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Kiowa or Cáuijògà/Cáuijò:gyà ("language of the Cáuigù (Kiowa)") is a
Tanoan language Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Most of the languages – Tiwa languages, Tiwa (Taos, Picuris, Southern Tiwa), Tewa la ...
spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma in primarily
Caddo The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic, and ecological region in the U.S. state of ...
,
Kiowa Kiowa () people are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indige ...
, and
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ; "the people") are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribe from the Great Plains, Southern Plains of the present-day United States. Comanche people to ...
counties. The Kiowa tribal center is located in Carnegie. Like most North American indigenous languages, Kiowa is an
endangered language An endangered language or moribund language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painf ...
.


Origins

Although Kiowa is most closely related to the other Tanoan languages of the Pueblos, the earliest historic location of its speakers is western Montana around 1700. Prior to the historic record, oral histories, archaeology, and linguistics suggest that pre-Kiowa was the northernmost dialect of Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan, spoken at
Late Basketmaker II Era File:Map Anasazi, Hohokam and Mogollon cultures-en.svg, Map of Ancient Pueblo People in Oasisamerica. The Late Basketmaker II Era (AD 50 to 500) was a cultural period of Ancient Pueblo People when people began living in pit-houses, raised maize a ...
sites. Around AD 450, they migrated northward through the territory of the
Ancestral Puebloans The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners boy on horseback in Monument Valley Monument Valley ( nv, Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii, , meaning ''valley of the rocks'') is a region of ...
and Great Basin, occupying the eastern
Fremont culture The Fremont culture or Fremont people is a pre-Columbian archaeological culture which received its name from the Fremont River (Utah), Fremont River in the U.S. state of Utah, where the culture's sites were discovered by local indigenous peoples lik ...
region of the Colorado Plateau until sometime before 1300. Speakers then drifted northward to the northwestern Plains, arriving no later than the mid-16th century in the
Yellowstone Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...

Yellowstone
area where the Kiowa were first encountered by Europeans. The Kiowa then later migrated to the Black Hills and the southern Plains, where the language was recorded in historic times.


Demographics

Colorado College Colorado College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two dec ...
anthropologist Laurel Watkins noted in 1984 based on
Parker McKenzieParker Paul McKenzie (November 15, 1897, near Rainy Mountain – March 5, 1999, Mountain View, Oklahoma, Mountain View) was an American linguistics, linguist and, at the time of his death, the oldest living Kiowa Native Americans in the United States ...
's estimates that only about 400 people (mostly over the age of 50) could speak Kiowa and that only rarely were children learning the language. A more recent figure from McKenzie is 300 adult speakers of "varying degrees of fluency" reported by Mithun (1999) out of a 12,242 Kiowa tribal membership (US Census 2000). The Intertribal Wordpath Society, a nonprofit group dedicated to preserving native languages of Oklahoma, estimates the maximum number of fluent Kiowa speakers as of 2006 to be 400. A 2013 newspaper article estimated 100 fluent speakers. UNESCO classifies Kiowa as 'severely endangered.' It claims the language had only 20 mother-tongue speakers in 2007, along with 80 second language speakers, most of whom were between the ages of 45 and 60.


Classes and revitalization efforts

The
University of Tulsa The University of Tulsa (TU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of n ...
, the
University of Oklahoma , mottoeng = ''For the benefit of the Citizen and the State'' , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organi ...
in
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...
, and the
University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma The University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma (USAO) is a Public university, public liberal arts university in Chickasha, Oklahoma. It is the only State university system, public college in Oklahoma with a strictly liberal arts–focused curricul ...
in
Chickasha Chickasha is a city in and the county seat of Grady County, Oklahoma, Grady County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 16,036 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. Chickasha is home to the University of Science and Arts of Oklaho ...
offer Kiowa language classes. Kiowa hymns are sung at Mount Scott Kiowa United Methodist Church. The Kiowa Tribe offered weekly language classes at the Jacobson House, a nonprofit Native American art center in
Norman, Oklahoma Norman () is a city in the U.S. state of Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (news ...
. Dane Poolaw and Carol Williams taught the language using Parker McKenzie's method. Alecia Gonzales (Kiowa/Apache, 1926–2011), who taught at USAO, wrote a Kiowa teaching grammar called '': beginning Kiowa language''. Modina Toppah Water (Kiowa) edited ''Saynday Kiowa Indian Children’s Stories'', a Kiowa language book of trickster stories published in 2013.


Phonology

There are 23 consonants: Kiowa distinguishes six vowel qualities, with three distinctive levels of height and a front-back contrast. All six vowels may be
long Long may refer to: Measurement * Long, characteristic of something of great duration Duration may refer to: * The amount of Time#Terminology, time elapsed between two events * Duration (music) – an amount of time or a particular time interval, ...
or short,
oral The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth, the first portion of the alimentary canal that primarily receives food and liquid **Oral administration of medicines ** Oral examination (also known as an oral exam or oral ...
or nasal. Four of the vowels occur as
diphthong A diphthong ( ; , ), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of spe ...
s with a high front off-glide of the form ''vowel'' + . There are 24 vowels: : Contrasts among the consonants are easily demonstrated with an abundance of minimal and near-minimal pairs. There is no contrast between the presence of an initial and its absence. The ejective and aspirated stops are articulated forcefully. The unaspirated voiceless stops are tense, while the voiced stops are lax. The voiceless alveolar fricative is pronounced before The lateral is realized as in syllable-initial position, as lightly affricated in syllable-final position, and slightly devoiced in utterance-final position. It occurs seldom in word-initial position. The dental resonants and are palatalized before . All consonants may begin a syllable but may not occur word-initially outside of loan-words ( 'lion'). The only consonants which may terminate a syllable are . Certain sequences of consonant and vowel do not occur: dental and alveolar obstruents preceding (*); velars and preceding (*). These sequences do occur if they are the result of contraction: 'then he got up' The glide automatically occurs between all velars and , except if they are together as the result of a conjunction ( 'then he saw them'), or in loanwords ( 'American' >Sp. ''Americano''). Nasalization of voiced stops operates automatically only within the domain of the pronominal prefixes: voiced stops become the corresponding nasals either preceding or following a nasal. The velar nasal that is derived from is deleted; there is no in Kiowa. Underlying surfaces in alternating forms as following velars, as following labials and as if accompanied by falling tone. Obstruents are devoiced in two environments: in syllable-final position and following a voiceless obstruent. Voiced stops are devoiced in syllable-final position without exception. In effect, the rule applies only to and since velars are prohibited in final position. The palatal glide spreads across the laryngeals and , yielding a glide onset, a brief moment of coarticulation and a glide release. The laryngeals and are variably deleted between sonorants, which also applies across a word boundary.


Orthography

Kiowa orthography was developed by native speaker
Parker McKenzieParker Paul McKenzie (November 15, 1897, near Rainy Mountain – March 5, 1999, Mountain View, Oklahoma, Mountain View) was an American linguistics, linguist and, at the time of his death, the oldest living Kiowa Native Americans in the United States ...
, who had worked with J. P. Harrington and later with other linguists. The development of the orthography is detailed in Meadows & McKenzie (2001). The tables below show each orthographic symbol used in the Kiowa
writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communic ...
and its corresponding phonetic value (written IPA). : The mid-back vowel is indicated by a
digraph Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography), a pair of characters used together to represent a single sound, such as "sh" in English * Orthographic ligature, the joining of two letters as a single glyph, such as "æ" * Digraph (computing), a grou ...
. The four diphthongs indicate the offglide with the letter following the main vowel. Nasal vowels are indicated by underlining the vowel letter: nasal ''o'' is thus . Long vowels are indicated with macron diacritics: long ''o'' is thus . Short vowels are unmarked. Tone is indicated with diacritics. The
acute accent The acute accent, , is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembl ...

acute accent
represents high tone, the
grave accent The grave accent ( ` ) ( or ) is a diacritical A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter (alphabet), letter or to a basic glyph. The term derives from th ...

grave accent
indicates low tone, and the
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
indicates falling tone, exemplified on the vowel ''o'' as (high), (low), (falling). Since long vowels also have tones, the vowel symbols can have both a macron and a tone diacritic above the macron: (long high), (long low), (long falling). : The palatal glide that is pronounced after velar consonants (which are phonetically , respectively) is not normally written.This glide is written in Harrington's vocabulary. There are, however, a few exceptions where is not followed by a glide, in which case an
apostrophe The apostrophe ( or ) is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of wri ...

apostrophe
is written after the ''g'' as . Thus, there is, for example, which is pronounced and which is pronounced . The is also not written as it is often deleted and its presence is predictable. A final convention is that pronominal prefixes are written as separate words instead of being attached to verbs. Like many scripts of India, such as
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
, the Kiowa alphabet is ordered according to mostly phonetic principles. The alphabetical order is shown in the tables above: Vowels first, then consonants, reading down the columns, left column then right.


Morphology


Nouns


Number inflection

Kiowa, like other Tanoan languages, is characterized by an inverse
number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...
system. Kiowa has four noun classes. Class I nouns are inherently singular/dual, Class II nouns are inherently dual/plural, Class III nouns are inherently dual, and Class IV nouns are mass or noncount nouns. If the number of a noun is different from its class's inherent value, the noun takes the suffix ''-gau'' (or a variant). Mithun (1999:445) gives as an example ''chē̲̂'' "horse/two horses" (Class I) made plural with the addition of ''-gau'': ''chē̲̂gau'' "horses". On the other hand, the Class II noun ''tṓ̲sè'' "bones/two bones" is made singular by suffixing ''-gau'': ''tṓ̲sègau'' "bone."


Verbs

Kiowa verbs consist of verb stems that can be preceded by prefixes, followed by suffixes, and
incorporate Incorporation may refer to: * Incorporation (business), the creation of a corporation * Incorporation of a place, creation of municipal corporation such as a city or county * Incorporation (academic), awarding a degree based on the student having a ...
other lexical stems into the verb complex. Kiowa verbs have a complex active–stative
pronominal In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the part of speech, parts of speech, but some modern th ...
system expressed via prefixes, which can be followed by incorporated nouns, verbs, or adverbs. Following the main verb stem are suffixes that indicate tense/aspect and mode. A final group of suffixes that pertain to clausal relations can follow the tense-aspect-modal suffixes. These syntactic suffixes include
relativizerIn linguistics, a relativizer (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a type of Conjunction (grammar), conjunction that introduces a relative clause. For example, in English, the conjunction ''that'' may be considered a relativizer in a s ...
s,
subordinating conjunction In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The ...
s, and
switch-reference In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
indicators. A skeletal representation of the Kiowa verb structure can be represented as the following: : The pronominal prefixes and tense/aspect-modal suffixes are
inflectional In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical obj ...
and required to be present on every verb.


Pronominal inflection

Kiowa verb stems are inflected with prefixes that indicate: #
grammatical person In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
# grammatical number # semantic roles of
animate Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most an ...
participants All these of the categories are indicated for only the ''primary'' animate participant. If there is also a second participant (such as in transitive sentences), the number of the second participant is also indicated. A participant is primary in the following cases: * A volitional
agent Agent may refer to: Espionage, investigation, and law *, spies or intelligence officers * Law of agency, laws involving a person authorized to act on behalf of another ** Agent of record, a person with a contractual agreement with an insuran ...
participant (i.e. the doer of the action who also has control over the action) is primary if it is the only participant in the clause. * In two-participant volitional agent/non-agent clauses: *# The non-agent participant is primary when *#* the non-agent is not in the first person singular or third person singular AND *#* the volitional agent is singular *# The volitional agent participant is primary when *#* the non-agent is in the first person singular or third person singular AND *#* the volitional agent is non-singular The term ''non-agent'' here refers to semantic roles including involitional agents,
patients A patient is any recipient of health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the ...
, beneficiaries, recipients, experiencers, and possessors. :


Notes


Bibliography

* Adger, David and Daniel Harbour. (2005). The syntax and syncretisms of the person-case constraint. In K. Hiraiwa & J. Sabbagh (Eds.), ''MIT working papers in linguistics'' (No. 50). * Campbell, Lyle. (1997). ''American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America''. New York: Oxford University Press. . * * Gonzales, Alecia Keahbone. (2001). ''Thaum khoiye tdoen gyah: Beginning Kiowa language.'' Chickasha, OK: University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma Foundation. . * * Harbour, Daniel. (2003). The Kiowa case for feature insertion. * Harrington, John P. (1928). ''Vocabulary of the Kiowa language''. Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 84). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. * * * McKenzie, Andrew. (2012). ''The role of contextual restriction in reference-tracking''. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts Amherst. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations/AAI3518260. * McKenzie, Parker; & Harrington, John P. (1948). ''Popular account of the Kiowa Indian language''. Santa Fe: University of New Mexico Press. * * Merrill, William; Hansson, Marian; Greene, Candace; & Reuss, Frederick. (1997). ''A guide to the Kiowa collections at the Smithsonian Institution''. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 40. * * * * Mithun, Marianne. (1999). ''The languages of Native NorthMarianne Mithun America''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (hbk); . * Palmer, Jr., Gus (Pánthâidè). (2004). ''Telling stories the Kiowa way''. * * Takahashi, Junichi. (1984). Case marking in Kiowa. CUNY. (Doctoral dissertation). * * Trager, Edith C. (1960). The Kiowa language: A grammatical study. University of Pennsylvania. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania). * Trager-Johnson, Edith C. (1972). Kiowa and English pronouns: Contrastive morphosemantics. In L. M. Davis (Ed.), ''Studies in linguistics, in honor of Raven I. McDavid''. University of Alabama Press. * Watkins, Laurel J. (1976). Position in grammar: Sit, stand, and lie. In ''Kansas working papers in linguistics'' (Vol. 1). Lawrence. * * *Watkins, Laurel J.; & McKenzie, Parker. (1984). ''A grammar of Kiowa''. Studies in the anthropology of North American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. . *


External links


The Power of Kiowa Song: A Collaborative Ethnography

Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language
, John P. Harrington, 1928; full book digitized by Google, public domain in the US ** A Grammar of Kiowa: Appendix 3: Orthographies , Laurel J. Watkins, 1984; writing systems for Kiowa {{DEFAULTSORT:Kiowa Language
Indigenous languages of the North American PlainsIndigenous peoples of the Great Plains, ·Languages Indigenous languages of North America, Plains First Nations languages in Canada Indigenous languages of the United States Indigenous culture of the Great Plains, Languages ...
Tanoan languages Languages of the United States Native American language revitalization Endangered indigenous languages of the Americas