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Kiowa () people are a
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
tribe and an
indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and First Nations, First Nation band governments who have historicall ...
of the United States. They migrated southward from western
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
into the Rocky Mountains in
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
in the 17th and 18th centuries,Pritzker 326 and finally into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century. In 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
. Today, they are
federally recognized This is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily lo ...
as Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in
Carnegie, Oklahoma Carnegie is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a state in the South Central region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Con ...
. , there were 12,000 members. The Kiowa language (Cáuijògà), part of the
Tanoan Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , Larg ...
language family, is in danger of extinction, with only 20 speakers as of 2012.{{Cite web, url=http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas/en/atlasmap/language-id-873.html, title=UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger name="ethno
"Kiowa Tanoan"
''Ethnologue.'' Retrieved 21 June 2012.


Name

{{more citations needed, section, date=November 2019 Kiowa call themselves Ka'igwu, Cáuigù{{Incomplete short citation, date=November 2019 or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning "Principal People". The first part of the name is the element ''Kae-, Cáui-'' or ''Gai-'' which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ''ka{{''' (mother) or from ''ka-a'' (a type of spear with feathers along its length). The true origin is lost. ''Kae-kia'' means a Kiowa man; ''Kae-ma'' is a Kiowa woman. The second element ''-gua'' refers to "men or people",{{Incomplete short citation, date=November 2019 so the meaning of the two elements is "Kiowa people"; to express "Principal People" (sometimes "Chief People") or "genuine, real or true People" in Kiowa is to add the ending ''-hin''. Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da ("emerging" or "coming out rapidly") and Tep-da, relating to the tribal origin myth of a creator pulling people out of a hollow log until a got stuck. Later, they called themselves ''Kom-pa-bianta'' for "people with large
tipi A tepee ( ), also spelled teepee or less commonly tipi, and often called a lodge in older English writings, is a conical tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles. Modern tepees usually have a canvas covering. A tepee is distingu ...

tipi
flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" (Kaui-kope) in the present eastern edge of
Glacier National ParkGlacier National Park may refer to: *Glacier National Park (Canada), in British Columbia, Canada *Glacier National Park (U.S.), in Montana, USA See also

*Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Glacier Bay National Park, in Alaska, USA *Los Gla ...
,
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
, just south of the border with Canada. The mountain pass they came through was populated heavily by
grizzly bear The grizzly bear (''Ursus arctos horribilis''), also known as the North American brown bear or simply grizzly, is a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, countr ...
''Kgyi-yo'' and
Blackfoot The Blackfoot Confederacy, ''Niitsitapi'' or ''Siksikaitsitapi'' (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or " Blackfoot-speaking real people"), is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Black ...

Blackfoot
people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulations in combination with non-manual elements. Sign languages are full-fled ...

sign language
to describe them, by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear. This corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled while they shot an arrow from a bow string.
George Catlin George Catlin (July 26, 1796 – December 23, 1872) was an American adventurer, lawyer, painter, author, and traveler, who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans in the Old West. Traveling to the We ...

George Catlin
painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle.{{Incomplete short citation, date=November 2019 For a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land, mostly in present-day eastern Colorado, with the
Arapaho The Arapaho (; french: Arapahos, ) are a people of Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native American ...

Arapaho
. An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is "creek people", and the Arapaho word for "creek" is ''koh'owu{{''', which when pronounced carefully has some resemblance to the current name "Kiowa". For example, the Kiowa are referred to as "creek people" in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. "Kiowa" may have been a transliteration by European Americans of a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho.


Language

{{see also, Kiowa language The Kiowa language is a member of the
Kiowa-Tanoan Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Most of the languages – Tiwa languages, Tiwa (Taos, Picuris, Southern Tiwa), Tewa la ...
language family. The relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, and was definitively established in 1967.
Parker McKenzieParker Paul McKenzie (November 15, 1897, near Rainy Mountain – March 5, 1999, Mountain View, Oklahoma, Mountain View) was an American linguistics, linguist and, at the time of his death, the oldest living Kiowa Native Americans in the United States ...
, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school. He worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language. He went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language. Kiowa /ˈkaɪ.əwə/ or Cáuijògà / Cáuijò:gyà (″language of the Cáuigù (Kiowa)″) is a Tanoan language spoken by Kiowa people, primarily in Caddo, Kiowa, and Comanche counties. Additionally, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke
Plains Sign Talk A 1900 newspaper illustration claiming to showcase several of the signs of Plains Indian Sign Language.Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, Plains Sign Language and First Nation Sign Language, is a trade language, f ...
. Originally a trade language, it became a language in its own right that remained in use across North America.Davis, Jeffrey. 2006. "A historical linguistic account of sign language among North American Indian groups." In Multilingualism and Sign Languages: From the Great Plains to Australia; Sociolinguistics of the Deaf community, C. Lucas (ed.), Vol. 12, pp. 3–35. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press


Government

The Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in
Carnegie, Oklahoma Carnegie is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a state in the South Central region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Con ...
. Their
tribal jurisdictional area Oklahoma Tribal Statistical Area is a statistical entity identified and delineated by federally recognized American Indian tribes in Oklahoma as part of the U.S. Census Bureau's 2010 Census and ongoing American Community Survey. Many of these a ...
includes
Caddo The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic, and ecological region in the U.S. state of ...
,
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ; "the people") are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants ...
,
Cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of s ...
, Grady,
Kiowa Kiowa () people are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains of the United States. They migrated southward from western Montana into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th an ...
, Tillman, and Washita Counties. Enrollment in the tribe requires a minimum
blood quantum Image:Creeks in Oklahoma.png, upright=1.2, Members of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877, including some with partial European and African ancestry Blood quantum laws or Indian blood laws are laws in the United States and the f ...
of ¼ Kiowa descent. {{As of, 2020, the Kiowa Tribal chairman is Matthew M. Komalty, and the vice-chairman is Rhonda J. Ahhaitty.{{cite web , title=Government: Chairman , url=https://kiowatribe.org/chairman , website=Kiowa Tribe , access-date=18 January 2020


Economic development

The Kiowa tribe issues its own vehicle tags. {{As of, 2011, the tribe owns one smoke shop, the Morningstar Steakhouse and Grill, Morningstar Buffet, The Winner's Circle restaurant in Devol, Oklahoma, and Kiowa Bingo near
Carnegie, Oklahoma Carnegie is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a state in the South Central region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Con ...
. The tribe owns three casinos, the Kiowa Casino in Carnegie, in Verden, and the Kiowa Casino and Hotel Red River in Devol (approximately 20 minutes north of
Wichita Falls, Texas Wichita Falls ( ) is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public ...
).


Culture

Originally from the Northern Plains and migrating to the Southern Plains, Kiowa society follows bilateral descent, that is, both maternal and paternal lines are significant.{{cite web , last1=Kracht , first1=Benjamin R. , title=Kiowa , url=https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=KI017 , website=The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture They don't have clans but have a complex kinship-based system, and societies based on age and gender.
Tipi A tepee ( ), also spelled teepee or less commonly tipi, and often called a lodge in older English writings, is a conical tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles. Modern tepees usually have a canvas covering. A tepee is distingu ...

Tipi
s, conical lodges made from hide or later canvas, provided lightweight, portable housing. They hunted and gathered wild foods and traded with neighboring agrarian tribes for produce. The Kiowa migrated seasonally with the American bison because it was their main food source. They also hunted antelope, deer, turkeys and other wild game. Women collected varieties of wild berries and fruit and processed them with prepared meats to make
pemmican Pemmican is a mixture of tallow Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, primarily made up of triglycerides. It is solid at room temperature. Unlike suet, tallow can be stored for extended periods without the need for refrigerati ...

pemmican
. Dogs were used to pull
travoisImage:Cheyenne using travois.jpg, 300px, Cheyenne family using a horse-drawn travois, 1890. A travois (; Canadian French, from French language, French , a frame for restraining horses; also obsolete travoy or travoise) is a historical frame structur ...
and rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves. The Kiowa tended to stay in areas for long periods of time. When they adopted
horse culture A horse culture is a tribal group The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposabl ...
, after acquiring horses from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande, the Kiowa revolutionized their life-ways. They had much larger ranges for their seasonal hunting, and horses could carry some of their camping goods. The Kiowa and
Plains Apache The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who live on the Southern Plains of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be d ...
established a homeland that lay in the
Southern Plains The Great Plains, sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae). However, sedge ...
adjacent to the
Arkansas River The Arkansas River is a major tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main ste ...
in southeastern Colorado and western Kansas and the Red River drainage of the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Kiowa use make garlands or wreaths for old men to wear around their heads during ceremonial dances as a symbol of health.


Cuisine

The Kiowa historically had a nomadic hunter-gatherer society. They shared a similar cuisine with their neighboring Plains tribes, such as the Comanche. The most important food source for the Kiowa and fellow plains nations is the
American bison The American bison or simply bison (''Bison bison''), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is an American species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

American bison
or buffalo. Before the introduction of horses, bison were hunted on foot and required the hunter to get as close as possible to the target before going close to shoot with arrows or use the long lance. Occasionally they wore the skins of wolves or
coyotes The coyote (''Canis latrans'') is a species of canis, canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological ...

coyotes
to hide their approach towards the bison herds. Hunting bison became far easier after the Kiowa acquired horses. Bison were hunted on horseback and the men used bows and arrows to take them down, as well as long lances to pierce the hearts of the animals. The women prepared bison meat in a variety of ways: roasted, boiled, and dried. Dried meat was prepared into
pemmican Pemmican is a mixture of tallow Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, primarily made up of triglycerides. It is solid at room temperature. Unlike suet, tallow can be stored for extended periods without the need for refrigerati ...

pemmican
, for sustenance while the people were on the move. Pemmican is made by grinding dried lean meat into a powder, then mixing a near equal weight of melted fat or tallow and sometimes berries; the pemmican was shaped into bars and kept in pouches until ready to eat. Certain parts of the bison were sometimes eaten raw. Other animals hunted included deer,
elk The elk (''Cervus canadensis''), also known as the wapiti, is one of the largest species within the deer Deer or true deer are ed s forming the Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the , including the , the (wapiti), the , a ...

elk
,
pronghorn The pronghorn (, ) (''Antilocapra americana'') is a species of artiodactyl The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates ( ) are members of the diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known ...

pronghorn
, wild
mustang The mustang is a free-roaming horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a Domestication, domesticated odd-toed ungulate, one-toed ungulate, hoofed mammal. It belongs to the taxonomic family Equidae and is one of two Extant taxon, exta ...
,
wild turkey The wild turkey (''Meleagris gallopavo'') is an upland ground bird native to North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as ...

wild turkey
, and bears. During times of scarce game, the Kiowa would eat small animals such as lizards, waterfowl, skunks, snakes, and armadillos.{{citation needed, date=December 2019 They raided ranches for to eat during hard times, and horses to eat during hard times and to acquire for their own use. Men did most of the hunting in Kiowa society. Women were responsible for gathering wild edibles such as berries, tubers, seeds, nuts, vegetables, and wild fruit but could choose to hunt if they wanted to. Plants important to Kiowa cuisine includes
pecans The pecan (''Carya illinoinensis'') is a species of hickory Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus ''Carya'', which includes around 18 species. Five or six species are native to China China, officially the People's Republic ...

pecans
, , , persimmons, acorns, plums, and wild onions. They acquired cultivated crops, such as squash,
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
, and
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of ''C ...

pumpkin
, by trading with and raiding various Indian peoples, such as the
PawneePawnee initially refers to a Native American people and its language: * Pawnee people * Pawnee language Pawnee is also the name of several places in the United States: * Pawnee, Illinois * Pawnee, Kansas * Pawnee, Missouri * Pawnee City, Nebraska * ...
people, living on the western edge of the great plains. Prior to acquiring metal pots from Europeans, Kiowa cooks boiled meat and vegetables through a process of lining a pit in the earth with animal hides, filling that with water, and adding fire-heated rocks.Rollings (2004), pp. 22-28.


Transportation and dwellings

The main form of shelter used by the Kiowa was the . Tipis were made from bison hides shaped and sewn together in a conical shape. Wooden poles called lodge poles from {{Convert, 12-25, feet in length are used as support for the lodge. Lodge poles are harvested from and the
lodgepole pine ''Pinus contorta'', with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and also known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), tr ...
. Tipis have at least one entrance flap. Smoke flaps were place at the top, so that smoke could escape from the fire pit within. The floor of the tipi was lined with animal pelts and skins for warmth and comfort. The tipi is designed to be warm inside during the cold winter months and cool inside during the warm summer. Tipis are easily collapsed and can be raised in minutes, making it an optimal structure for a nomadic people like the Kiowa and other Plains Indian nations. The poles of the tipi were used to construct a
travoisImage:Cheyenne using travois.jpg, 300px, Cheyenne family using a horse-drawn travois, 1890. A travois (; Canadian French, from French language, French , a frame for restraining horses; also obsolete travoy or travoise) is a historical frame structur ...
during times of travel. Hide paintings often adorn the outside and inside of the tipis, with special meanings attached to certain designs. Before the introduction of the horse to North America, the Kiowa and other plains peoples used domestic dogs to carry and pull their belongings. Tipis and belongings, as well as small children, were carried on travois, a frame structure using the tipi poles and pulled by dogs and later horses. The introduction of the horse to Kiowa society revolutionized their way of life. They acquired horses by raiding rancheros south of the Rio Grande into Mexico, as well as by raiding other Indian peoples who already had horses, such as the Navajo and the various Pueblo people. With the horse, they could transport larger loads, hunt more game over a wider range and more easily, and travel longer and farther. The Kiowa became powerful and skilled mounted warriors who conducted long-distance raids against enemies. The Kiowa were considered among the finest horsemen on the Plains. A man's wealth was measured primarily by the size of his horse herd, with particularly wealthy individuals having herds numbering in the hundreds. Horses were targets of capture during raids. The Kiowa considered it an honor to steal horses from enemies, and such raids often served as a rite of passage for young warriors. They adorned their horses with body paint from the medicine man for ritual and spiritual purposes, such as good fortune and protection during battle. Kiowa horses were also often decorated with beaded masks (sometimes with bison horns attached to the sides) and feathers in their manes. Mules and donkeys were also used as means of transportation and wealth; however, they were not as esteemed.


Sociopolitical organization

The Kiowa had a well structured tribal government like most tribes on the Northern Plains. They had a yearly Sun Dance gathering and an elected head-chief who was considered to be a symbolic leader of the entire nation. Warrior societies and religious societies were important to Kiowa society and carried out specific roles. Chiefs were chosen based on bravery and courage shown in battle as well as intelligence, generosity, experience, communication skills, and kindness to others. The Kiowa believed that the young fearless warrior was ideal. The entire tribe was structured around this individual. The warrior was the ideal to which young men aspired. Because of these factors, the Kiowa was of utmost importance in the history of the Southern Plains.Dick Swift, "Introduction to the Study of North American Indians", ''A History and Culture of the Southern Plains Tribes'', Carnegie Public Schools, 1972 The women gain prestige through the achievements of their husbands, sons, and fathers, or through their own achievements in the arts. Kiowa women tanned, skin-sewed, painted geometric designs on parfleche and later beaded and quilled hides. The Kiowa women took care of the camp while the men were away. They gathered and prepared food for winter months, and participated in key ritual events. Kiowa men lived in the families of their wives' extended families. Local groups (''jōfàujōgáu'' or ''jōdáu'') were led by the ''jōfàujōqì'', which merged to become a band (''topadoga''). These bands were led by a
chief Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) is the ninth, and highest, United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia, enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, ...
, the ''Topadok'i'' (′main chief′). The Kiowa had two political subdivisions (particularly with regard to their relationship with the
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ; "the people") are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants ...

Comanche
): *To-kinah-yup or Thóqàhyòp /Thóqàhyòi (″Northerners″, lit. 'Men of the Cold' or ′Cold People′, 'northern Kiowa', lived along the
Arkansas River The Arkansas River is a major tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main ste ...
and the Kansas border, comprising the more numerous northern bands) *Sálqáhyóp or Sálqáhyói (″Southerners″, lit. ′Hot People′, 'southern Kiowa', lived in the
Llano Estacado The Llano Estacado (), sometimes translated into English as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultu ...
(Staked Plains),
Oklahoma Panhandle The Oklahoma Panhandle (previously called No Man's Land and the Neutral Strip) is the extreme northwestern region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. o ...

Oklahoma Panhandle
and
Texas Panhandle The Texas Panhandle is a region of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with ...
, allies of the Comanche). As the pressure on Kiowa lands increased in the 1850s, the regional divisions changed. A new regional grouping emerged: * the Gwa-kelega or Gúhàlēcáuigú ('Wild Mustang Kiowa' or ′Gúhàlē Kiowa′, they were named for the large mustang herds in the territory of the ''Kwahadi (Quohada) Band'' of the Comanche, this Comanche Band was known to them as ''Gúhàlēgáu'' – ′Wild Mustang People′′, with which they were living in close proximity during the last resistance to white settlement on the Southern Plains). After the death of the high chief Dohäsan in 1866, the Kiowa split politically into a peace faction and a war faction. War-bands and peace-bands developed primarily based on their proximity to
Fort Sill Fort Sill is a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed services of the United States, U.S. uniformed services, and is de ...

Fort Sill
(''Xóqáudáuhága'' – ′At Medicine Bluff′, lit. ′Rock Cliff Medicine At Soldiers Collective They Are′) and their degree of interaction. Kiowa bands within the
tipi ring Tipi rings are circular patterns of stones left from an encampment of Post-Archaic, protohistory, protohistoric and historic Native Americans (Americas), Native Americans.Cassells, Steve. (1997). ''The Archaeology of Colorado.'' Boulder: Johnson Bo ...
during the annual
Sun Dance The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by some Native Americans and Aboriginal Canadians, primarily those of the Plains cultures. It usually involves the community gathering together to pray for healing. Individuals make personal sacrifices on b ...
(called ''Kc-to''): *Kâtá or Qáutjáu ('Biters', lit. ''Arikara'', because they had a strong trading history with the
Arikara people Arikara (), also known as Sahnish,
''Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation.'' (Retrieved Sep 29, 2011)
and some families have had Arikara kin; this is the most powerful and largest Kiowa band) *Kogui or Qógûi ('Elks Band') *Kaigwa or Cáuigú ('Kiowa Proper') *Kinep / Kí̱bi̱dau / Kíbìdàu (′Big Shields′) or Khe-ate / Kí̱ːet / Kíèt ('Big Shield'), also known as Káugyabî̱dau / Kāugàbîdāu (′Big Hides / Robes′) *Semat / Sémhát ('Stealers' or ′Thieves′, Kiowa name for their allies, the
Kiowa Apache The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who live on the Southern Plains of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be d ...
, during the Sun Dance also called Taugûi – ′Sitting (at the) Outside′) *Soy-hay-talpupé / Sáuhédau-talyóp ('Blue Boys') or Pahy-dome-gaw / Pái-dome-gú ('Under-the-Sun-Men') (smallest Kiowa band) During the Sun Dance, some bands had special obligations. These were traditionally defined as follows: The ''Kâtá'' had the traditional right (duty or task) to supply the Kiowa during the Sun Dance with enough bison meat and other foods. This band was particularly wealthy in horses, tipis and other goods. The famous Principal Kiowa chiefs Dohäsan (Little Mountain) and Guipago (Lone Wolf) were members of this band.{{citation needed, date=February 2021 The ''Kogui'' were responsible for conducting the war ceremonies during the Sun Dance. There were numerous famous families and leaders known for their military exploits and bravery, such as Ad-da-te ("Islandman"), Satanta (White Bear), and
Kicking Bird Kicking Bird, also known as Tene-angop'te, "The Kicking Bird", "Eagle Who Strikes with his Talons", or "Striking Eagle" (1835 - May 3, 1875) was a High Chief of the Kiowa people, Kiowa in the 1870s. It is said that he was given his name for the wa ...

Kicking Bird
, and the war chiefs Big Bow (Zepko-ete) and
Stumbling Bear StumbleUpon was a discovery and advertisement engine (a form of web search engine) that pushed web content recommendations to its users. Its features allowed users to discover and rate Web pages, photos and videos that are personalized to their tas ...
(Set-imkia). The ''Kaigwu'' were the guardians of the
Sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of a deity; is considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspires awe or Reverence (emotion), reverence among believers. The property is often as ...
or
Medicine bundle A sacred bundle or a medicine bundle is a wrapped collection of sacred items, held by a designated carrier, used in Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ceremonial cultures. According to Patricia Deveraux, a member of the Blackfo ...
(Tai-mé, Taimay) and the holy lance. Therefore, they were respected and enjoyed a special prestige.{{citation needed, date=February 2021 The ''Kinep'' or ''Khe-ate'' were often called "Sun Dance Shields", because during the dance, they observed police duties and ensured security. The chief Woman's Heart (Manyi-ten) belonged to this band.{{citation needed, date=February 2021 The ''Semat'' were allowed to participate equally, but had no specific duties and obligations during the Sun Dance.{{citation needed, date=February 2021


Enemies and warrior culture

{{see also, Koitsenko Typical of the plains Indians, the Kiowa were a warrior people. They fought frequently with enemies both neighboring and far beyond their territory. The Kiowa were notable even among plains Indians for their long-distance raids, including raids far south into Mexico and north onto the northern plains. Almost all warfare took place while mounted on horses. Enemies of the Kiowa include the
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...
,
Arapaho The Arapaho (; french: Arapahos, ) are a people of Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native American ...
,
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a of the . At more than 399,494 enrolled tribal members , the is the largest federally recognized tribe in the U.S. (the being the second largest); the Navajo Nation has the larges ...
,
Ute Ute may refer to: * Ute (band) Ute is a British-Australian band formed by Ian Dixon on trumpet The trumpet is a brass instrument 332x332px, A tenor horn (alto horn) in E, baritone horn in B, and euphonium in B. A brass instrument is a ...
, and occasionally
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
to the north and west of Kiowa territory. East of Kiowa territory they fought with the
PawneePawnee initially refers to a Native American people and its language: * Pawnee people * Pawnee language Pawnee is also the name of several places in the United States: * Pawnee, Illinois * Pawnee, Kansas * Pawnee, Missouri * Pawnee City, Nebraska * ...
, Osage, Kickapoo, Kaw,
Caddo The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic, and ecological region in the U.S. state of ...
,
Wichita Wichita ( ) may refer to: People *Wichita people, a Native American tribe *Wichita language, the language of the tribe Places in the United States * Wichita, Kansas, a city * Wichita County, Kansas, a county in western Kansas (city of Wichita is ...
, and
Sac and Fox The Sac and Fox Nation (Fox language, ''Mesquakie'' language: ''Thakiwaki'' or ''Sa ki wa ki'') is the largest of three federally recognized tribes, federally recognized tribes of Sauk people, Sauk and Meskwaki, Meskwaki (Fox) American Indians i ...
. To the south they fought with the
Lipan Apache Lipan may refer to: * Lipan Apache people, an indigenous people of Texas and northern Mexico ** Lipan language * Lipan, Texas, a city ** Lipan Independent School District * Mereta, Texas or Lipan, an unincorporated community * Lipan Point, a promont ...
,
Mescalero Apache Mescalero or Mescalero Apache is an Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Americ ...

Mescalero Apache
, and
Tonkawa The Tonkawa are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Oklahoma. Their Tonkawa language, now extinct language, extinct, is a linguistic isolate. Today, Tonkawa people are enrolled in the Federal ...
. The Kiowa also came into conflict with Indian nations from the American south and east displaced to Indian Territory during the
Indian Removal #REDIRECT Indian removal#REDIRECT Indian removal Indian removal is the former United States government policy of forced displacement of self-governing tribes of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to l ...
period including the
Cherokee The Cherokee (; chr, ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ, translit=Aniyvwiyaʔi or Anigiduwagi, or chr, ᏣᎳᎩ, links=no, translit=Tsalagi) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, ...

Cherokee
,
Choctaw The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language The Choctaw language (Choctaw: ), spoken by the Choctaw, an Indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, is part of the Muskogean languages, Muskogean language family. Chickasaw language, Chickasaw (C ...

Choctaw
, Muskogee, and
Chickasaw The Chickasaw ( ) are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Southeastern cultures, or Southeast Indians are an ethnographic Ethnography (from Greek ''ethnos'' "folk, peopl ...

Chickasaw
. Eastern tribes found that Indian Territory, the place they were sent, was already occupied by plains Indians, most notably the Kiowa and Comanche. The Cheyenne and Arapaho would later make peace with the Kiowa and form a powerful alliance with them, the Comanche, and the Plains Apache to fight invading settlers and U.S soldiers, as well as Mexicans and the Mexican Army. Like other plains Indians, the Kiowa had specific warrior societies. Young men who proved their bravery, skill, or displayed their worth in battle were often invited to one of the warrior societies. In addition to warfare, the societies worked to keep peace within the camps and tribe as a whole. There were six warrior societies among the Kiowa.Boyd, 71 The Po-Lanh-Yope (Little Rabbits) was for boys; all young Kiowa boys were enrolled and the group served mostly social and education purposes, involving no violence or combat. The Adle-Tdow-Yope (Young Sheep), Tsain-Tanmo (Horse Headdresses), Tdien-Pei-Gah (Gourd Society), and Ton-Kon-Gah (Black Legs or Leggings), were adult warrior societies. The
Koitsenko The Koitsenko was a group of the ten greatest warriors of the Kiowa tribe as a whole, from all bands. One was Satank who died while being taken to trial for the Warren Wagon Train Raid. The Koitsenko were elected out of the various military societ ...
(Qkoie-Tsain-Gah, Principal Dogs or Real Dogs) consisted of the ten most elite warriors of all the Kiowa, who were elected by the members of the other four adult warrior societies.{{cite web , url=https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmk10 , title=Kiowa Indians , publisher=The Handbook of Texas Online , first=Mildred P , last=Mayhall , access-date=2008-01-17 Kiowa warriors used a combination of traditional and nontraditional weapons, including long lances, bows and arrows, tomahawks, knives, and war-clubs, as well as the later acquired rifles, shotguns, revolvers, and cavalry swords. Shields were made from tough bison hide stretched over a wooden frame, or made from the skull of bison, which made a small, strong shield. Shields and weapons were adorned with feathers, furs, and animal parts such as eagle claws for ceremonial purposes.


Kiowa calendars

{{further, Winter count The Kiowa people told ethnologist
James Mooney James Mooney (February 10, 1861 – December 22, 1921) was an American ethnographer who lived for several years among the Cherokee. Known as "The Indian Man", he conducted major studies of Southeastern Indians, as well as of tribes on the Plai ...
that the first calendar keeper in their tribe was Little Bluff, or ''Tohausan'', who was the principal chief of the tribe from 1833 to 1866. Mooney also worked with two other calendar keepers, ''Settan'', or Little Bear, and '' Ankopaaingyadete'', In the Middle of Many Tracks, commonly known as ''Anko''. Other Plains tribes kept pictorial records, known as "winter counts". The Kiowa calendar system is unique: they recorded two events for each year, offering a finer-grained record and twice as many entries for any given period. Silver Horn (1860–1940), or ''Haungooah,'' was the most highly esteemed artist of the Kiowa tribe in the 19th and 20th centuries, and kept a calendar. He was a respected religious leader in his later years.Greene, Candace S. ''One Hundred Summers: A Kiowa Calendar Record.'' Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008.


Funeral practices

In Kiowa tradition, death had strong associations with darks spirits and negative forces, which meant that the death of an individual was seen as a traumatic experience. Fear of ghosts in Kiowa communities stemmed from the belief that spirits commonly resisted the end of their physical life. The spirits were thought to remain around the corpse or its burial place, as well as haunt former living spaces and possessions. Lingering spirits were also believed to help encourage the dying to cross from the physical world to the afterlife. The fear of ghosts can be seen in the way skulls were treated, which{{clarify, date=August 2019 was believed to be a source of negative spiritual contamination that invited danger to the living. Due to the fears and risks associated with death, the community's reactions were instantaneous and vicious. Families and relatives were expected to demonstrate grief through reactions such as wailing, ripping off clothes and shaving of the head. There have also been accounts of self-induced body lacerations and finger joints being cut. In the process of grief, women and the widowed spouse were expected to be more expressive in their mourning. The body of the deceased must be washed before burial. The washer, historically a woman, also combs the hair and paints the face of the dead. Once the body has been treated, a burial occurs promptly. When possible, the burial takes place on the same day, unless the death occurs at night. In this case the dead is buried the following morning. A quick burial was believed to reduce the risk of spirits remaining around the burial site. After the burial, most of the belongings of the dead were burned along with their tipi. If their tipi or house was shared with family, the surviving relatives moved into a new house.


History

As members of the
Kiowa-Tanoan Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Most of the languages – Tiwa languages, Tiwa (Taos, Picuris, Southern Tiwa), Tewa la ...
language family, the Kiowa at some distant time likely shared an ethnic origin with the other
Amerindian The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who n ...
nations of this small language family:
TiwaTiwa and Tigua may refer to: * Tiwa Puebloans, an ethnic group of New Mexico, US * Tiwa (Lalung), an ethnic group of north-eastern India * Tiwa language (India), a Sino-Tibetan language of India * Tiwa languages, a group of Tanoan languages of the U ...
,
Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of ...
, Towa, and others. By historic times, however, the Kiowa lived in a
hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
economy unlike the sedentary ''pueblo'' societies of the others. The Kiowa also had a complex ceremonial life and developed the ' Winter counts' as calendars. The Kiowa recount their origins as near the
Missouri River The Missouri River is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its ...
, and the
Black Hills The Black Hills ( lkt, Ȟe Sápa; chy, Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva; hid, awaxaawi shiibisha) is a small and isolated mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or ...

Black Hills
. They knew that they were driven south by pressure from the
Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated ...

Sioux
. For the earliest recorded — and recounted — history of the Kiowa, see further below. Following A'date, famous Kiowa leaders were Dohäsan (Tauhawsin, Over-Hanging Butte, alias Little Mountain, alias Little Bluff);
Satank Satank (Set-angya or Set-ankeah, translated as chief Topinabee A quiet Sitting Bear) was a prestigious Kiowa Kiowa () people are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains of the Un ...

Satank
(Set-ankea, Sitting Bear),
Guipago Guipago (Gui-pah-gho, or ''Lone Wolf he Elder' ) (c. 1820 – July 1879) was the last Principal Chief of the Kiowa tribe. He was a member of the Koitsenko, the Kiowa warrior elite, and was a signer of the Little Arkansas Treaty in 1865. Backgr ...
(Gui-pah-gho, Lone Wolf The Elder, alias Guibayhawgu, Rescued From Wolves), Satanta (Set-tainte, White Bear), Tene-angopte (Kicking Bird),
Zepko-ete Big Bow (1833"Big Bow."
''Texas State Historical Association.'' Retrieved 21 June 2012.
–c. 1900) ...
(Big Bow), Set-imkia (Stumbling Bear), Manyi-ten (Woman's Heart), Napawat (No Mocassin), Mamanti (Walking-above),
Tsen-tainte White Horse (Kiowa language, Kiowa: Tsen-tainte, unknown c. 1840/1845–1892) was a chief of the Kiowa. White Horse attended the council between southern plains tribes and the United States at Medicine Lodge, Kansas, Medicine Lodge in southern Ka ...
(White Horse),
Ado-ete Big Tree (Kiowa language, Kiowa: Ado-ete (ca. 1850–1929), was a noted Kiowa warrior and chief. He was a loyal follower of the fighting chiefs party (led by Satank, Satanta (White Bear), Satanta, and Guipago), and conducted frequent raids upon o ...
(Big Tree).WARREN WAGONTRAIN RAID , The Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)
/ref> Dohasan, who is also known as Touhason, is considered by many to be the greatest Kiowa Chief (1805–1866), as he unified and ruled the Kiowa for 30 years. He signed several treaties with the United States, including the Fort Atkinson Treaty of July 27, 1852, and the
Little Arkansas TreatyThe Little Arkansas Treaty was a set of treaties signed between the United States, United States of America and the Kiowa, Comanche, Plains Apache, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, Southern Arapaho at Little Arkansas River, Kansas in October 1865. On ...
of 1865.{{cite news, first=Beccy, last=Tanner, title=Betty Nixon dies; helped found Mid-America All-Indian Center, url=http://www.kansas.com/2013/02/05/2664089/betty-nixon-dies-helped-found.html, work=
Wichita Eagle ''The Wichita Eagle'' is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspaper ...
, date=2013-02-05, access-date=2013-02-09, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130214014801/http://www.kansas.com/2013/02/05/2664089/betty-nixon-dies-helped-found.html, archive-date=2013-02-14, url-status=dead
Guipago became the head chief of the Kiowa when Dohosan (Little Bluff) named him as his successor. Guipago and Satanta, along with old Satank, led the warring faction of the Kiowa nation, while Tene-angopte and Napawat led the peaceful party. In 1871 Satank, Satanta and Big Tree (translated in some documents as Addo-etta) helped lead the Warren Wagon Train Raid. They were arrested by United States soldiers and transported to Jacksboro, Texas. En route, near Fort Sill, Indian Territory, Satank killed a soldier with a knife and was shot by cavalry troops while trying to escape. Satanta and Big Tree were later convicted of murder by a "cowboy jury". In September 1872, Guipago met with Satanta and Ado-ete, the visit being one of Guipago's conditions for accepting a request to travel to Washington and meet President Grant for peace talks. Guipago eventually got the two captives released in September 1873. Guipago, Satanta, Set-imkia, Zepko-ete, Manyi-ten, Mamanti, Tsen-tainte and Ado-ete led Kiowa warriors during the "Buffalo war" along the Red River, together with the Comanche allies, in the summer (June–September) 1874. They surrendered after the Palo Duro Canyon fight. Tene-angopte had to select 26 Kiowa chiefs and warriors to be deported; Satanta was sent to a prison in
Huntsville, Alabama Huntsville is a city in the Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region 's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United States (1948) as defined by Melville J. Herskovits influence , homelands of the C ...

Huntsville, Alabama
, while Guipago, Manyi-ten, Mamanti, Tsen-tainte, and others were sent to
St. Augustine, Florida St. Augustine ( es, San Agustín) is a city in the Southeastern United States The southeastern United States, also referred to as the American Southeast or simply the Southeast, is broadly the eastern portion of the southern United States ...
, at what was then known as
Fort Marion The Castillo de San Marcos (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish Rive ...

Fort Marion
. Tene-angopte, damned by the "medicine-man" Mamanti, died in May 1875; Satanta committed
suicide Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition t ...

suicide
at Huntsville in October 1878. Guipago, having fallen sick with
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
, was jailed in Fort Sill, where he died in 1879. The sculptor of the
Indian Head nickel The Buffalo nickel or Indian Head nickel is a copper-nickel Nickel (United States coin), five-cent piece that was struck by the United States Mint from 1913 to 1938. It was designed by Sculpture, sculptor James Earle Fraser (sculptor), James Earle ...
, James Earle Fraser, is reported to have said that Chief Big Tree (Adoeette) was one of his models for the U.S. coin; it was minted from 1913 through 1938.


Early history and migration south

The Kiowa emerged as a distinct people in their original homeland of the northern Missouri River Basin. Searching for more lands of their own, the Kiowa traveled southeast to the
Black Hills The Black Hills ( lkt, Ȟe Sápa; chy, Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva; hid, awaxaawi shiibisha) is a small and isolated mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or ...

Black Hills
in present-day South Dakota and Wyoming around 1650. In the Black Hills region, the Kiowa lived peacefully alongside the , with whom they long maintained a close friendship, organized themselves into 10 bands, and numbered around 3000. Pressure from the
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
in the north woods and edge of the great plains in Minnesota forced the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and later the Sioux westward into Kiowa territory around the Black Hills. The Kiowa were pushed south by the invading Cheyenne who were then pushed westward out of the Black Hills by the Sioux. Eventually the Kiowa obtained a vast territory on the central and southern great plains in western Kansas, eastern Colorado, most of Oklahoma including the panhandle, and the
Llano Estacado The Llano Estacado (), sometimes translated into English as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultu ...
in the
Texas Panhandle The Texas Panhandle is a region of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with ...
and eastern
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
. In their early history, the Kiowa traveled with dogs pulling their belongings until horses were obtained through trade and raid with the Spanish and other Indian nations in the southwest. In the early spring of 1790 at the place that would become
Las Vegas, New Mexico Las Vegas is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Townsh ...
, a Kiowa party led by war leader Guikate, made an offer of peace to a
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ; "the people") are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants ...

Comanche
party while both were visiting the home of a mutual friend of both tribes. This led to a later meeting between Guikate and the head chief of the Nokoni Comanche. The two groups made an alliance to share the same hunting grounds and entered into a mutual defense pact and became the dominant inhabitants of the Southern Plains. From that time on, the Comanche and Kiowa hunted, traveled, and made war together. In addition to the Comanche, the Kiowa formed a very close alliance with the
Plains Apache The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who live on the Southern Plains of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be d ...
(Kiowa-Apache), with the two nations sharing much of the same culture and participating in each other's annual council meetings and events. The strong alliance of southern plains nations kept the Spanish from gaining a strong colonial hold on the southern plains.


Indian wars

{{see also, Comanche-Mexico Wars In closing years of the 18th century and in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Kiowa feared little from European neighbors. Kiowa ranged north of the Wichita Mountains. The Kiowa and Comanche controlled a vast expanse of territory from the Arkansas River to the Brazos River. The enemies of the Kiowa were usually the enemies of the Comanche. To the east there was warfare with the Osage and Pawnee. In the early 19th, the Cheyenne and Arapaho began camping on the Arkansas River and new warfare broke out. In the south of the Kiowa and Comanche were Caddoan speakers, but the Kiowa and Comanche were friendly toward these bands. The Comanche were at war with the Apache of the Rio Grande region. They warred with the Cheyenne and Arapaho, Pawnee, Sac and Fox, and Osages. In summer 1833, the Osage attacked an exposed Kiowa camp near Head Mountain, Oklahoma. The Kiowa lost many aged people, children and women. The heads were cut off and placed in kettles. During this "Cut-Throat Massacre", the Osage captured the sacred Tai-me (the Sun Dance figure of the Kiowa) as well. The Kiowa were unable to perform the Sun Dance until the return of the Tai-me in 1835.Boyd, Maurice (1981): ''Kiowa Voices. Ceremonial Dance, Ritual and Song. Part I.'' Fort Worth.{{rp, 33 Dohasan replaced the old Kiowa chief, since he had failed to anticipate danger.Mooney, James (1898): Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians. ''Smithsonian Institution. 17th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Part I''. Washington.{{rp, 259 The Kiowa traded with the Wichita south along Red River and with Mescalero Apache and New Mexicans to the southwest. After 1840 they and their former enemies the
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...

Cheyenne
, as well as their allies the Comanche and the
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans ...

Apache
, fought and raided the Eastern natives moving into the Indian Territory. From 1821 until 1870 the Kiowa joined the Comanche in raids, primarily to obtain livestock, that extended deep into Mexico and caused the death of thousands of people.


Colonial Transition

The years from 1873 to 1878 marked a drastic change in Kiowa lifestyle. In June 1874, the Kiowa, along with a group of Comanche and Cheyenne warriors, made their last protest against the invasion of white men at the Battle of Adobe Walls in Texas, which proved futile. In 1877, the first homes were constructed for the Indian chiefs and a plan was initiated to employ Indians at the Agency. Thirty Indians were hired to form the first police force on the Reservation. The Kiowa agreed to settle on a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Some bands of Kiowas remained at large until 1875. Some of the
Lipan Apache Lipan may refer to: * Lipan Apache people, an indigenous people of Texas and northern Mexico ** Lipan language * Lipan, Texas, a city ** Lipan Independent School District * Mereta, Texas or Lipan, an unincorporated community * Lipan Point, a promont ...
and
Mescalero Apache Mescalero or Mescalero Apache is an Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Americ ...

Mescalero Apache
bands with some Comanche in their company held out in northern Mexico until the early 1880s, when Mexican and U.S. Army forces drove them onto reservations or into extinction. By the Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867, the Kiowas settled in Western Oklahoma and Kansas.Swift, Dick. 1972. They were forced to move south of the Washita River to the Red River and Western Oklahoma with the Comanches and the Kiowa Apache Tribe. The transition from the free life of Plains people to a restricted life of the reservation was more difficult for some families than others.


Reservation period

The reservation period lasted from 1868 to 1906. In 1873, the first school among the Kiowa was established by Quaker Thomas C. Battey. In 1877, the federal government built the first homes for the Indian chiefs and initiated a plan to employ Indians. 30 Indians were hired to form the first police force on the reservation. In 1879, the agency was moved from Ft. Sill to Anadarko.The Kiowa by U.S. Department of the Interior, Southern Plains Indian Museum, 1994. The 1890 Census showed 1,598 Comanche at the Fort Sill reservation, which they shared with 1,140 Kiowa and 326 Kiowa Apache. An agreement made with the
Cherokee Commission The Cherokee Commission, was a three-person bi-partisan body created by President Benjamin Harrison to operate under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, as empowered by Section 14 of the Indian Appropriations Act of March 2, 1889. Sec ...
signed by 456 adult male Kiowa, Comanche, and Kiowa-Apache on Sept. 28, 1892, cleared the way for the opening of the country to white settlers. The agreement provided for an allotment of {{convert, 160, acre to every individual in the tribes and for the sale of the reservation lands ({{convert, 2,488,893, acre, disp=or, abbr=on) to the United States – was to go into effect immediately upon ratification by Congress, even though the Medicine Lodge treaty of 1867 had guaranteed Indian possession of the reservation until 1898. The Indian signers wanted their names stricken but it was too late. A'piatan, as the leader, went to Washington to protest. Chief Lone Wolf (the Younger) immediately file proceedings against the act in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided against him on June 26, 1901. Agents were assigned to the Kiowa people.


Modern period

Since 1968, the Kiowa have been governed by the Kiowa Tribal Council, which presides over business related to health, education, and economic and industrial development programs.B.R. Kracht by Oklahoma Historical Society On March 13, 1970, the constitution and bylaws of the Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma were drafted, and Kiowa voters ratified them on May 23, 1970. The current constitution was approved in 2017. In 1998, a significant legal development occurred with a landmark decision. In ''Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma v. Manufacturing Technologies, Inc.'', the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Indian tribes retain their sovereign immunity as nations from private suits without their consent, even in off-reservation transactions where they do not waive that immunity. {{As of, 2000, more than 4,000 of 12,500 enrolled Kiowa lived near the towns of Anadarko, Fort Cobb, and Carnegie, in Caddo and Kiowa counties, Oklahoma. Kiowa also reside in urban and suburban communities throughout the United States, having moved to areas with more jobs. Each year Kiowa veterans commemorate the warlike spirit of the 19th-century leaders with dances performed by the Kiowa Gourd Clan and Kiowa Black Leggings Warrior Society. Kiowa cultural identity and pride is apparent in their expressive culture and strong influence on the Gourd Dance and southern plains art.


Longhorn Mountain controversy

Longhorn Mountain near
Carnegie, Oklahoma Carnegie is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a state in the South Central region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Con ...
, a sacred site and source of for the Kiowa, was leased to company Stewart Stone, Inc., of
Cushing, Oklahoma Cushing is a city in Payne County, Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a state in the South Central region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Co ...

Cushing, Oklahoma
, which announced intentions to begin to mine gravel in 2013.{{update, date=October 2021


Humanities

Documentation of the history and development of contemporary Kiowa art formulates one of the most unusual records in Native American culture. As early as 1891, Kiowa artists were being commissioned to produce works for display at international expositions. The "Kiowa Six" were some of the earliest Native Americans to receive international recognition for their work in the fine art world. They influenced generations of Indian artists among the Kiowa, and other Plains tribes. Traditional craft skills are not lost among the Kiowa people today and the talented fine arts and crafts produced by Kiowa Indians helped the Oklahoma Indian Arts and Crafts Cooperative flourish over its 20-year existence.


Ledger art and hide painting

{{Further, Ledger art, Plains hide painting Early Kiowa ledger artists were those held in captivity by the U.S. Army at
Fort Marion The Castillo de San Marcos (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish Rive ...
in
St. Augustine, Florida St. Augustine ( es, San Agustín) is a city in the Southeastern United States The southeastern United States, also referred to as the American Southeast or simply the Southeast, is broadly the eastern portion of the southern United States ...
(1875–1878), at the conclusion of the
Red River War The Red River War was a military campaign launched by the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed servic ...
, which also is known as the Southern Plains Indian War. Ledger art emerges from the
Plains hide paintingPlains hide painting is a traditional Plains Indian artistic practice of painting on either tanned or raw animal hides. Tipis, tipi liners, shields, parfleches, robes, clothing, drums, and winter counts could all be painted. Genres Art historia ...
tradition. These Fort Marion artists include Kiowas Etadleuh Doanmoe and Zotom, who was a prolific artist who chronicled his experiences before and after becoming a captive at the fort. After his release from Fort Marion, Paul Zom-tiam (Zonetime, Koba) studied theology from 1878 until 1881, when he was ordained as a deacon in the Episcopal church.


Kiowa Six

Following in Silver Horn's footsteps were the
Kiowa SixThe Kiowa Six, previously known as the Kiowa Five, is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the early 20th century, working in the "Kiowa style". The artists were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and Lo ...
, or, as they have been known in the past, the Kiowa Five. They are
Spencer Asah Spencer Asah (c. 1908–1954) was a Kiowa painter and a member of the Kiowa Six from Oklahoma. Early life Spencer Asah was born in 1908 in Carnegie, Oklahoma. His Kiowa name was Lallo (Little Boy). His father was a buffalo medicine man. Asah's f ...
,
James Auchiah James Auchiah (1906–1974) was a Kiowa painter and one of the Kiowa Six from Oklahoma.Watson, Mary JoAuchiah, James (1906-1974) ''Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.'' (28 April 2009) Early life James Auch ...
, Jack Hokeah,
Stephen MopopeStephen Mopope (1898–1974) was a Kiowa painter, dancer, and Native American flute player from Oklahoma. He was the most prolific member of the group of artists known as the Kiowa Six.Watson, Mary JoMopope, Stephen (1898-1974). ''Oklahoma Historical ...
, Lois Smoky Kaulaity, and Monroe Tsatoke. Coming from the area around Anadarko, Oklahoma, Anadarko,
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
, these artists studied at the University of Oklahoma. Lois Smoky left the group in 1927, but James Auchiah took her place in the group. The Kiowa Six gained international recognition as fine artists by exhibiting their work in the 1928 International Art Congress in Czechoslovakia and then participated in the Venice Biennale in 1932.


Painters and sculptors

Besides the Kiowa Six and Silver Horn, Kiowa painters active in the 20th and 21st centuries include Sharron Ahtone Harjo, Homer Buffalo, Charley Oheltoint, Michael C. Satoe Brown, T. C. Cannon, Wilson Daingkau, George Geionty, Bobby Hill (1933–1984), Harding Bigbow (1921–1997), Jim Tartsah, Mirac Creepingbear (1947–1990), Herman Toppah, Ernie Keahbone, C. E. Rowell, Dixon Palmer, Roland Whitehorse, Blackbear Bosin, Woody Big Bow (1914–1988), Parker Boyiddle Jr. (1947–2007), Dennis Belindo (1938–2009), Clifford Doyeto (1942–2010), Al Momaday, George Keahbone, Joe Lucero (Hobay), Ladonna Tsatoke Silverhorn, R.G. Geionty, Huzo Paddelty, Keri Ataumbi, David E. Williams. Micah Wesley. Thomas Poolaw, Tennyson Reid, Sherman Chaddlesone (1947–2013), Cruz McDaniels, Robert Redbird (b. 1939), Gus Hawziptaw, Gerald Darby, Lee Tsatoke Jr., N. Scott Momaday, and Barthell Little Chief.


Beadwork artists

Noted Kiowa beadwork artists include Lois Smoky Kaulaity, Donna Jean Tsatoke, Alice Littleman, Nettie Standing, Marilyn Yeahquo, Edna Hokeah Pauahty, Leona Geimasaddle, Barry D. Belindo, Kathy Littlechief, Katherine Dickerson, Charlie Silverhorn, Paul McDaniels, Jr., Kiowa J. Taryole, Grace Tsontekoy, Richard Aitson, Judy Beaver, Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings, Leatrice Geimasaddle, Teri Greeves, and Tahnee Ahtoneharjo-Growingthunder.


Authors

Kiowa author N. Scott Momaday won the 1969 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, Pulitzer Prize for his novel ''House Made of Dawn''. Richard Aitson (Kiowa-
Kiowa Apache The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who live on the Southern Plains of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be d ...
) is a published poet. Other Kiowa authors include playwright Hanay Geiogamah, poet and filmmaker Gus Palmer, Jr., Alyce Sadongei, Marian Kaulaity Hansson, Tocakut and Tristan Ahtone.


Musicians and composers

Kiowa music often is noted for its hymns that historically were accompanied by dance or played on the flute. Noted Kiowa composers of contemporary music include James Anquoe, noted for his contributions to Native American culture. Contemporary Kiowa musicians include Cornel Pewewardy, Tom Mauchahty-Ware, and Terry Tsotigh.


Photographers

Early Kiowa photographers include
Parker McKenzieParker Paul McKenzie (November 15, 1897, near Rainy Mountain – March 5, 1999, Mountain View, Oklahoma, Mountain View) was an American linguistics, linguist and, at the time of his death, the oldest living Kiowa Native Americans in the United States ...
and his wife Nettie Odlety, whose photographs from 1913 are in the collection of the Oklahoma History Center. Kiowa photographer Horace Poolaw (1906–1984) was one of the most prolific Native American photographers of his generation. He documented the Kiowa people living near his community in Mountain View, Oklahoma, beginning the 1920s. His legacy is continued today by his grandson, Thomas Poolaw, a prominent Kiowa photographer and digital artist.


Image gallery

File:Kiowa parfleche 1890 OHS.jpg,
Kiowa parfleche, ca. 1890, Oklahoma History Center
File:Kiowa moccasins OHS.jpg,
Kiowa beaded moccasins, ca. 1920, OHS
File:Silver horn painting 1880 ohs.jpg,
Detail of painting by Silver Horn (Kiowa), ca. 1880
File:Ledger-sm2.jpg,
Kiowa ledger art, ca. 1874


College

The tribe in February 2020 chartered Bacone College in Muskogee, Oklahoma as its tribal college. In March Kiowa Tribal Historian Phil “Joe Fish” Dupoint began offering an 8-week course in the Kiowa language online through the college.


Notable Kiowas

* Ahpeahtone (1856–1931), chief * Richard Aitson (b. 1953), bead artist and poet *
Spencer Asah Spencer Asah (c. 1908–1954) was a Kiowa painter and a member of the Kiowa Six from Oklahoma. Early life Spencer Asah was born in 1908 in Carnegie, Oklahoma. His Kiowa name was Lallo (Little Boy). His father was a buffalo medicine man. Asah's f ...
, painter, one of the
Kiowa SixThe Kiowa Six, previously known as the Kiowa Five, is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the early 20th century, working in the "Kiowa style". The artists were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and Lo ...
*
James Auchiah James Auchiah (1906–1974) was a Kiowa painter and one of the Kiowa Six from Oklahoma.Watson, Mary JoAuchiah, James (1906-1974) ''Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.'' (28 April 2009) Early life James Auch ...
, painter, one of the
Kiowa SixThe Kiowa Six, previously known as the Kiowa Five, is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the early 20th century, working in the "Kiowa style". The artists were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and Lo ...
* Big Bow, (1833–ca. 1900) war chief * Blackbear Bosin (1921–1980), painter and sculptor * T. C. Cannon, painter and printmaker * Cozad Singers, drum group and NAMMY winners * Jesse Ed Davis (1944–1988), Kiowa-Comanche guitarist * Dohäsan (ca. 1785–1866), chief of Kata band and Principal Chief of the Kiowas, artist, Winter count, calendar keeper * Teri Greeves (b. 1970), bead artist * Sharron Ahtone Harjo (b. 1945), painter, ledger artist * Jack Hokeah, painter, one of the
Kiowa SixThe Kiowa Six, previously known as the Kiowa Five, is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the early 20th century, working in the "Kiowa style". The artists were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and Lo ...
* Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings (b. 1952), bead artist, clothing and regalia maker *
Kicking Bird Kicking Bird, also known as Tene-angop'te, "The Kicking Bird", "Eagle Who Strikes with his Talons", or "Striking Eagle" (1835 - May 3, 1875) was a High Chief of the Kiowa people, Kiowa in the 1870s. It is said that he was given his name for the wa ...

Kicking Bird
(1835–1875), war chief * Lone Wolf the Elder, Lone Wolf (Kiowa), Gui-pah-gho, The Elder and Principal Chief * Tom Mauchahty-Ware, musician and dancer *
Parker McKenzieParker Paul McKenzie (November 15, 1897, near Rainy Mountain – March 5, 1999, Mountain View, Oklahoma, Mountain View) was an American linguistics, linguist and, at the time of his death, the oldest living Kiowa Native Americans in the United States ...
(1897–1999), traditionalist and linguist * Arvo Mikkanen, attorney * N. Scott Momaday, Pulitzer Prize Winner, author, painter, and activist *
Stephen MopopeStephen Mopope (1898–1974) was a Kiowa painter, dancer, and Native American flute player from Oklahoma. He was the most prolific member of the group of artists known as the Kiowa Six.Watson, Mary JoMopope, Stephen (1898-1974). ''Oklahoma Historical ...
, painter, one of the
Kiowa SixThe Kiowa Six, previously known as the Kiowa Five, is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the early 20th century, working in the "Kiowa style". The artists were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and Lo ...
* Horace Poolaw (1906–1984), photographer * Pascal Poolaw (1922–1967), Native American war hero * Red Warbonnet (d. 1849), traditionalist * Satanta (White Bear), Satanta (Set'tainte) (ca. 1820–1878), war chief * Silver Horn (1860–1940), artist and calendar keeper * Sitting Bear (Set-Tank, Set-Angia, called Satank) (ca. 1800–1871), warrior and medicine man * Lois Smoky, bead artist and painter, one of the
Kiowa SixThe Kiowa Six, previously known as the Kiowa Five, is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the early 20th century, working in the "Kiowa style". The artists were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and Lo ...
* Kendal Thompson, professional football player * Monroe Tsatoke, painter, one of the
Kiowa SixThe Kiowa Six, previously known as the Kiowa Five, is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the early 20th century, working in the "Kiowa style". The artists were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and Lo ...
* White Horse (chief), White Horse (Tsen-tainte) (d. 1892), chief * Chris Wondolowski, US professional soccer player


Kiowas in Fiction

* Kiowa, a Native American character in The Things They Carried by Tim O'Brien (author). *The culture and language of the Kiowa is encountered in the novel News of the World (novel), News of the World by Paulette Jiles through the character of Johanna Leonberger, captured and assimilated at aged six into the Kiowa.{{Cite news, url=https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/13/books/review/paulette-jiles-news-of-the-world.html, title=Paulette Jiles’s National Book Award Finalist Reviewed, access-date=2018-12-04, language=en *''Winter-Telling Stories'' is a collection of Kiowa tales written by Alice Marriott and illustrated by Roland Whitehorse. *''Rawhide (TV series)'' features many encounters with the Kiowa. *One of the main characters in the TV show The Young Riders is half-Kiowa. *The titular character in Turok (video game) is revealed to be Kiowa. * Tangua was chief of the Kiowa in Karl May's Winnetou trilogy.


See also

*Gourd Dance *
Koitsenko The Koitsenko was a group of the ten greatest warriors of the Kiowa tribe as a whole, from all bands. One was Satank who died while being taken to trial for the Warren Wagon Train Raid. The Koitsenko were elected out of the various military societ ...
, Kiowa warrior society *Big Pasture, 1901 Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache grazing reserve {{clear


Notes

{{Reflist, 2


References

*Boyd, Maurice
''Kiowa Voices: Ceremonial Dance, Ritual, and Song.''
Fort Worth: Texas Christian University, 1981. {{ISBN, 978-0-912646-67-1. *Dunn, Dorothy. ''American Indian Painting of the Southwest and Plains Areas.'' Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1968. ASIN B000X7A1T0. *Greene, Candace S. ''Silver Horn: Master Illustrator of the Kiowas''. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. {{ISBN, 0-8061-3307-4. * Pritzker, Barry M. ''A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples.'' Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. {{ISBN, 978-0-19-513877-1. *{{cite book, last=Rollings, first=William H, title=The Comanche, year=2004, publisher=Chelsea House Publishers, isbn=978-0-7910-8349-9, author2=Deer, Ada E *Viola, Herman (1998). ''Warrior Artists: Historic Cheyenne and Kiowa Indian Ledger Art Drawn By Making Medicine and Zotom''. National Geographic Society. {{ISBN, 0-7922-7370-2


Further reading

{{Library resources box, onlinebooks=yes *Boyd, Maurice (1983). ''Kiowa Voices: Myths, Legends and Folktales.'' Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University Press. {{ISBN, 0-912646-76-4. *Corwin, Hugh (1958).'' The Kiowa Indians, their history and life stories''. *Hoig, Stan (2000). ''The Kiowas and the Legend of Kicking Bird''. Boulder, CO: The University Press of Colorado. {{ISBN, 0-87081-564-4. *Meadows, William C. (1999) "Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche Military Societies." Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. *____ (2006) "Black Goose's Map of the Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche Reservation in Oklahoma Territory." Great Plains Quarterly 26(4):265–282. *____ (2008) "Kiowa Ethnogeography." Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. *____ (2010) "Kiowa Military Societies: Ethnohistory and Ritual." Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. *____ (2013) Kiowa Ethnonymy of Other Populations. Plains Anthropologist, 58(226):3–28. *Meadows, William C. and Kenny Harragarra (2007 )"The Kiowa Drawings of Gotebo (1847–1927): A Self Portrait of Cultural and Religious Transition." Plains Anthropologist 52(202):229–244. *Mishkin, Bernard (1988). ''Rank and Warfare Among The Plains Indians''. AMS Press. {{ISBN, 0-404-62903-2. *Nye, Colonel W.S. (1983). ''Carbine and Lance: The Story of Old Fort Sill''. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. {{ISBN, 0-8061-1856-3. *Momaday, N. Scott (1977). ''The Way to Rainy Mountain.'' Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. {{ISBN, 0-8263-0436-2. *Richardson, Jane (1988). ''Law & Status Among the Kiowa Indians (American Ethnological Society Monographs; No 1)''. AMS Press. {{ISBN, 0-404-62901-6. *Tone-Pah-Hote, Jenny (2019). ''Crafting an Indigenous Nation: Kiowa Expressive Culture in the Progressive Era.'' Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. *US Department of the Interior (1974). "The Kiowa". Southern Plains Indian Museum and Crafts Center. *Walter Echo-Hawk, ''In the Courts of the Conqueror: The 10 Worst Indian Law Cases Ever Decided'' (2010).


External links

{{commons category, Kiowa
Kiowa Tribe
official website

Oklahoma Historical Society

National Museum of Natural History
1901 U.S. Government Map
Oklahoma Digital Map Collection
2019 Map of area
OpenStreetMap
Jane Richardson Hanks Kiowa Papers
Newberry Library
Kiowa Comanche Apache Indian Lands
{{Native American Tribes in Oklahoma {{Indigenous People of Colorado {{Native Americans in the Black Hills {{authority control {{DEFAULTSORT:Kiowa People Kiowa, Comanche campaign Federally recognized tribes in the United States Native American tribes in Colorado Native American tribes in Kansas Native American tribes in Oklahoma Native American tribes in Texas Plains tribes