 – 9 November 1938) was a German diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It ...
by
Herschel Grynszpan Herschel Feibel Grynszpan ( German: ''Hermann Grünspan''; 28 March 1921 – last rumoured to be alive 1945, declared dead 1960) was a German-born Jew of Polish heritage. The Nazis Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nation ...
, a 17-year-old German-born
Polish Jew The history of the Jews in Poland dates back at least 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is ...
living in Paris. Jewish homes, hospitals and schools were ransacked as attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers. Rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany, Austria and the
Sudetenland The Sudetenland (; ; Czech and sk, Sudety) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918– ...

Sudetenland
. Over 7,000 Jewish businesses were damaged or destroyed, Berenbaum, Michael & Kramer, Arnold (2005). ''The World Must Know''.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined ...

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
. p. 49.
and 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and incarcerated in
concentration camps Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or Indictment, intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects". Thus, while it ...
. British historian
Martin Gilbert Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. He was the author of eighty-eight books, including works on Winston Churchill, the 20th century, and Jewish h ...
wrote that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely reported as it was happening, and the accounts from foreign journalists working in Germany drew worldwide attention. ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' of London observed on 11 November 1938: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenceless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday.""A Black Day for Germany", ''The Times'', 11 November 1938, cited in . Estimates of fatalities caused by the attacks have varied. Early reports estimated that 91 Jews had been murdered. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources puts the figure much higher; when deaths from post-arrest maltreatment and subsequent suicides are included, the death toll reaches the hundreds, with Richard J. Evans estimating 638 deaths by suicide. Historians view ''Kristallnacht'' as a prelude to the
Final Solution The Final Solution (german: Endlösung, ) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (german: Endlösung der Judenfrage, ) was a Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An i ...
and the murder of six million Jews during
the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify wi ...
.


Background


Early Nazi persecutions

In the 1920s, most German Jews were fully integrated into German society as German citizens. They served in the German army and navy and contributed to every field of German business, science and culture. Conditions for German Jews began to change after the appointment of
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
(the Austrian-born leader of the
National Socialist German Workers' Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ...
) as
Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal government of Germany The Federal Cabinet or Federal Govern ...
on 30 January 1933, and the
Enabling Act An enabling act is a piece of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statute, statutory or administrative law is enacte ...
(implemented 23 March 1933) which enabled the assumption of power by Hitler after the
Reichstag fire The Reichstag fire (german: Reichstagsbrand, ) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building, home of the German parliament in Berlin, on Monday 27 February 1933, precisely four weeks after Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany. Hit ...
of 27 February 1933. From its inception, Hitler's regime moved quickly to introduce anti-Jewish policies.
Nazi propaganda Propaganda in Nazi Germany was the practice of state directed communication to promote German nationalism, the goals of the Nazi Party of Germany, and the party itself. The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and ...
alienated 500,000 Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.86% of the overall population, and framed them as an enemy responsible for Germany's defeat in the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
and for its subsequent economic disasters, such as the 1920s hyperinflation and subsequent
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
. Beginning in 1933, the German government enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws restricting the rights of German Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full citizenship and to gain education, including the ''
Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (german: Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums, shortened to ''Berufsbeamtengesetz''), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-est ...
'' of 7 April 1933, which forbade Jews to work in the civil service. The subsequent 1935
Nuremberg Laws The Nuremberg Laws (german: link=no, Nürnberger Gesetze, ) were antisemitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is ca ...

Nuremberg Laws
stripped German Jews of their citizenship and prohibited Jews from marrying non-Jewish Germans. These laws resulted in the exclusion and alienation of Jews from German social and political life. Many sought asylum abroad; hundreds of thousands emigrated, but as
Chaim Weizmann Chaim Azriel Weizmann ( he, חיים עזריאל ויצמן ', russian: Хаим Евзорович Вейцман, ''Khaim Evzorovich Veytsman''; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Russian-born biochemist, Zionist was the foun ...
wrote in 1936, "The world seemed to be divided into two parts—those places where the Jews could not live and those where they could not enter." The international
Évian Conference The Évian Conference was convened 6–15 July 1938 at Évian-les-Bains, France, to address the problem of German and Austrian Jewish refugees wishing to flee persecution by Nazi Germany. It was the initiative of United States President Franklin Del ...
on 6 July 1938 addressed the issue of Jewish and
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...

Romani
immigration to other countries. By the time the conference took place, more than 250,000 Jews had fled Germany and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
, which had been in March 1938; more than 300,000 German and Austrian Jews continued to seek refuge and asylum from oppression. As the number of Jews and Romani wanting to leave increased, the restrictions against them grew, with many countries tightening their rules for admission. By 1938, Germany "had entered a new radical phase in
anti-Semitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. A ...
activity". Some historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence against the Jews and were waiting for an appropriate provocation; there is evidence of this planning dating back to 1937. In a 1997 interview, the German historian
Hans Mommsen Hans Mommsen (5 November 1930 – 5 November 2015) was a German historian, known for his studies in German social history, and for his functionalist interpretation of the Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (li ...
claimed that a major motive for the pogrom was the desire of the ''
Gauleiter A ''Gauleiter'' () was a regional leader of the Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right Far-right politics ...

Gauleiter
s'' of the NSDAP to seize Jewish property and
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
es. Mommsen stated:
The need for money by the party organization stemmed from the fact that
Franz Xaver Schwarz Franz Xaver Schwarz (27 November 1875 – 2 December 1947) was a German ''Schutzstaffel'' (SS) functionary and politician in Nazi Germany. He served as ''Reichsschatzmeister'' (National Treasurer) of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) during most of the ...

Franz Xaver Schwarz
, the party treasurer, kept the local and regional organizations of the party short of money. In the fall of 1938, the increased pressure on Jewish property nourished the party's ambition, especially since Hjalmar Schacht had been ousted as ''Reich'' minister for economics. This, however, was only one aspect of the origin of the November 1938 pogrom. The Polish government threatened to extradite all Jews who were Polish citizens but would stay in Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side. The immediate reaction by the Gestapo was to push the Polish Jews—16,000 persons—over the borderline, but this measure failed due to the stubbornness of the Polish customs officers. The loss of prestige as a result of this abortive operation called for some sort of compensation. Thus, the overreaction to Herschel Grynszpan's attempt against the diplomat Ernst vom Rath came into being and led to the November pogrom. The background of the pogrom was signified by a sharp cleavage of interests between the different agencies of party and state. While the Nazi party was interested in improving its financial strength on the regional and local level by taking over Jewish property,
Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; ; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader and convicted war criminal. He was one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party, which ruled Germany from 1933 to 1 ...

Hermann Göring
, in charge of the Four-Year Plan, hoped to acquire access to foreign currency in order to pay for the import of needed raw material. Heydrich and Himmler were interested in fostering Jewish emigration.
The
Zionist was the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 pamphlet ''Der Judenstaat ''Der Judenstaat'' ( German, literally ''The Jews' State'', commonly rendered as ''The Jewish State'') is a pamphlet written by Theodor Herzl and publishe ...
leadership in the British Mandate of Palestine wrote in February 1938 that according to "a very reliable private source—one which can be traced back to the highest echelons of the SS leadership", there was "an intention to carry out a genuine and dramatic pogrom in Germany on a large scale in the near future".


Expulsion of Polish Jews in Germany

In August 1938, German authorities announced that residence permits for foreigners were being canceled and would have to be renewed. This included German-born Jews of foreign citizenship.
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...
stated that it would renounce citizenship rights of
Polish Jews The history of Jews in Poland dates back at least 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is div ...
living abroad for at least five years after the end of October, effectively making them stateless. In the so-called "
Polenaktion ''Polenaktion'' ("Polish Action") was the arrest and expulsion of about 17,000 Poland, Polish Jews living in Nazi Germany in October 1938. These deportations, ordered by SS officer and head of the Gestapo Reinhard Heydrich, displaced thousands of ...
", more than 12,000 Polish Jews, among them the philosopher and theologian Rabbi
Abraham Joshua Heschel Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907 – December 23, 1972) was a Polish-born American rabbi and one of the leading Judaism, Jewish theologians and Jewish philosophers of the 20th century. Heschel, a professor of Jewish mysticism at the ...
, and future literary critic
Marcel Reich-Ranicki Marcel Reich-Ranicki (; 2 June 1920 – 18 September 2013) was a Polish-born German literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting ...
were expelled from Germany on 28 October 1938, on Hitler's orders. They were ordered to leave their homes in a single night and were allowed only one suitcase per person to carry their belongings. As the Jews were taken away, their remaining possessions were seized as loot both by Nazi authorities and by neighbors. The deportees were taken from their homes to railway stations and were put on trains to the Polish border, where Polish border guards sent them back into Germany. This stalemate continued for days in the pouring rain, with the Jews marching without food or shelter between the borders. Four thousand were granted entry into Poland, but the remaining 8,000 were forced to stay at the border. They waited there in harsh conditions to be allowed to enter Poland. A British newspaper told its readers that hundreds "are reported to be lying about, penniless and deserted, in little villages along the frontier near where they had been driven out by the Gestapo and left." Conditions in the
refugee camps , Palestinian refugee camp in North Lebanon in 2005., development town, development camp for Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Jewish refugees, southern Israel, 1957 A refugee camp is a temporary Human settlement, settlement built to ...
"were so bad that some actually tried to escape back into Germany and were shot", recalled a British woman who was sent to help those who had been expelled.


Shooting of vom Rath

Among those expelled was the family of Sendel and Riva Grynszpan, Polish Jews who had emigrated to Germany in 1911 and settled in
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...
, Germany. At the trial of
Adolf Eichmann Otto Adolf Eichmann ( ,"Eichmann"
''
in 1961, Sendel Grynszpan recounted the events of their deportation from Hanover on the night of 27 October 1938: "Then they took us in police trucks, in prisoners' lorries, about 20 men in each truck, and they took us to the railway station. The streets were full of people shouting: ''Juden Raus! Auf Nach Palästina!''" ("Jews out, out to Palestine!"). Their seventeen-year-old son Herschel was living in Paris with an uncle. Herschel received a postcard from his family from the Polish border, describing the family's expulsion: "No one told us what was up, but we realized this was going to be the end ... We haven't a penny. Could you send us something?"German State Archives,
Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital, Berlin, and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the Havel, Ri ...

Potsdam
, quoted in Rita Thalmann and Emmanuel Feinermann, ''Crystal night, 9–10 November 1938'', pp. 33, 42.
He received the postcard on 3 November 1938. On the morning of Monday, 7 November 1938, he purchased a revolver and a box of bullets, then went to the German embassy and asked to see an embassy official. After he was taken to the office of
Ernst vom Rath Ernst Eduard vom Rath (3 June 1909 – 9 November 1938) was a German diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It ...
, Grynszpan fired five bullets at Vom Rath, two of which hit him in the abdomen. Vom Rath was a professional diplomat with the Foreign Office who expressed anti-Nazi sympathies, largely based on the Nazis' treatment of the Jews and was under Gestapo investigation for being politically unreliable. Grynszpan made no attempt to escape the French police and freely confessed to the shooting. In his pocket, he carried a postcard to his parents with the message, "May God forgive me ... I must protest so that the whole world hears my protest, and that I will do." It is widely assumed that the assassination was politically motivated, but historian Hans-Jürgen Döscher says the shooting may have been the result of a homosexual love affair gone wrong. Grynszpan and vom Rath had become intimate after they met in Le Boeuf sur le Toit, which was a popular meeting place for gay men at the time. The next day, the German government retaliated, barring Jewish children from German state elementary schools, indefinitely suspending Jewish cultural activities, and putting a halt to the publication of Jewish newspapers and magazines, including the three national German Jewish newspapers. A newspaper in Britain described the last move, which cut off the Jewish populace from their leaders, as "intended to disrupt the Jewish community and rob it of the last frail ties which hold it together." Their rights as citizens had been stripped. One of the first legal measures issued was an order by Heinrich Himmler, commander of all German police, forbidding Jews to possess any weapons whatsoever and imposing a penalty of twenty years' confinement in a concentration camp upon every Jew found in possession of a weapon hereafter."Nazis Smash, Loot and Burn Jewish Shops and Temples Until Goebbels Calls Halt", ''New York Times'', 11 November 1938


Pogrom


Death of Ernst vom Rath

Ernst vom Rath died of his wounds on 9 November 1938. Word of his death reached Hitler that evening while he was with several key members of the Nazi party at a dinner commemorating the 1923
Beer Hall Putsch The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed schoolshistory.org.uk, accessed 2008-05-31.Known in German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens ...
. After intense discussions, Hitler left the assembly abruptly without giving his usual address. Propaganda Minister
Joseph Goebbels Paul Joseph Goebbels (; 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed ...
delivered the speech, in his place, and said that "the Führer has decided that... demonstrations should not be prepared or organized by the party, but insofar as they erupt spontaneously, they are not to be hampered." The chief party judge
Walter Buch Walter Buch (24 October 1883 – 12 September 1949) was a German jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
later stated that the message was clear; with these words, Goebbels had commanded the party leaders to organize a pogrom. Some leading party officials disagreed with Goebbels' actions, fearing the diplomatic crisis it would provoke.
Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was of the (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationa ...
wrote, "I suppose that it is Goebbels's megalomania...and stupidity which is responsible for starting this operation now, in a particularly difficult diplomatic situation." The Israeli historian
Saul Friedländer Saul Friedländer (; born October 11, 1932) is an Israeli historian and a professor emeritus of history at UCLA. Biography Saul Friedländer was born in Prague to a family of Ashkenazi Jews, German-speaking Jews. He was raised in France and lived ...

Saul Friedländer
believes that Goebbels had personal reasons for wanting to bring about ''Kristallnacht''. Goebbels had recently suffered humiliation for the ineffectiveness of his propaganda campaign during the
Sudeten crisis The Munich Agreement ( cs, Mnichovská dohoda; sk, Mníchovská dohoda; german: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement concluded at Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. W ...
, and was in some disgrace over an affair with a
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
actress,
Lída Baarová Lída Baarová (born Ludmila Babková; 7 September 1914 – 27 October 2000) was a Czech actress who for two years was the mistress of the Nazi Germany, Nazi propaganda minister of Germany, Joseph Goebbels. Biography Life and career Born in Pra ...
. Goebbels needed a chance to improve his standing in the eyes of Hitler. At 1:20 a.m. on 10 November 1938,
Reinhard Heydrich Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (; ; 7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German SS and police official during the Nazi era and a principal architect of the Holocaust. He was chief of the Reich Security Main Office (includin ...
sent an urgent secret telegram to the ''
Sicherheitspolizei The ''Sicherheitspolizei'' ( en, Security Police), often abbreviated as ''SiPo'', was a term used in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and ...
'' (Security Police; SiPo) and the ''
Sturmabteilung The (; SA; literally "Storm Detachment Detachment or detached may refer to: * Single-family detached home A stand-alone house (also called a single-detached dwelling, detached residence or detached house) is a free-standing residential b ...
'' (SA), containing instructions regarding the riots. This included guidelines for the protection of foreigners and non-Jewish businesses and property. Police were instructed not to interfere with the riots unless the guidelines were violated. Police were also instructed to seize Jewish archives from synagogues and community offices, and to arrest and detain "healthy male Jews, who are not too old", for eventual transfer to (labor) concentration camps.


Riots

Müller, in a message to SA and SS commanders, stated the "most extreme measures" were to be taken against Jewish people. The SA and Hitler Youth shattered the windows of about 7,500 Jewish stores and businesses, hence the name ''Kristallnacht'' (Crystal Night), and looted their goods. Jewish homes were ransacked all throughout Germany. Although violence against Jews had not been explicitly condoned by the authorities, there were cases of Jews being beaten or assaulted. Following the violence, police departments recorded a large number of suicides and rapes. The rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland. Over 1,400 synagogues and prayer rooms, many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish shops, and 29 department stores were damaged, and in many cases destroyed. More than 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps; primarily
Dachau , , commandant = #Commandants, List of commandants , known for = , location = Upper Bavaria, Southern Germany , built by = Nazi Germany, Germany , operated by = ''Schutzstaffel'' (SS) , original use = Political ...

Dachau
,
Buchenwald Buchenwald (; literally 'beech forest Beech Forest is a town in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The area of Beech Forest is largely used for potato farming. The town was named after the many Nothofagus cunninghamii, myrtle beech ...
, and Sachsenhausen. The synagogues, some centuries old, were also victims of considerable violence and vandalism, with the tactics the Stormtroops practiced on these and other sacred sites described as "approaching the ghoulish" by the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
Consul in Leipzig. Tombstones were uprooted and graves violated. Fires were lit, and prayer books, scrolls, artwork and philosophy texts were thrown upon them, and precious buildings were either burned or smashed until unrecognizable. Eric Lucas recalls the destruction of the synagogue that a tiny Jewish community had constructed in a small village only twelve years earlier: The ''Daily Telegraph'' correspondent,
Hugh Greene Sir Hugh Carleton Greene (15 November 1910 – 19 February 1987) was a British television executive and journalist. He was Director-General of the BBC, director-general of the BBC from 1960 to 1969. After working for newspapers in the 1930s, Gr ...
, wrote of events in Berlin: Many Berliners were however deeply ashamed of the pogrom, and some took great personal risks to offer help. The son of a US consular official heard the janitor of his block cry: "They must have emptied the insane asylums and penitentiaries to find people who'd do things like that!" Tucson News TV channel briefly reported on a 2008 remembrance meeting at a local Jewish congregation. According to eyewitness Esther Harris: "They ripped up the belongings, the books, knocked over furniture, shouted obscenities". Historian
Gerhard Weinberg Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born 1 January 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of human ...
is quoted as saying:
"Houses of worship burned down, vandalized, in every community in the country where people either participate or watch."


Aftermath

The former German
Kaiser ''Kaiser'' is the German word for "emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title ...

Kaiser
Wilhelm II Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 18594 June 1941), anglicised as William II, was the last German Emperor (german: Kaiser) and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until Abdication of Wilhelm II, his abdication on Nove ...

Wilhelm II
commented "For the first time, I am ashamed to be German." Göring, who was in favor of expropriating the property of the Jews rather than destroying it as had happened in the pogrom, directly complained to ''Sicherheitspolizei'' Chief Heydrich immediately after the events: "I'd rather you had done in two-hundred Jews than destroy so many valuable assets!" (''"Mir wäre lieber gewesen, ihr hättet 200 Juden erschlagen und hättet nicht solche Werte vernichtet!"''). Göring met with other members of the Nazi leadership on 12 November to plan the next steps after the riot, setting the stage for formal government action. In the transcript of the meeting, Göring said,
I have received a letter written on the
Führer ( ; , spelled when the Umlaut (diacritic), umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide". As a political title it is associated with the Nazi Germany, Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler. Nazi Germany cultivated the ("leader ...

Führer
's orders requesting that the Jewish question be now, once and for all, coordinated and solved one way or another... I should not want to leave any doubt, gentlemen, as to the aim of today's meeting. We have not come together merely to talk again, but to make decisions, and I implore competent agencies to take all measures for the elimination of the Jew from the German economy, and to submit them to me.
The persecution and economic damage inflicted upon German Jews continued after the pogrom, even as their places of business were ransacked. They were forced to pay ''
JudenvermögensabgabeThe Judenvermögensabgabe ("Jewish Capital Levy") was an arbitrary special tax that History of the Jews in Germany, German Jews had to pay during the Nazi Germany, National Socialist era. After the assassination attempt on the German Legation Secret ...
'', a collective fine or "atonement contribution" of one billion Reichsmarks for the murder of vom Rath (equivalent to billion € or 7 billion in 2020 USD), which was levied by the compulsory acquisition of 20% of all Jewish property by the state. Six million Reichsmarks of insurance payments for property damage due to the Jewish community were instead paid to the Reich government as "damages to the German Nation". Jews were required to pay for the cost of all damages caused by the pogrom to their residences and businesses. The number of emigrating Jews surged, as those who were able to left the country. In the ten months following ''Kristallnacht'', more than 115,000 Jews emigrated from the Reich. The majority went to other European countries, the U.S. and
Mandatory Palestine Mandatory Palestine ( ar, فلسطين '; he, פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י) ', where "E.Y." indicates ''Ērētz Yīśrā'ēl'', the Land of Israel The Land of Israel () is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefini ...
, and at least 14,000 made it to
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
. As part of government policy, the Nazis seized houses, shops, and other property the émigrés left behind. Many of the destroyed remains of Jewish property plundered during Kristallnacht were dumped near
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
. In October 2008, this dumpsite was discovered by Yaron Svoray, an investigative journalist. The site, the size of four football fields, contained an extensive array of personal and ceremonial items looted during the riots against Jewish property and places of worship on the night of 9 November 1938. It is believed the goods were brought by rail to the outskirts of the village and dumped on designated land. Among the items found were glass bottles engraved with the
Star of David The Star of David, known in Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelite ...

Star of David
,
mezuzot A ''mezuzah'' ( he, מְזוּזָה "doorpost"; plural: ''mezuzot'') is a piece of parchment called a ''klaf'' contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew language, Hebrew verses from the Torah ( and ). These verses cons ...
, painted window sills, and the armrests of chairs found in synagogues, in addition to an ornamental swastika.


Responses to ''Kristallnacht''


In Germany

The reaction of non-Jewish Germans to ''Kristallnacht'' was varied. Many spectators gathered on the scenes, most of them in silence. The local fire departments confined themselves to prevent the flames from spreading to neighboring buildings. In Berlin, police Lieutenant Otto Bellgardt barred SA troopers from setting the New Synagogue on fire, earning his superior officer a verbal reprimand from the commissioner. The British historian
Martin Gilbert Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. He was the author of eighty-eight books, including works on Winston Churchill, the 20th century, and Jewish h ...
believes that "many non-Jews resented the round-up", his opinion being supported by German witness Dr. Arthur Flehinger who recalls seeing "people crying while watching from behind their curtains". Rolf Dessauers recalls how a neighbor came forward and restored a portrait of
Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich (; 14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833  ...

Paul Ehrlich
that had been "slashed to ribbons" by the ''Sturmabteilung''. "He wanted it to be known that not all Germans supported Kristallnacht." The extent of the damage done on Kristallnacht was so great that many Germans are said to have expressed their disapproval of it, and to have described it as senseless. In an article released for publication on the evening of 11 November, Goebbels ascribed the events of ''Kristallnacht'' to the "healthy instincts" of the German people. He went on to explain: "The German people are anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights restricted or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race." Less than 24 hours after Kristallnacht, Adolf Hitler made a one-hour long speech in front of a group of journalists where he completely ignored the recent events on everyone's mind. According to Eugene Davidson the reason for this was that Hitler wished to avoid being directly connected to an event that he was aware that many of those present condemned, regardless of Goebbels's unconvincing explanation that Kristallnacht was caused by popular wrath. Goebbels met the foreign press in the afternoon of 11 November and said that the burning of synagogues and damage to Jewish owned property had been "spontaneous manifestations of indignation against the murder of Herr Vom Rath by the young Jew Grynsban . In 1938, just after Kristallnacht, the psychologist Michael Müller-Claudius interviewed 41 randomly selected Nazi Party members on their attitudes towards racial persecution. Of the interviewed party-members 63% expressed extreme indignation against it, while only 5% expressed approval of racial persecution, the rest being noncommittal. A study conducted in 1933 had then shown that 33% of Nazi Party members held no racial prejudice while 13% supported persecution. Sarah Ann Gordon sees two possible reasons for this difference. First, by 1938 large numbers of Germans had joined the Nazi Party for pragmatic reasons rather than ideology thus diluting the percentage of rabid antisemites; second, the Kristallnacht could have caused party members to reject antisemitism that had been acceptable to them in abstract terms but which they could not support when they saw it concretely enacted. During the events of Kristallnacht, several Gauleiter and deputy Gauleiters had refused orders to enact the Kristallnacht, and many leaders of the SA and of the Hitler Youth also openly refused party orders, while expressing disgust. Some Nazis helped Jews during the Kristallnacht. As it was aware that the German public did not support the Kristallnacht, the propaganda ministry directed the German press to portray opponents of racial persecution as disloyal. The press was also under orders to downplay the Kristallnacht, describing general events at the local level only, with prohibition against depictions of individual events. In 1939 this was extended to a prohibition on reporting any anti-Jewish measures. The U.S. ambassador to Germany reported: To the consternation of the Nazis, the Kristallnacht affected public opinion counter to their desires, the peak of opposition against the Nazi racial policies was reached just then, when according to almost all accounts the vast majority of Germans rejected the violence perpetrated against the Jews. Verbal complaints grew rapidly in numbers, and for example, the Düsseldorf branch of the Gestapo reported a sharp decline in anti-Semitic attitudes among the population. There are many indications of Protestant and Catholic disapproval of racial persecution; for example, anti-Nazi Protestants adopted the
Barmen Declaration __NOTOC__ The Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 (:de:Barmer Theologische Erklärung, Die Barmer Theologische Erklärung) was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany who opposed the ''Deutsche Christen'' (Germ ...
in 1934, and the Catholic church had already distributed
pastoral letter A pastoral letter, often simply called a pastoral, is an open letter addressed by a bishop to the clergy or laity of a diocese or to both, containing general admonition, instruction or consolation, or directions for behaviour in particular circumst ...
s critical of Nazi racial ideology, and the Nazi regime expected to encounter organised resistance from it following Kristallnacht. The Catholic leadership however, just as the various Protestant churches, refrained from responding with organised action. While individual Catholics and Protestants took action, the churches as a whole chose silence publicly. Nevertheless, individuals continued to show courage, for example, a
parson A parson is an ordained Christians, Christian person responsible for a small area, typically a parish. The term was formerly often used for some Anglican clergy and, more rarely, for ordained ministers in some other churches. It is no longer a f ...

parson
paid the medical bills of a Jewish cancer patient and was sentenced to a large fine and several months in prison in 1941, Reformed Church pastor Paul Schneider placed a Nazi sympathizer under church discipline and he was subsequently sent to Buchenwald where he was murdered. A Catholic nun was sentenced to death in 1945 for helping Jews. A Protestant parson spoke out in 1943 and was sent to Dachau concentration camp where he died after a few days. Martin Sasse, Nazi Party member and bishop of the
Evangelical Lutheran Church in ThuringiaThe Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thuringia (''Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Thüringen'') was a Lutheran Landeskirche, member church of the umbrella Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). The seat of the church was in Eisenach. The church covered ...
, leading member of the Nazi
German Christians Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, and was introduced to the area of modern Germany with the conversion of the first Germanic tribes in the 4th century. The area became fully Christianization of Germany, Christianized by the tim ...
, one of the schismatic factions of German Protestantism, published a compendium of
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
's writings shortly after the ''Kristallnacht''; Sasse "applauded the burning of the synagogues" and the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, "On 10 November 1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany." The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words "of the greatest anti-Semite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews."
Diarmaid MacCulloch Diarmaid Ninian John MacCulloch (; born 31 October 1951) is an English historian and academic, specialising in ecclesiastical history __NOTOC__ Church history or ecclesiastical history as an academic discipline studies the history of Christ ...

Diarmaid MacCulloch
argued that Luther's 1543 pamphlet, '' On the Jews and Their Lies'' was a "blueprint" for the ''Kristallnacht''.


Internationally

''Kristallnacht'' sparked international outrage. According to
Volker Ullrich __NOTOC__ Volker Ullrich (born 1943) is a German historian, journalist and author. Career Volker Ullrich was born in Celle Celle () is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nd ...

Volker Ullrich
, "...a line had been crossed: Germany had left the community of civilised nations." It discredited pro-Nazi movements in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, leading to an eventual decline in their support. Many newspapers condemned ''Kristallnacht'', with some of them comparing it to the murderous pogroms incited by Imperial Russia during the 1880s. The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
recalled its ambassador (but it did not break off diplomatic relations) while other governments severed diplomatic relations with Germany in protest. The
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
government approved the
Kindertransport The ''Kindertransport'' (German for "children's transport") was an organised rescue effort of children from Nazi-controlled territory that took place during the nine months prior to the outbreak of the Second World War. The United Kingdom t ...

Kindertransport
program for refugee children. As such, ''Kristallnacht'' also marked a turning point in relations between Nazi Germany and the rest of the world. The brutality of the pogrom, and the Nazi government's deliberate policy of encouraging the violence once it had begun, laid bare the repressive nature and widespread anti-Semitism entrenched in Germany. World opinion thus turned sharply against the Nazi regime, with some politicians calling for war. On 6 December 1938, William Cooper, an Aboriginal Australian, led a delegation of the Australian Aboriginal League on a march through Melbourne to the German Consulate to deliver a petition which condemned the "cruel persecution of the Jewish people by the Nazi government of Germany". German officials refused to accept the tendered document. After the ''Kristallnacht'', Salvador Allende, Gabriel González Videla, Marmaduke Grove, Florencio Durán and other members of the National Congress of Chile, Congress of Chile sent a telegram to Adolf Hitler denouncing the persecution of Jews. A more personal response, in 1939, was the oratorio ''A Child of Our Time'' by the English composer Michael Tippett.


''Kristallnacht'' as a turning point

''Kristallnacht'' changed the nature of Nazi Germany's persecution of the Jews from economic, political, and social exclusion to physical violence, including beatings, incarceration, and murder; the event is often referred to as the beginning of
the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify wi ...
. In this view, it is not only described as a pogrom, it is also described as a critical stage within a process in which each step becomes the seed of the next step. An account cited that Hitler's green light for ''Kristallnacht'' was made with the belief that it would help him realize his ambition of getting rid of the Jews in Germany. Prior to this large-scale and organized violence against the Jews, the Nazi's primary objective was to eject them from Germany, leaving their wealth behind. In the words of historian Max Rein in 1988, "Kristallnacht came...and everything was changed." While November 1938 predated the overt articulation of "the
Final Solution The Final Solution (german: Endlösung, ) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (german: Endlösung der Judenfrage, ) was a Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An i ...
", it foreshadowed the genocide to come. Around the time of ''Kristallnacht'', the Schutzstaffel, SS newspaper ''Das Schwarze Korps'' called for a "destruction by swords and flames." At a conference on the day after the pogrom,
Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; ; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader and convicted war criminal. He was one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party, which ruled Germany from 1933 to 1 ...

Hermann Göring
said: "The Jewish problem will reach its solution if, in anytime soon, we will be drawn into war beyond our border—then it is obvious that we will have to manage a final account with the Jews." ''Kristallnacht'' was also instrumental in changing global public opinion. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, for instance, it was this specific incident which came to symbolize Nazism and it was also the reason as to why the Nazis became associated with evil.


Modern references

Five decades later, November 9 in German history, 9 November's association with the anniversary of ''Kristallnacht'' was cited as the main reason as to why ''Schicksalstag'', the day the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, was not turned into a new German national Public holiday, holiday; a different day was chosen (3 October 1990, German reunification). The avant-garde guitarist Gary Lucas's 1988 composition "Verklärte Kristallnacht", which juxtaposes what would become the Israeli national anthem ten years after ''Kristallnacht'', "Hatikvah", with phrases from the German national anthem "Deutschland Über Alles" amid wild electronic shrieks and noise, is intended to be a sonic representation of the horrors of ''Kristallnacht''. It was premiered at the 1988 Berlin Jazz Festival and received rave reviews. (The title is a reference to Arnold Schoenberg's 1899 work "Verklärte Nacht" that presaged his pioneering work on atonality, atonal music; Schoenberg was an
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
n Jew who would move to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
to escape the Nazis). In 1989, Al Gore, then a senator from Tennessee and later Vice President of the United States, wrote of an "ecological Kristallnacht" in the New York Times. He opined that events which were then taking place, such as deforestation and ozone depletion, prefigured a greater environmental catastrophe in the same way that Kristallnacht prefigured the Holocaust. ''Kristallnacht'' was the inspiration for the 1993 album ''Kristallnacht (album), Kristallnacht'' by the composer John Zorn. The German power metal band Masterplan (band), Masterplan's debut album, ''Masterplan (Masterplan album), Masterplan'' (2003), features an anti-Nazi song entitled "Crystal Night" as the fourth track. The German band BAP (German band), BAP published a song titled "Kristallnaach" in their Cologne Colognian dialect, dialect, dealing with the emotions engendered by the ''Kristallnacht''. ''Kristallnacht'' was the inspiration for the 1988 composition ''Mayn Yngele'' by the composer Frederic Rzewski, of which he says: "I began writing this piece in November 1988, on the 50th anniversary of the Kristallnacht ... My piece is a reflection on that vanished part of Jewish tradition which so strongly colors, by its absence, the culture of our time". In 2014, the ''Wall Street Journal'' published a letter from billionaire Thomas Perkins (businessman), Thomas Perkins that compared the "progressive war on the American one percent" of wealthiest Americans and the Occupy movement's "demonization of the rich" to the ''Kristallnacht'' and antisemitism in
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
. The letter was widely criticized and condemned in ''The Atlantic'', ''The Independent'', among bloggers, Twitter users, and "his own colleagues in Silicon Valley". Perkins subsequently apologized for making the comparisons with Nazi Germany, but otherwise stood by his letter, saying, "In the Nazi era it was racial demonization, now it's class demonization." ''Kristallnacht'' has been referenced both explicitly and implicitly in countless cases of vandalism of Jewish property including the toppling of gravestones in a Jewish cemetery in suburban St. Louis, Missouri, and the two 2017 vandalisms of the New England Holocaust Memorial, as the memorial's founder Steve Ross discusses in his book, ''From Broken Glass: My Story of Finding Hope in Hitler's Death Camps to Inspire a New Generation''. The Sri Lankan Finance Minister Mangala Samaraweera also used the term to describe the violence in 2019 against Muslims by Sinhalese nationalists. Kristallnacht was publicly referenced on January 10, 2021 by the former Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger in a speech decrying the actions of Donald Trump, President Donald Trump and the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol, attack he incited on the U.S. Capitol on January 6.Pengellly, Martin (January 10, 2021
"Schwarzenegger rebukes Trump and compares Capitol riot to Kristallnacht"
''The Guardian''


See also

*Aktionsjuden *Nathan Israel Department Store *Spandau Synagogue *November 9 in German history *''A Child of Our Time''


References

Informational notes Citations Bibliography * * Further reading ::Books in English * * * * ::Books in German * Arntz, Hans-Dieter (2008) ''"Reichskristallnacht". Der Novemberpogrom 1938 auf dem Lande – Gerichtsakten und Zeugenaussagen am Beispiel der Eifel und Voreifel''. (in German) Aachen: Helios-Verlag. * * Faludi, Christian (2013) ''Die "Juni-Aktion" 1938. Eine Dokumentation zur Radikalisierung der Judenverfolgung''. (in German) Frankfurt a. M./New York: Campus. * * * * *Richter, Hans Peter (1970) ''Friedrich'' (in German) Puffin Books *


External links


''Voices on Antisemitism'' Interview with Susan Warsinger
from th
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
* -- "At 7:00 in the morning I was a student, and at 5:00, I was a criminal" * * * * {{Authority control Kristallnacht, 1938 in Austria 1938 in Germany 1938 in Judaism Antisemitism in Germany Arson in Germany Articles containing video clips Attacks on buildings and structures in Germany Political and cultural purges German words and phrases Mass murder in 1938 Massacres in Germany November 1938 events Terrorist incidents in Germany Vandalized works of art Attacks on religious buildings and structures in Europe