AntiquityDuring antiquity. Kismayo was part of the Sesea, Somali city-states that in engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali people, Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemic Egypt, Greece, Parthia, Parthian Persia, Sabaeans, Saba, Nabataea and the Roman Empire. Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the ''beden'' to transport their cargo.Journal of African History pg.50 by John Donnelly Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver
Middle Ages and the early modern periodThe Kismayo area was originally a small fishing settlement. During the Middle Ages, the region came under the rule of the influential Ajuran Sultanate, which utilized the Jubba River for its plantations. After the collapse of this polity, the House of Gobroon was established and the Sultanate of the Geledi held sway over the area. The dynasty reached its apex under the successive reigns of Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, who successfully consolidated Gobroon power during the Bardera wars, and Sultan Ahmed Yusuf (Gobroon), Ahmed Yusuf, who forced regional powers such as the Oman, Omani Empire to submit tribute.
Colonial eraJubaland became part of the British East Africa colony and was later transferred to Italian Somaliland The Italians subsequently referred to the city as ''Chisimaio''. Kismayo and the northern half of the Jubaland region were then incorporated into neighboring Italian Somaliland on 30 June 1926. The colony had a total area of 87,000 km2 (33,000 sq mi), with a population of 120,000 inhabitants. Britain retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, which was later called the North Eastern Province (Kenya), Northern Frontier District (NFD).
Somali Civil WarFollowing the breakdown of central authority that accompanied the Somali Civil War, civil war in 1991, various local militias fought for control of the city, including supporters of Mohammed Said Hersi ("General Morgan"), and Col. Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Somali National Front (SNF), later on known as the Juba Valley Alliance (JVA). As well of Col. Omar Jess' Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM). Aid worker Sean Devereux was assassinated in the city in January 1993. In March 1993, a United States Marine amphibious group arrived in the city in an attempt to keep the peace as part of the UNOSOM II, United Nations intervention in Somalia. By December 1993, General Morgan's troops controlled Kismayo, despite the presence of peacekeepers. The last UN troops left the city in December 1994. General Morgan briefly declared Jubaland independent on September 3, 1998.Footnotes to History: G to J
LocationKismayo is located in the fertile Juba Valley in southeastern Somalia, on the Somali Sea coast. Nearby settlements include to the northeast Xamareyso (5.0 nm), to the north Dalxiiska (1.3 nm), to the northwest Qeyla Dheere (6.4 nm), to the west Saamogia (0.9 nm), to the southwest Iach Bulle (10.0 nm), and to the south Qandal (6.5 nm). The largest cities in the country most proximate to Kismayo are Jamaame (52 km), Jilib (97 km), and Merca (337 km).
ClimateKismayo has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification ''BSh''). Weather is hot year-round, with seasonal monsoon winds and irregular rainfall with recurring droughts. The ''gu'' rains, also known as the Southwest Monsoons, begin in April and last until July producing significant fresh water and allowing lush vegetation to grow. The ''gu'' season is followed by the ''xagaa'' (hagaa) dry season.
GovernmentA new municipal district administration was established on 6 September 2008. Its members reportedly represented the ICU and Al‑Shabaab (three members each) in addition to a local clan (one member) which had played a part in the military assault. Representatives of the Islamic Courts Union questioned the legitimacy of the authority. On 1 October 2009, Al Shabaab took full control of the city, after Col. Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale self proclaim President of the (JVA) Jubaland state. And Ahmed Mohamed Islam, Sheikh Ahmed Madobe, a senior commander of Ras Kamboni Brigade (then a part of Hizbul Islam), challenged Al‑Shabaab's control. With the subsequent ouster of the Al-Shabaab rebels in September 2012, the Somali government began preparing mediations between the city's various stakeholders in order to establish an inclusive local administration. On 28 August 2013, the autonomous Jubaland administration signed a national reconciliation agreement in Addis Ababa with the federal government. Endorsed by the federal State Minister for the Presidency Farah Abdulkadir on behalf of President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the pact was brokered by the Foreign Ministry of Ethiopia and came after protracted bilateral talks. Under the terms of the agreement, Jubaland is administered for a two-year period by a Juba Interim Administration and led by the region's incumbent president, Ahmed Mohamed Islam. The regional president serves as the chairperson of a new Executive Council, to which he appoints three deputies. Additionally, the agreement includes the integration of Jubaland's military forces under the central command of the Somali National Army (SNA), and stipulates that the Juba Interim Administration will command the regional police.
DistrictsKismayo is divided into 4 districts or ''degmo'' (see Kismayo#Education, map): *Calanley *Farjano *Shaqaalaha *Fanoole
Demographics, Kismayo has an estimated population of 89,333 residents.
EducationInstitutions of higher learning in the city include Kismayo University (KU). Established in August 2005, it is situated about 1 km north, along the Kismayo–Mogadishu main road.
EconomyKismayo is the market center and commercial hub autonomous of the Jubbaland region. Bank with a presence in Kismayo include Salama bank and many other money remittance business. In October 2008, the daily labor rate was estimated at 157,500 Somali shillings (approximately $4.50), up from 52,000 shillings (approximately $2.21) in January 2008, while kilogram of red rice rose from 14,170 (approximately $0.61) to 46,000 (approximately $1.31). A liter of diesel cost 43,000 shillings (approximately $1.23) and a camel costs over 15 million shillings (approximately $435). Total cereal production as of 2008 was estimated to be 780MT.
AirportKismayo's air transportation needs are served by Kismayo Airport, which is situated about 10 km from the city. It was formerly a Somali Air Force training base. Following the outbreak of the civil war, the airport was closed down for a period of time and its infrastructure was significantly damaged. However, the facility was reopened in October 2008 by the Islamic Courts Union after undergoing some renovations. That same year, the airport was also renamed after Imam Ahmed Gurey, a 16th‑century Somali military leader. The Kismayo Airport was officially brought under the Juba Interim Administration in August 2013. Per agreement, management of the facility was scheduled to be transferred to the Federal Government of Somalia, Federal Government after a period of six months. Revenues and resources generated from the airport will also be earmarked for Jubaland's service delivery and security sectors as well as local institutional development.
RoadsThree main thoroughfares connect Kismayo to other major areas in the country. The 600 km Highway 3 runs the length of the Juba Valley. Starting in Beled Hawo, it goes through Garbaharey, Bardera and Buale before finally reaching Kismayo. A paved 528 km freeway links the capital Mogadishu with Kismayo. A third highway extends northwest from Kismayo to Afmadow, then turns toward Dhobley (Gedo Region), Dhobley in the eastern part of the Gedo region. In January 2015, the Interim Juba Administration launched a transport beautification and cleaning campaign in Kismayo. Part of a broader urbanization drive, the initiative includes the clearing of clogged streets and lanes, razing of illegal buildings therein, and further development of the municipal road network.
SeaportKismayo's large docks are situated on a peninsula on the Somali Sea coast. Formerly one of the Bajuni Islands, the peninsula was subsequently connected by a narrow causeway when the modern Port of Kismayo was built in 1964 with U.S. assistance. The port served as a base for the Somali Navy as well as the Soviet Navy after the military coup in Somalia in 1969.UPI
Notable residents*Mohamed Ibrahim Liqliiqato- General, military and political leader, ambassador to Soviet Union and West Germany, Speaker of Parliament(1983–1990). *Abdullahi Ahmed Irro – General in the Somali National Army *Hussein Samatar – politician, banker and community organizer
See also* Fall of Kismayo