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The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
in northwest
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
, sharing a
land border This is a list of countries and territories by land borders. The number of distinct land borders of each country or territory is indicated as well the names of its neighbouring countries and territories. The length of each land border is included, ...
to the south with the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under
Robert the Bruce Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce ( Medieval Gaelic: '; Modern Scottish Gaelic: '; Norman French Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais: ''Normand'', Jèrriais: ''Nouormand'' ...
it fought a successful
War of Independence Conflicts called war of independence or independence war include: * Algerian War of Independence The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence,( ar, الثورة الجزائرية '; '' ber, Tagra ...
and remained an independent state throughout the late
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. Following the annexation of the
Northern Isles The Northern Isles ( sco, Northren Isles; gd, Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; non, Norðreyjar; nrn, Nordøjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland. They are part of Scotland, as the Hebr ...
from the
Kingdom of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a North ...
in 1472 and the final capture of the
Royal Burgh A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republi ...
of
Berwick Berwick may refer to: Places Antarctica *Berwick Glacier Australia *Berwick, Victoria *City of Berwick, Victoria (defunct) Canada *Berwick, New Brunswick *Berwick, Nova Scotia *Berwick, Ontario New Zealand *Berwick, New Zealand United Kingdom ...
by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
, bounded by the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
to the east, the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the north and west, and the North Channel and
Irish Sea The Irish Sea or , gv, Y Keayn Yernagh, sco, Erse Sie, gd, Muir Èireann , Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster ...
to the southwest. In 1603,
James VI of Scotland James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

James VI of Scotland
became
King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the , his ...
, joining Scotland with England in a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
. In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
under the terms of the
Acts of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
.
The Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

The Crown
was the most important element of government. The Scottish monarchy in the Middle Ages was a largely itinerant institution, before
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
developed as a
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capita ...
in the second half of the 15th century. The Crown remained at the centre of political life and in the 16th century emerged as a major centre of display and artistic patronage, until it was effectively dissolved with the
Union of Crowns The Union of the Crowns ( gd, Aonadh nan Crùintean; sco, Union o the Crouns) was the of to the throne of the Kingdom of England as James I and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the two realms u ...
in 1603. The Scottish Crown adopted the conventional offices of western European monarchical states of the time and developed a
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
and great offices of state. Parliament also emerged as a major legal institution, gaining an oversight of taxation and policy, but was never as central to the national life. In the early period, the kings of the Scots depended on the great lords—the
mormaer In early Middle Ages, medieval Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, a mormaer was the Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic name for a regional or provincial ruler, theoretically second only to the Kings of Scots, King of Scots, and the senior of a ''Thane (Scotland) ...
s and toísechs—but from the reign of
David IDavid I may refer to: * David I, List of Caucasian Albanian Catholicoi, Caucasian Albanian Catholicos c. 399 * David I of Armenia, Catholicos of Armenia (728–741) * David I Kuropalates of Georgia (died 881) * David I Anhoghin, king of Lori (ruled ...

David I
,
sheriffdomA sheriffdom is a judicial district in Scotland, led by a sheriff principal. Since 1 January 1975, there have been six sheriffdoms. Each sheriffdom is divided into a series of sheriff court districts, and each sheriff court is presided over by a resi ...
s were introduced, which allowed more direct control and gradually limited the power of the major lordships. In the 17th century, the creation of Justices of Peace and
Commissioners of Supply Commissioners of Supply were local administrative bodies in Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidel ...
helped to increase the effectiveness of local government. The continued existence of courts baron and the introduction of
kirk session A session (from the Latin word ''sessio'', which means "to sit", as in sitting to deliberate or talk about something; sometimes called ''consistory'' or ''church board'') is a body of elected elders governing each local church within presbyteria ...
s helped consolidate the power of local
laird Laird () is a generic name for the owner of a large, long-established Scottish estate. In the traditional Scottish order of precedence, a laird ranked below a baron Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ...
s.
Scots law Scots law () is the legal system The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified ...
developed in the Middle Ages and was reformed and codified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under James IV the legal functions of the council were rationalised, with
Court of Session The Court of Session is the supreme civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for indepen ...
meeting daily in Edinburgh. In 1532, the
College of Justice The College of Justice includes the Supreme Courts of Scotland, and its associated bodies. The constituent bodies of the national supreme court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a go ...
was founded, leading to the training and professionalisation of lawyers. David I is the first Scottish king known to have produced his own coinage. At the union of the Crowns in 1603 the
Pound Scots The pound Scots (Modern Scots Modern Scots comprises the varieties of Scots traditionally spoken in Lowland in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, i ...
was fixed at only one-twelfth the value of the English pound. The
Bank of Scotland The Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a ...

Bank of Scotland
issued pound notes from 1704. Scottish currency was abolished by the
Act of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
; however to the present day, Scotland retains unique banknotes. Geographically, Scotland is divided between the
Highlands and Islands The Highlands and Islands is an area of broadly covering the , plus , and (Western Isles). The Highlands and Islands are sometimes defined as the area to which the of 1886 applied. This area consisted of eight : * * * * * * * * ...
and the Lowlands. The Highlands had a relatively short growing season, which was further shortened during the
Little Ice Age The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate Climate is the ...
. From Scotland's foundation to the inception of the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
, the population had grown to a million; following the plague, it then fell to half a million. It expanded in the first half of the 16th century, reaching roughly 1.2 million by the 1690s. Significant languages in the medieval kingdom included
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...
,
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
,
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
and
French
French
; but by the early modern era
Middle Scots Middle Scots was the Anglic language The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic ( English and Scots) and Frisian varieties. The Northumbrian Language Society also considers Northumbrian an Anglic langu ...
had begun to dominate. Christianity was introduced into Scotland from the 6th century. In the
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
period the Scottish church underwent a series of changes that led to new monastic orders and organisation. During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
that created a predominately
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the a ...
national kirk
national kirk
. There were a series of religious controversies that resulted in divisions and persecutions. The Scottish Crown developed naval forces at various points in its history, but often relied on
privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or deleg ...
s and fought a ''
guerre de course The Bermuda Gazette of 12 November 1796, calling for privateering against Spain and its allies, and with advertisements for crew for two privateer vessels. Commerce raiding (french: guerre de course, "war of the chase"; german: Handelskrieg, "t ...
''. Land forces centred around the large
common army The Common Army (german: Gemeinsame Armee, hu, Közös Hadsereg) as it was officially designated by the Imperial and Royal Military Administration, was the largest part of the Austro-Hungarian Army, Austro-Hungarian land forces from 1867 to 1914 ...
, but adopted European innovations from the 16th century; and many Scots took service as mercenaries and as soldiers for the English Crown.


History


Origins: 400–943

From the 5th century AD, north Britain was divided into a series of petty kingdoms. Of these, the four most important were those of the
Picts The Picts were a group of peoples who lived in what is now northern and eastern Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply ...
in the north-east, the Scots of
Dál Riata Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) () was a Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic lan ...
in the west, the Britons of
Strathclyde Strathclyde ( in Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Sco ...
in the south-west and the
Anglian Anglian may refer to: * Anglian, meaning "of the Angles", a Germanic people who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period * Anglian, a group of dialects of Old English * Anglian automobile, an English tricar manufactured from 1905 to 1907 * Angl ...

Anglian
kingdom of
Bernicia Bernicia (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a langua ...
(which united with
Deira Deira ( ; Old Welsh Old Welsh ( cy, Hen Gymraeg) is the stage of the Welsh language Welsh ( or ) is a Brittonic languages, Brittonic language of the Celtic language family that is native to the Welsh people. Welsh is spoken natively in ...

Deira
to form
Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social scie ...

Northumbria
in 653) in the south-east, stretching into modern northern England. In AD 793, ferocious
Viking raids The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) was the period during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-class ...
began on monasteries such as those at
Iona Iona ( gd, Ì Chaluim Chille (IPA: iːˈxaɫ̪ɯimˈçiʎə, sometimes simply ''Ì''; sco, Iona) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is mainly known for Iona Abbey, though there a ...

Iona
and
Lindisfarne The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, commonly known as either Holy Island or Lindisfarne, is a tidal island 250px, St Michael's Mount, Cornwall, at high tide, ">Cornwall.html" ;"title="St Michael's Mount, Cornwall">St Michael's Mount, Cornwal ...
, creating fear and confusion across the kingdoms of north Britain.
Orkney Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island A ...

Orkney
,
Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or co ...
and the
Western Isles The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or ; sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle/Long Island ( gd, An t-Eilean Fada, links=no), is an island chain off the west coast ...

Western Isles
eventually fell to the Norsemen. These threats may have speeded up a long-term process of
Gaelicisation Gaelicisation, or Gaelicization, is the act or process of making something Gaels, Gaelic, or gaining characteristics of the ''Gaels'', a sub-branch of celticisation. The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group, traditionally viewed as having spread fro ...
of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...

Gaelic
language and customs. There was also a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish kingdoms, although historians debate whether it was a Pictish takeover of Dál Riata, or the other way round. This culminated in the rise of Cínaed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin) as "king of the Picts" in the 840s (traditionally dated to 843),B. Webster, ''Medieval Scotland: the Making of an Identity'' (St. Martin's Press, 1997), , p. 15. which brought to power the
House of Alpin The House of Alpin, also known as the Alpínid dynasty, Clann Chináeda, and Clann Chinaeda meic Ailpín, was the kin-group which ruled in Pictland and then the kingdom of Alba from the advent of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) in the 84 ...
.B. Yorke, ''The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c.600–800'' (Pearson Education, 2006), , p. 54. When he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900 one of his successors,
Domnall II
Domnall II
(Donald II), was the first man to be called ''rí Alban'' (King of
Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) ...
). The term Scotia would increasingly be used to describe the heartland of these kings, north of the
River Forth The River Forth is a major river in central Scotland, long, which drains into the North Sea on the east coast of the country. Its drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common ...
, and eventually the entire area controlled by its kings would be referred to as Scotland.Webster, ''Medieval Scotland'', p. 22. The long reign (900–942/3) of Donald's successor
Causantín
Causantín
(Constantine II) is often regarded as the key to formation of the Kingdom of Alba/Scotland, and he was later credited with bringing Scottish Christianity into conformity with the Catholic Church.


Expansion: 943–1513

Máel Coluim I
Máel Coluim I
(Malcolm I) ( 943–954) is believed to have annexed the Kingdom of
Strathclyde Strathclyde ( in Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Sco ...
, over which the kings of Alba had probably exercised some authority since the later 9th century. His successor,
Indulf the Aggressor
Indulf the Aggressor
, being described as the King of Strathclyde, before inheriting the throne of Alba, and who is credited with later annexing parts of Lothian, including Edinburgh, from the Kingdom of Northumbria. The reign of
David IDavid I may refer to: * David I, List of Caucasian Albanian Catholicoi, Caucasian Albanian Catholicos c. 399 * David I of Armenia, Catholicos of Armenia (728–741) * David I Kuropalates of Georgia (died 881) * David I Anhoghin, king of Lori (ruled ...

David I
has been characterised as a "
Davidian Revolution The Davidian Revolution is a name given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I of Scotland, David I (1124–1153). These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the i ...
",G. W. S. Barrow, "David I of Scotland: The Balance of New and Old", in G. W. S. Barrow, ed., ''Scotland and Its Neighbours in the Middle Ages'' (London: Bloomsbury, 1992), , pp. 9–11. in which he introduced a system of
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society ...
land tenure, established the first
royal burgh A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republi ...
s in Scotland and the first recorded Scottish coinage, and continued a process of religious and legal reforms.Webster, ''Medieval Scotland'', pp. 29–37. Until the 13th century, the border with England was very fluid, with Northumbria being annexed to Scotland by David I, but lost under his grandson and successor
Malcolm IV Malcolm IV ( Mediaeval Gaelic: ''Máel Coluim mac Eanric''; Modern Gaelic: ''Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig''), nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" (between 23 April and 24 May 11419 December 1165) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Ki ...
in 1157. The
Treaty of York The Treaty of York was an agreement between the kings Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, signed at York on 25 September 1237, which affirmed that Northumberland (which at the time also encompassed County Durham), Cumberland, and ...
(1237) fixed the boundaries with England close to the modern border. By the reign of Alexander III, the Scots had annexed the remainder of the, Norwegian held, western seaboard after the stalemate of the
Battle of Largs The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263) was a decisive, albeit small battle between the kingdoms of Kingdom of Norway (872–1397), Norway and Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland. Like the Japanese victories ov ...
and the
Treaty of Perth The Treaty of Perth, signed 2 July 1266, ended military conflict between Magnus VI of Norway Magnus, meaning "Great" in Latin, was used as cognomen of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus in the first century BCE. The best-known use of the name during the R ...
in 1266.A. Macquarrie, ''Medieval Scotland: Kinship and Nation'' (Thrupp: Sutton, 2004), , p. 153. The
Isle of Man ) , anthem = "O Land of Our Birth The "National Anthem of the Isle of Man" ( gv, Arrane Ashoonagh Vannin) was written and composed by William Henry Gill (1839–1923), with the Manx translation by John J. Kneen (1873–1939). It is often r ...

Isle of Man
fell under English control, from Norwegian, in the 14th century, despite several attempts to seize it for Scotland. The English briefly occupied most of Scotland, under
Edward I Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England ...

Edward I
; under
Edward III Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring roy ...

Edward III
, the English backed Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol, attempt to gain his fathers throne, and restore the lands of the Scottish lords dispossessed by
Robert IRobert I may refer to: *Robert I, Duke of NeustriaRobert I, ''Rupert'', (697 – 748), Counts of Hesbaye, Count of Hesbaye and Duke of Neustria, son of Lambert, Count of Hesbaye, Lambert. He was Count palatine under Childeric III. Robert married Wi ...
and his successors in the 14th century, in the
Wars of Independence A war of independence or independence war is a conflict occurring over a territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
(1296–1357). The king of France attempted to thwart the exercise, under the terms of what became known as the
Auld Alliance The Auld Alliance ( Scots for "Old Alliance"; ; ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Brit ...
, which provided for mutual aid against the English. In the 15th and early 16th centuries, under the
Stewart Dynasty The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain. The family name comes from the off ...
, despite a turbulent political history, the Crown gained greater political control at the expense of independent lords and regained most of its lost territory to around the modern borders of the country.P. J. Bawcutt and J. H. Williams, ''A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry'' (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2006), , p. 21. The dowry of the
Orkney Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island A ...

Orkney
and
Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or co ...

Shetland
Islands, by the Norwegian crown, in 1468 was the last great land acquisition for the kingdom.J. Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470–1625'' (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), , p. 5. In 1482 the border fortress of Berwick—the largest port in medieval Scotland—fell to the English once again; this was the last time it changed hands. The
Auld Alliance The Auld Alliance ( Scots for "Old Alliance"; ; ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Brit ...
with France led to the heavy defeat of a Scottish army at the
Battle of Flodden Field The Battle of Flodden, Flodden Field, or occasionally Branxton, (Brainston Moor) was a battle fought on 9 September 1513 during the War of the League of Cambrai between the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state o ...
in 1513 and the death of the king
James IV James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary m ...

James IV
. A long period of political instability followed.G. Menzies ''The Scottish Nation'' (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002), , p. 179.


Consolidation and union: 1513–1707

In the 16th century, under
James V of Scotland James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary mo ...

James V of Scotland
and
Mary, Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart, was List of Scottish monarchs, Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King ...

Mary, Queen of Scots
, the Crown and court took on many of the attributes of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
and New Monarchy, despite long royal minor (law), minorities, civil wars and interventions by the English and French.A. Thomas, "The Renaissance", in T. M. Devine and J. Wormald, ''The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), , p. 188. In the mid-16th century, Scottish Reformation was strongly influenced by Calvinism, leading to widespread iconoclasm and the introduction of a Presbyterianism, Presbyterian system of organisation and discipline that would have a major impact on Scottish life. In the late 16th century, James VI and I, James VI emerged as a major intellectual figure with considerable authority over the kingdom.Thomas, "The Renaissance", p. 200. In 1603 he inherited the thrones of England and Ireland, creating a Union of the Crowns that left the three states with their separate identities and institutions. He also moved the centre of royal patronage and power to London. When James' son Charles I of England, Charles I attempted to impose elements of the English religious settlement on Scotland, the result was the Bishops' Wars (1637–40), which ended in defeat for the king and a virtually independent Presbyterian Covenanter state in Scotland.J. D. Mackie, B. Lenman and G. Parker, ''A History of Scotland'' (London: Penguin, 1991), , pp. 200–06. It also helped precipitate the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, during which the Scots carried out major military interventions. After Charles I's defeat, the Scots backed the king in the Second English Civil War; after his execution, they proclaimed his son Charles II of England king, resulting in the Third English Civil War against the emerging republican regime of Roundhead, Parliamentarians in England led by Oliver Cromwell. The results were a series of defeats and the short-lived incorporation of Scotland into the Commonwealth of England, Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–60). After the 1660 Restoration (Scotland), restoration of the monarchy, Scotland regained its separate status and institutions, while the centre of political power remained in London.Mackie, Lenman and Parker, ''A History of Scotland'', pp. 241–45. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89, in which James II of England, James VII was deposed by his daughter Mary II of England, Mary and her husband William III of England, William of Orange in England, Scotland accepted them under the Claim of Right Act 1689, but the deposed main hereditary line of the House of Stuart, Stuarts became a focus for political discontent known as Jacobitism, leading to a series of invasions and rebellions mainly focused on the Scottish Highlands. After severe economic dislocation in the 1690s, there were moves that led to political union with England as the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
, which came into force on 1 May 1707. The English and Scottish parliaments were replaced by a combined Parliament of Great Britain, but it sat in Westminster and largely continued English traditions without interruption. Forty-five Scots were added to the 513 members of the House of Commons of Great Britain, House of Commons and 16 Scots to the 190 members of the House of Lords. It was also a full economic union, replacing the Scottish systems of currency, taxation and laws regulating trade.R. Mitchison, ''A History of Scotland'' (London: Routledge, 3rd edn., 2002), , p. 314.


Government

The unified kingdom of Alba retained some of the ritual aspects of Pictish and Scottish kingship. These can be seen in the elaborate ritual coronation at the Stone of Scone at Scone Abbey.Webster, ''Medieval Scotland'', pp. 45–7. While the Scottish monarchy in the Middle Ages was a largely itinerant institution, Scone, Scotland, Scone remained one of its most important locations, with royal castles at Stirling Castle, Stirling and Perth Castle, Perth becoming significant in the later Middle Ages before
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
developed as a capital city in the second half of the 15th century.P. G. B. McNeill and Hector L. MacQueen, eds, ''Atlas of Scottish History to 1707'' (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996), , pp. 159–63.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 14–15. The Crown remained the most important element of government, despite the many royal minor (law), minorities. In the late Middle Ages, it saw much of the aggrandisement associated with the New Monarchs elsewhere in Europe. Theories of constitutional monarchy and resistance were articulated by Scots, particularly George Buchanan, in the 16th century, but James VI of Scotland advanced the theory of the divine right of kings, and these debates were restated in subsequent reigns and crises. The court remained at the centre of political life, and in the 16th century emerged as a major centre of display and artistic patronage, until it was effectively dissolved with the Union of the Crowns in 1603.Thomas, "The Renaissance", pp. 200–02. The Scottish Crown adopted the conventional offices of western European courts, including High Steward of Scotland, High Steward, Chamberlain of Scotland, Chamberlain, Lord High Constable of Scotland, Lord High Constable, Earl Marischal and Lord Chancellor of Scotland, Lord Chancellor.G. W. S. Barrow, ''Robert Bruce'' (Berkeley CA.: University of California Press, 1965), pp. 11–12. The King's Council emerged as a full-time body in the 15th century, increasingly dominated by laymen and critical to the administration of justice.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 22–3. The Privy Council of Scotland, Privy Council, which developed in the mid-16th century,J. Goodacre, ''The Government of Scotland, 1560–1625'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), , pp. 35 and 130. and the great offices of state, including the chancellor, secretary and Treasurer of Scotland, treasurer, remained central to the administration of the government, even after the departure of the Stuart monarchs to rule in England from 1603.Goodacre, ''The Government of Scotland, 1560–1625'', pp. 150–1. However, it was often sidelined and was abolished after the Acts of Union 1707, with rule direct from London. The Parliament of Scotland also emerged as a major legal institution, gaining an oversight of taxation and policy. By the end of the Middle Ages it was sitting almost every year, partly because of the frequent royal minorities and regencies of the period, which may have prevented it from being sidelined by the monarchy.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', p. 21. In the early modern era, Parliament was also vital to the running of the country, providing laws and taxation, but it had fluctuating fortunes and was never as central to the national life as its counterpart in England. In the early period, the kings of the Scots depended on the great lords of the
mormaer In early Middle Ages, medieval Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, a mormaer was the Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic name for a regional or provincial ruler, theoretically second only to the Kings of Scots, King of Scots, and the senior of a ''Thane (Scotland) ...
s (later earls) and toísechs (later thegn, thanes), but from the reign of David I,
sheriffdomA sheriffdom is a judicial district in Scotland, led by a sheriff principal. Since 1 January 1975, there have been six sheriffdoms. Each sheriffdom is divided into a series of sheriff court districts, and each sheriff court is presided over by a resi ...
s were introduced, which allowed more direct control and gradually limited the power of the major lordships.McNeill and MacQueen,''Atlas of Scottish History to 1707'', pp. 191–4. In the 17th century, the creation of Justice of the peace, justices of the peace and the Commissioner of Supply helped to increase the effectiveness of local government. The continued existence of Manorial court#Court baron, courts baron and introduction of Session (Presbyterianism), kirk sessions helped consolidate the power of local
laird Laird () is a generic name for the owner of a large, long-established Scottish estate. In the traditional Scottish order of precedence, a laird ranked below a baron Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ...
s.


Law

Scots law developed into a distinctive system in the Middle Ages and was reformed and codified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Knowledge of the nature of Scots law before the 11th century is largely speculative,D. E. Thornton, "Communities and kinship", in P. Stafford, ed., ''A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland, c.500-c.1100'' (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), , pp. 98. but it was probably a mixture of legal traditions representing the different cultures inhabiting the land at the time, including Celts, Celtic, Britons (Celtic people), Britonnic, Irish people, Irish and Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon customs. The legal tract, the ''Leges inter Brettos et Scottos'', set out a system of compensation for injury and death based on ranks and the solidarity of kin groups.A. Grant, "Thanes and Thanages, from the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries" in A. Grant and K. Stringer, eds., ''Medieval Scotland: Crown, Lordship and Community, Essays Presented to G. W. S. Barrow'' (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993), , p. 42. There were popular courts or ''comhdhails'', indicated by dozens of place names in eastern Scotland. In Scandinavian-held areas, Udal law formed the basis of the legal system and it is known that the Hebrides were taxed using the Ounceland measure. Thing (assembly), Althings were open-air governmental assemblies that met in the presence of the ''Earl of Orkney, Jarl'' and the meetings were open to virtually all "free men". At these sessions decisions were made, laws passed and complaints adjudicated. The introduction of feudalism in the reign of David I of Scotland would have a profound impact on the development of Scottish law, establishing feudal land tenure over many parts of the south and east that eventually spread northward.K. Reid and R. Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I. Introduction and Property'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), , p. 20. Sheriffs, originally appointed by the King as royal administrators and tax collectors, developed legal functions.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 23. Feudal lords also held courts to adjudicate disputes between their tenants. By the 14th century, some of these feudal courts had developed into "petty kingdoms" where the King's courts did not have authority except for cases of treason. Burghs also had their local laws dealing mostly with commercial and trade matters and may have become similar in function to sheriff's courts.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 24. Ecclesiastical courts had exclusive jurisdiction over matters such as marriage, contracts made on oath, inheritance and legitimacy.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 30. ''Judices'' were often royal officials who supervised baronial, abbatial and other lower-ranking "courts".G. W. S. Barrow, ''The Kingdom of the Scots'' (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003), pp. 69–82. However, the main official of law in the post-Davidian Kingdom of the Scots was the Justiciar who held courts and reported to the king personally. Normally, there were two Justiciarships, organised by linguistic boundaries: the Justiciar of Scotia and the Justiciar of Lothian, but sometimes Galloway also had its own Justiciar. Scottish common law, the ''jus commune'', began to take shape at the end of the period, assimilating Celtic law, Gaelic and Britonnic law with practices from Anglo-Norman England and the Continent. During the period of English control over Scotland there is some evidence that Edward I of England, King Edward I of England, called "Hammer of the Scots", attempted to abolish Scottish laws contrary to English law as he had done Conquest of Wales by Edward I, in Wales.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 36. Under Robert I in 1318, a parliament at Scone enacted a code of law that drew upon older practices. It codified procedures for criminal trials and protections for vassals from ejection from the land.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 41. From the 14th century, there are surviving examples of early Scottish legal literature, such as the ''Regiam Majestatem'' (on procedure at the royal courts) and the ''Quoniam Attachiamenta'' (on procedure at the barons court), which drew on both common and Roman law.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', pp. 42 and 46. Customary laws, such as the Clan MacDuff#Law of Clan MacDuff, Law of Clan MacDuff, came under attack from the Stewart Dynasty which consequently extended the reach of Scots common law.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 56. From the reign of King James I of Scotland, James I a legal profession began to develop and the administration of criminal and civil justice was centralised.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 52. The growing activity of the parliament and the centralisation of administration in Scotland called for the better dissemination of Acts of the parliament to the courts and other enforcers of the law.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 65. In the late 15th century, unsuccessful attempts were made to form commissions of experts to codify, update or define Scots law.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 66. The general practice during this period, as evidenced from records of cases, seems to have been to defer to specific Scottish laws on a matter when available and to fill in any gaps with provisions from the common law embodied in Civil and Canon law, which had the advantage of being written.Reid and Zimmerman, ''A History of Private Law in Scotland: I'', p. 73. Under James IV the legal functions of the council were rationalised, with a royal
Court of Session The Court of Session is the supreme civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for indepen ...
meeting daily in Edinburgh to deal with civil cases. In 1514, the office of justice-general was created for the Duke of Argyll, Earl of Argyll (and held by his family until 1628). In 1532, the Royal
College of Justice The College of Justice includes the Supreme Courts of Scotland, and its associated bodies. The constituent bodies of the national supreme court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a go ...
was founded, leading to the training and professionalisation of an emerging group of career lawyers. The Court of Session placed increasing emphasis on its independence from influence, including from the king, and superior jurisdiction over local justice. Its judges were increasingly able to control entry to their own ranks.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 24–5. In 1672, the High Court of Justiciary was founded from the College of Justice as a supreme court of appeal.


Coinage

David I is the first Scottish king known to have produced his own coinage. There were soon mints at Edinburgh, Berwick and Roxburgh. Early Scottish coins were similar to English ones, but with the king's head in profile instead of full face. The number of coins struck was small and English coins probably remained more significant in this period.J. Cannon, ''The Oxford Companion to British History'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), , p. 225. The first gold coin was a noble (6s. 8d.) of David II. Under James I pennies and halfpennies of Billon (alloy), billon (an alloy of silver with a base metal) were introduced, and copper farthings appeared under James III of Scotland, James III.G. Donaldson and R. S. Morpeth, ''A Dictionary of Scottish History'' (Edinburgh, 1999), p. 43. In James V's reign the bawbee (1½ d) and half-bawbee were issued, and in Mary, Queen of Scot's reign a twopence piece, the hardhead, was issued to help "the common people buy bread, drink, flesh, and fish". The billon coinage was discontinued after 1603, but twopence pieces in copper continued to be issued until the Act of Union in 1707. Early Scottish coins were virtually identical in silver content to English ones, but from about 1300 the silver content began to depreciate more rapidly than English. Between then and 1605 they lost value at an average of 12 per cent every ten years, three times the then English rate. The Scottish penny became a base metal coin in about 1484 and virtual disappeared as a separate coin from about 1513.J. Chown, ''A History of Money: From AD 800'' (London: Routledge, 1996), , p. 24. In 1423, the English government banned the circulation of Scottish coins. At the union of the crowns in 1603, the Scottish Pound Scots, pound was fixed at only one-twelfth that of the English pound. The Parliament of Scotland of 1695 enacted proposals to set up the
Bank of Scotland The Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a ...

Bank of Scotland
.Mitchison, ''A History of Scotland'', pp. 291–2 and 301-2. The bank issued pound notes from 1704, which had the face value of £12 Scots. Scottish currency was abolished at the Act of Union, the Scottish coin in circulation was drawn in to be re-minted according to the English standard.


Geography

At its borders in 1707, the Kingdom of Scotland was half the size of England and Wales in area, but with its many inlets, islands and inland lochs, it had roughly the same amount of coastline at . Scotland has over 790 offshore islands, most of which are to be found in four main groups:
Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or co ...

Shetland
,
Orkney Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island A ...

Orkney
, and the Hebrides, subdivided into the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides.H. Haswell-Smith, ''The Scottish Islands'' (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2004), . Only a fifth of Scotland is less than 60 metres above sea level.C. Harvie, ''Scotland: a Short History'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), , pp. 10–11. The defining factor in the geography of Scotland is the distinction between the Highlands and Islands in the north and west and the Lowlands in the south and east. The highlands are further divided into the Northwest Highlands and the Grampian Mountains by the fault line of the Great Glen. The Lowlands are divided into the fertile belt of the Central Lowlands and the higher terrain of the Southern Uplands, which included the Cheviot Hills, over which the border with England ran.Mitchison, ''A History of Scotland'', p. 2. The Central Lowland belt averages about in width and, because it contains most of the good quality agricultural land and has easier communications, could support most of the urbanisation and elements of conventional government.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 39–40. However, the Southern Uplands, and particularly the Highlands were economically less productive and much more difficult to govern. Its east Atlantic position means that Scotland has very heavy rainfall: today about 700 mm per year in the east and over 1000 mm in the west. This encouraged the spread of blanket bogs, the acidity of which, combined with high level of wind and salt spray, made most of the islands treeless. The existence of hills, mountains, quicksands and marshes made internal communication and conquest extremely difficult and may have contributed to the fragmented nature of political power. The Uplands and Highlands had a relatively short growing season, in the extreme case of the upper Grampians an ice free season of four months or less and for much of the Highlands and Uplands of seven months or less. The early modern era also saw the impact of the
Little Ice Age The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate Climate is the ...
, with 1564 seeing thirty-three days of continual frost, where rivers and lochs froze, leading to a series of subsistence crises until the 1690s.


Demography

From the formation of the Kingdom of Alba in the 10th century until before the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
arrived in 1349, estimates based on the amount of farmable land suggest that population may have grown from half a million to a million. Although there is no reliable documentation on the impact of the plague, there are many anecdotal references to abandoned land in the following decades. If the pattern followed that in England, then the population may have fallen to as low as half a million by the end of the 15th century.S. H. Rigby, ed., ''A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages'' (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003), , pp. 109–11. Compared with the situation after the redistribution of population in the later Highland Clearances and the Industrial Revolution, these numbers would have been relatively evenly spread over the kingdom, with roughly half living north of the River Tay. Perhaps ten per cent of the population lived in one of many burghs that grew up in the later medieval period, mainly in the east and south. They would have had a mean population of about 2000, but many would have been much smaller than 1000 and the largest, Edinburgh, probably had a population of over 10,000 by the end of the Medieval era.E. Gemmill and N. J. Mayhew, ''Changing Values in Medieval Scotland: a Study of Prices, Money, and Weights and Measures'' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), , pp. 8–10. Price inflation, which generally reflects growing demand for food, suggests that the population probably expanded in the first half of the 16th century, levelling off after the famine of 1595, as prices were relatively stable in the early 17th century. Calculations based on hearth tax returns for 1691 indicate a population of 1,234,575, but this figure may have been seriously effected by the subsequent famines of the late 1690s. By 1750, with its suburbs, Edinburgh reached 57,000. The only other towns above 10,000 by the same time were Glasgow with 32,000, Aberdeen with around 16,000 and Dundee with 12,000.


Language

Historical sources, as well as place name evidence, indicate the ways in which the Pictish language in the north and Cumbric, Cumbric languages in the south were overlaid and replaced by
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...
,
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
and later
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
in the Early Middle Ages. By the High Middle Ages, the majority of people within Scotland spoke the Gaelic language, then simply called ''Scottish'', or in Latin, ''lingua Scotica''. In the Northern Isles the Norse language brought by Scandinavian occupiers and settlers evolved into the local Norn language, Norn, which lingered until the end of the 18th century, and Norse may also have survived as a spoken language until the 16th century in the Outer Hebrides. , Flemish and particularly English became the main languages of Scottish burghs, most of which were located in the south and east, an area to which Anglian settlers had already brought a form of Old English. In the later part of the 12th century, the writer Adam of Dryburgh described lowland Lothian as "the Land of the English in the Kingdom of the Scots". At least from the accession of David I, Gaelic ceased to be the main language of the royal court and was probably replaced by French, as evidenced by reports from contemporary chronicles, literature and translations of administrative documents into the French language.R. A. Houston, ''Scottish Literacy and the Scottish Identity: Illiteracy and Society in Scotland and Northern England, 1600–1800'' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), , p. 76. In the Scotland in the Late Middle Ages#Language and literature, Late Middle Ages, Early Scots, then called English, became the dominant spoken language of the kingdom, aside from in the
Highlands and Islands The Highlands and Islands is an area of broadly covering the , plus , and (Western Isles). The Highlands and Islands are sometimes defined as the area to which the of 1886 applied. This area consisted of eight : * * * * * * * * ...
and Galloway. It was derived largely from Old English, with the addition of elements from Gaelic and French. Although resembling the language spoken in northern England, it became a distinct dialect from the late 14th century onwards.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 60–7. It began to be adopted by the ruling elite as they gradually abandoned French. By the 15th century, it was the language of government, with acts of parliament, council records and treasurer's accounts almost all using it from the reign of James I onwards. As a result, Gaelic, once dominant north of the Tay, began a steady decline. Lowland writers began to treat Gaelic as a second-class, rustic and even amusing language, helping to frame attitudes towards the Highlands and to create a cultural gulf with the Lowlands. From the mid-16th century, written Scots was increasingly influenced by the developing Standard English of Southern England due to developments in royal and political interactions with England. With the increasing influence and availability of books printed in England, most writing in Scotland came to be done in the English fashion.J. Corbett, D. McClure and J. Stuart-Smith, "A Brief History of Scots" in J. Corbett, D. McClure and J. Stuart-Smith, eds, ''The Edinburgh Companion to Scots'' (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2003), , p. 11. Unlike many of his predecessors, James VI generally despised Gaelic culture. Having extolled the virtues of Scots "poesie", after his accession to the English throne, he increasingly favoured the language of southern England. In 1611, the Kirk adopted the 1611 Authorized King James Version of the Bible. In 1617, interpreters were declared no longer necessary in the port of London because as Scots and Englishmen were now "not so far different bot ane understandeth ane uther". Jenny Wormald describes James as creating a "three-tier system, with Gaelic at the bottom and English at the top".Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 192–3.


Religion

The Pictish and Scottish kingdoms that would form the basis of the Kingdom of Alba were largely converted by Irish-Scots missions associated with figures such as St Columba, from the 5th to the 7th centuries. These missions tended to found monastery, monastic institutions and collegiate churches that served large areas. Partly as a result of these factors, some scholars have identified a distinctive form of Celtic Christianity, in which abbots were more significant than bishops, attitudes to clerical celibacy were more relaxed and there were some significant differences in practice with Roman Christianity, particularly the form of tonsure and the method of Computus, calculating Easter. Most of these issues had been resolved by the mid-7th century.C. Evans, "The Celtic Church in Anglo-Saxon times", in J. D. Woods, D. A. E. Pelteret, ''The Anglo-Saxons, synthesis and achievement'' (Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1985), , pp. 77–89. After the reconversion of Scandinavian Scotland from the 10th century, Christianity under papal authority was the dominant religion of the kingdom.Macquarrie, ''Medieval Scotland: Kinship and Nation'', pp. 67–8. In the Norman period, the Scottish church underwent a series of reforms and transformations. With royal and lay patronage, a clearer parochial structure based around local churches was developed.Macquarrie, ''Medieval Scotland: Kinship and Nation'', pp. 109–117. Large numbers of new foundations, which followed continental forms of reformed monasticism, began to predominate and the Scottish church established its independence from England, developed a clearer diocesan structure, becoming a "special daughter of the see of Rome", but lacking leadership in the form of Archbishops.Bawcutt and Williams, ''A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry'', pp. 26–9. In the late Middle Ages, the problems of schism in the Catholic Church allowed the Scottish Crown to gain greater influence over senior appointments and two archbishoprics had been established by the end of the 15th century.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 76–87. While some historians have discerned a decline of monasticism in the late Middle Ages, the mendicant orders of friars grew, particularly in the expanding burghs, to meet the spiritual needs of the population. New saints and cults of devotion also proliferated. Despite problems over the number and quality of clergy after the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
in the 14th century, and some evidence of heresy in this period, the Church in Scotland remained relatively stable before the 16th century. During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk, which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook, severely reducing the powers of bishops, although not abolishing them. The teachings of first Martin Luther and then John Calvin began to influence Scotland, particularly through Scottish scholars who had visited continental and English universities. Particularly important was the work of the Lutheran Scot Patrick Hamilton (martyr), Patrick Hamilton. His execution with other Protestant preachers in 1528, and of the Zwingli-influenced George Wishart in 1546, who was burnt at the stake in St Andrews, did nothing to stem the growth of these ideas. Wishart's supporters seized St Andrews Castle, which they held for a year before they were defeated with the help of French forces. The survivors, including chaplain John Knox, were condemned to be galley slaves, helping to create resentment of the French and martyrs for the Protestant cause. Limited toleration and the influence of exiled Scots and Protestants in other countries, led to the expansion of Protestantism, with a group of lairds declaring themselves Lords of the Congregation in 1557. By 1560, a relatively small group of Protestants were in a position to impose reform on the Scottish church. A confession of faith, rejecting papal jurisdiction and the mass, was adopted by Scottish Reformation Parliament, Parliament in 1560. The Calvinism of the reformers led by Knox resulted in a settlement that adopted a Presbyterian system and rejected most of the elaborate trappings of the Medieval church. This gave considerable power within the new Kirk to local lairds, who often had control over the appointment of the clergy, and resulting in widespread, but generally orderly, iconoclasm. At this point the majority of the population was probably still Catholic in persuasion and the Kirk would find it difficult to penetrate the Highlands and Islands, but began a gradual process of conversion and consolidation that, compared with reformations elsewhere, was conducted with relatively little persecution. In 1635, Charles I authorised a book of canons that made him head of the Church, ordained an unpopular ritual and enforced the use of a new liturgy. When the liturgy emerged in 1637 it was seen as an English-style Prayer Book, resulting in anger and widespread rioting.Mackie, Lenman and Parker, ''A History of Scotland'', p. 203. Representatives of various sections of Scottish society drew up the National Covenant on 28 February 1638, objecting to the King's liturgical innovations.Mackie, Lenman and Parker, ''A History of Scotland'', p. 204. The king's supporters were unable to suppress the rebellion and the king refused to compromise. In December of the same year, matters were taken even further, when at a meeting of the General Assembly in Glasgow the Scottish bishops were formally expelled from the Church, which was then established on a full Presbyterian basis. Victory in the resulting Bishops' Wars secured the Presbyterian Kirk and precipitated the outbreak of the civil wars of the 1640s.Mackie, Lenman and Parker, ''A History of Scotland'', pp. 205–6. Disagreements over collaboration with Royalism created a major conflict between Protesters (Act of Classes), Protesters and Resolutioners, which became a long term divide in the Kirk. At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, legislation was revoked back to 1633, removing the Covenanter gains of the Bishops' Wars, but the discipline of kirk sessions, presbyteries and synods were renewed.Mackie, Lenman and Parker, ''A History of Scotland'', pp. 231–4. The reintroduction of episcopacy was a source of particular trouble in the south-west of the country, an area with strong Presbyterian sympathies. Abandoning the official church, many of the people here began to attend illegal field assemblies led by excluded ministers, known as conventicles. In the early 1680s, a more intense phase of persecution began, in what was later to be known in Protestant historiography as "the Killing Time".Mackie, Lenman and Parker, ''A History of Scotland'', p. 241. After the Glorious Revolution, Presbyterianism was restored and the bishops, who had generally supported James VII, abolished. However, William, who was more tolerant than the kirk tended to be, passed acts restoring the Episcopalian clergy excluded after the Revolution. The result was a Kirk divided between factions, with significant minorities, particularly in the west and north, of Episcopalians and Catholics.


Education

The establishment of Christianity brought Latin to Scotland as a scholarly and written language. Monasteries served as repositories of knowledge and education, often running schools and providing a small educated elite, who were essential to create and read documents in a largely illiterate society.Macquarrie, ''Medieval Scotland: Kinship and Nation'', p. 128. In the High Middle Ages, new sources of education arose, with choir school, song and grammar schools. These were usually attached to cathedrals or a collegiate church and were most common in the developing burghs. By the end of the Middle Ages grammar schools could be found in all the main burghs and some small towns. There were also petty schools, more common in rural areas and providing an elementary education.Lynch, ''Scotland: A New History'', pp. 104–7. Some monasteries, like the Cistercian Kinloss Abbey, abbey at Kinloss, opened their doors to a wider range of students. The number and size of these schools seems to have expanded rapidly from the 1380s. They were almost exclusively aimed at boys, but by the end of the 15th century, Edinburgh also had schools for girls, sometimes described as "sewing schools", and probably taught by lay women or nuns. There was also the development of private tuition in the families of lords and wealthy burghers. The growing emphasis on education cumulated with the passing of the Education Act 1496, which decreed that all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should attend grammar schools to learn "perfyct Latyne". All this resulted in an increase in literacy, but which was largely concentrated among a male and wealthy elite,Bawcutt and Williams, ''A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry'', pp. 29–30. with perhaps 60 per cent of the nobility being literate by the end of the period.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 68–72. Until the 15th century, those who wished to attend university had to travel to England or the continent, and just over a 1,000 have been identified as doing so between the 12th century and 1410. Among these the most important intellectual figure was John Duns Scotus, who studied at University of Oxford, Oxford, University of Cambridge, Cambridge and University of Paris, Paris and probably died at University of Cologne, Cologne in 1308, becoming a major influence on late medieval religious thought.Webster, ''Medieval Scotland'', p. 119. The Wars of Independence largely closed English universities to Scots, and consequently continental universities became more significant.Webster, ''Medieval Scotland'', pp. 124–5. This situation was transformed by the founding of the University of St Andrews in 1413, the University of Glasgow in 1451 and the University of Aberdeen in 1495. Initially these institutions were designed for the training of clerics, but they were increasingly used by laymen who would begin to challenge the clerical monopoly of administrative posts in the government and law. Those wanting to study for second degrees still needed to go abroad. The continued movement to other universities produced a school of Scottish nominalists at Paris in the early 16th century, of which John Major (philosopher), John Mair was probably the most important figure. By 1497, the humanist and historian Hector Boece, born in Dundee, returned from Paris to become the first principal at the new university of Aberdeen. These international contacts helped integrate Scotland into a wider European scholarly world and would be one of the most important ways in which the new ideas of humanism were brought into Scottish intellectual life. The humanist concern with widening education was shared by the Protestant reformers, with a desire for a godly people replacing the aim of having educated citizens. In 1560, the ''First Book of Discipline'' set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible. In the burghs the old schools were maintained, with the song schools and a number of new foundations becoming reformed grammar schools or ordinary parish schools. Schools were supported by a combination of kirk funds, contributions from local heritors or burgh councils and parents that could pay. They were inspected by kirk sessions, who checked for the quality of teaching and doctrinal purity. There were also large number of unregulated "adventure schools", which sometimes fulfilled a local needs and sometimes took pupils away from the official schools. Outside of the established burgh schools, masters often combined their position with other employment, particularly minor posts within the kirk, such as clerk. At their best, the curriculum included catechism, Latin language, Latin, , Classical literature and sports.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 183–3. In 1616, an School Establishment Act 1616, act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school "where convenient means may be had", and when the Parliament of Scotland ratified this with the Education Act 1633, Education Act of 1633, a tax on local landowners was introduced to provide the necessary endowment. A loophole which allowed evasion of this tax was closed in the Education Act 1646, Education Act of 1646, which established a solid institutional foundation for schools on Covenanter principles. Although the English Restoration, Restoration brought a reversion to the 1633 position, in 1696 new legislation restored the provisions of 1646. An act of the Scottish parliament in 1696 underlined the aim of having a school in every parish. In rural communities these obliged local landowners (heritors) to provide a schoolhouse and pay a schoolmaster, while ministers and local Presbyterian polity, presbyteries oversaw the quality of the education. In many Scottish towns, burgh schools were operated by local councils. By the late 17th century, there was a largely complete network of parish schools in the Lowlands, but in the Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas.R. Anderson, "The history of Scottish Education pre-1980", in T. G. K. Bryce and W. M. Humes, eds, ''Scottish Education: Post-Devolution'' (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2nd edn., 2003), , pp. 219–28. The widespread belief in the limited intellectual and moral capacity of women, vied with a desire, intensified after the Reformation, for women to take personal moral responsibility, particularly as wives and mothers. In Protestantism this necessitated an ability to learn and understand the catechism and even to be able to independently read the Bible, but most commentators, even those that tended to encourage the education of girls, thought they should not receive the same academic education as boys. In the lower ranks of society, they benefited from the expansion of the parish schools system that took place after the Reformation, but were usually outnumbered by boys, often taught separately, for a shorter time and to a lower level. They were frequently taught reading, sewing and knitting, but not writing. Female illiteracy rates based on signatures among female servants were around 90 percent, from the late 17th to the early 18th centuries and perhaps 85 percent for women of all ranks by 1750, compared with 35 per cent for men. Among the nobility there were many educated and cultured women, of which
Mary, Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart, was List of Scottish monarchs, Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King ...

Mary, Queen of Scots
is the most obvious example. After the Reformation, Scotland's universities underwent a series of reforms associated with Andrew Melville, who returned from Geneva to become principal of the University of Glasgow in 1574. He placed an emphasis on simplified logic and elevated languages and sciences to the same status as philosophy, allowing accepted ideas in all areas to be challenged. He introduced new specialist teaching staff, replacing the system of "regenting", where one tutor took the students through the entire arts curriculum. Metaphysics were abandoned and Ancient Greek, Greek became compulsory in the first year followed by Aramaic, Syriac language, Syriac and Hebrew, launching a new fashion for ancient and biblical languages. Glasgow had probably been declining as a university before his arrival, but students now began to arrive in large numbers. He assisted in the reconstruction of Marischal College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, and in order to do for St Andrews what he had done for Glasgow, he was appointed Principal of St Mary's College, St Andrews, in 1580. The University of Edinburgh developed out of public lectures were established in the town 1440s on law, Greek, Latin and philosophy, under the patronage of Mary of Guise. These evolved into the "Tounis College", which would become the University of Edinburgh in 1582.Thomas, ''The Renaissance'', pp. 196–7. The results were a revitalisation of all Scottish universities, which were now producing a quality of education the equal of that offered anywhere in Europe.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', pp. 183–4. Under the Commonwealth, the universities saw an improvement in their funding, as they were given income from deaneries, defunct bishoprics and the excise, allowing the completion of buildings including the college in the University of Glasgow#High Street, High Street in Glasgow. They were still largely seen as a training school for clergy, and came under the control of the hard line Protesters (Act of Classes), Protestors.Mackie, Lenman and Parker, ''A History of Scotland'', pp. 227–8. After the Restoration there was a purge of the universities, but much of the intellectual advances of the preceding period was preserved.Lynch, ''Scotland: A New History'', p. 262. The universities recovered from the upheavals of the mid-century with a lecture-based curriculum that was able to embrace economics and science, offering a high quality liberal education to the sons of the nobility and gentry.


Military


Navy

There are mentions in Medieval records of fleets commanded by Scottish kings including William the LionP. F. Tytler, ''History of Scotland, Volume 2'' (London: Black, 1829), pp. 309–10. and Alexander II of Scotland, Alexander II. The latter took personal command of a large naval force which sailed from the Firth of Clyde and anchored off the island of Kerrera in 1249, intended to transport his army in a campaign against the Kingdom of the Isles, but he died before the campaign could begin.Macquarrie, ''Medieval Scotland: Kinship and Nation'', p. 147. Records indicate that Alexander had several large oared ships built at Ayr, but he avoided a sea battle. Defeat on land at the
Battle of Largs The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263) was a decisive, albeit small battle between the kingdoms of Kingdom of Norway (872–1397), Norway and Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland. Like the Japanese victories ov ...
and winter storms forced the Norwegian fleet to return home, leaving the Scottish crown as the major power in the region and leading to the ceding of the Western Isles to Alexander in 1266. Part of the reason for Robert I's success in the
Wars of Independence A war of independence or independence war is a conflict occurring over a territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
was his ability to call on naval forces from the Islands. As a result of the expulsion of the Flemings from England in 1303, he gained the support of a major naval power in the North Sea.N. A. M. Rodger, ''The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain. Volume One 660–1649'' (London: Harper, 1997) pp. 74–90. The development of naval power allowed Robert to successfully defeat English attempts to capture him in the Highlands and Islands and to blockade major English controlled fortresses at Perth and Stirling, the last forcing Edward II of England, Edward II to attempt the relief that resulted in English defeat at Battle of Bannockburn, Bannockburn in 1314. Scottish naval forces allowed invasions of the Isle of Man in 1313 and 1317 and Ireland in 1315. They were also crucial in the blockade of Berwick, which led to its fall in 1318. After the establishment of Scottish independence, Robert I turned his attention to building up a Scottish naval capacity. This was largely focused on the west coast, with the Exchequer Rolls of 1326 recording the feudal duties of his vassals in that region to aid him with their vessels and crews. Towards the end of his reign he supervised the building of at least one royal man-of-war near his palace at Cardross, Argyll and Bute, Cardross on the River Clyde. In the late 14th century, naval warfare with England was conducted largely by hired Scots, Flemish and French merchantmen and privateers.J. Grant, "The Old Scots Navy from 1689 to 1710", ''Publications of the Navy Records Society'', 44 (London: Navy Records Society, 1913-4), pp. i–xii. James I of Scotland, James I took a greater interest in naval power. After his return to Scotland in 1424, he established a shipbuilding yard at Leith, a house for marine stores, and a workshop. King's ships were built and equipped there to be used for trade as well as war, one of which accompanied him on his expedition to the Islands in 1429. The office of Lord High Admiral of Scotland, Lord High Admiral was probably founded in this period. In his struggles with his nobles in 1488 James III received assistance from his two warships the ''Flower'' and the ''King's Carvel'' also known as the ''Yellow Carvel''. There were various attempts to create royal naval forces in the 15th century. James IV put the enterprise on a new footing, founding a harbour at Newhaven, Edinburgh, Newhaven and a dockyard at the Pools of Airth. He acquired a total of 38 ships including the ''Michael (ship), Great Michael'',T. Christopher Smout, ''Scotland and the Sea'' (Edinburgh: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992), , p. 45. at that time, the largest ship in Europe.S. Murdoch, ''The Terror of the Seas?: Scottish Maritime Warfare, 1513–1713'' (Leiden: Brill, 2010), , pp. 33–4. Scottish ships had some success against privateers, accompanied the king on his expeditions in the islands and intervened in conflicts in Scandinavia and the Baltic, but were sold after the Battle of Flodden, Flodden campaign and after 1516 Scottish naval efforts would rely on privateering captains and hired merchantmen. James V did not share his father's interest in developing a navy and shipbuilding fell behind that of the Low Countries. Despite truces between England and Scotland there were periodic outbreaks of a ''
guerre de course The Bermuda Gazette of 12 November 1796, calling for privateering against Spain and its allies, and with advertisements for crew for two privateer vessels. Commerce raiding (french: guerre de course, "war of the chase"; german: Handelskrieg, "t ...
''. James V built a new harbour at Burntisland in 1542. The chief use of naval power in his reign was a series of expeditions to the Isles and France.Dawson, ''Scotland Re-Formed, 1488–1587'', p. 76. After the
Union of Crowns The Union of the Crowns ( gd, Aonadh nan Crùintean; sco, Union o the Crouns) was the of to the throne of the Kingdom of England as James I and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the two realms u ...
in 1603 conflict between Scotland and England ended, but Scotland found itself involved in England's foreign policy, opening up Scottish shipping to attack. In 1626, a squadron of three ships was bought and equipped. There were also several letter of marque, marque fleets of privateers. In 1627, the Royal Scots Navy and accompanying contingents of burgh privateers participated in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré (1627), major expedition to Biscay. The Scots also returned to the West IndiesMurdoch, ''The Terror of the Seas?'', p. 172. and in 1629 took part in the capture of Quebec. During the Bishop's Wars the king attempted to blockade Scotland and planned amphibious assaults from England on the East coast and from Ireland to the West. Scottish privateers took a number of English prizes. After the Covenanters allied with the English Parliament they established two patrol squadrons for the Atlantic and North Sea coasts, known collectively as the "Scotch Guard". The Scottish navy was unable to withstand the English fleet that accompanied the army led by Cromwell that conquered Scotland in 1649–51 and the Scottish ships and crews were split up among the Commonwealth fleet.Murdoch, ''The Terror of the Seas?'', p. 239. Scottish seamen received protection against arbitrary impressment by English men of war, but a fixed quota of conscripts for the Royal Navy was levied from the sea-coast burghs during the second half of the 17th century. Royal Navy patrols were now found in Scottish waters even in peacetime. In the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Second (1665–67) and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (1672–74) between 80 and 120 captains, took Scottish letters of marque and privateers played a major part in the naval conflict.Murdoch, ''The Terror of the Seas?'', pp. 239–41. In the 1690s, a small fleet of five ships was established by merchants for the Darien Scheme, and a professional navy was established for the protection of commerce in home waters during the Nine Years' War, with three purpose-built warships bought from English shipbuilders in 1696. After the
Act of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
in 1707, these vessels were transferred to the Royal Navy.J. Grant, "The Old Scots Navy from 1689 to 1710", ''Publications of the Navy Records Society'', 44 (London: Navy Records Society, 1913-4), p. 48.


Army

Before the Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the mid-17th century, there was no standing army in the Kingdom of Scotland. In the Scotland in the Early Middle Ages, Early Middle Ages, war in Scotland was characterised by the use of small war-bands of household troops often engaging in raids and low level warfare. By the Scotland in the High Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, the kings of Scotland could command forces of tens of thousands of men for short periods as part of the "common army", mainly of poorly armoured spear and bowmen. After the "
Davidian Revolution The Davidian Revolution is a name given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I of Scotland, David I (1124–1153). These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the i ...
" of the 12th century, which introduced elements of feudalism to Scotland, these forces were augmented by small numbers of mounted and heavily armoured knights. These armies rarely managed to stand up to the usually larger and more professional armies produced by England, but they were used to good effect by Robert I at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 to secure Scottish independence. After the Wars of Scottish Independence, the
Auld Alliance The Auld Alliance ( Scots for "Old Alliance"; ; ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Brit ...
between Scotland and France played a large part in the country's military activities, especially during the Hundred Years' War. In the Scotland in the Late Middle Ages, Late Middle Ages, under the Royal House of Stewart, Stewart kings forces were further augmented by specialist troops, particularly men-at-arms and archery, archers, hired by bonds of ''manrent'', similar to English indentures of the same period.M. Brown, ''The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371'' (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), , p. 58. Archers became much sought after as mercenaries in French armies of the 15th century in order to help counter the English superiority in this arm, becoming a major element of the French royal guards as the Garde Écossaise. The Stewarts also adopted major innovations in continental warfare, such as longer pikes and the extensive use of artillery. However, in the early 16th century one of the best armed and largest Scottish armies ever assembled still met with defeat at the hands of an English army at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, which saw the destruction of a large number of ordinary troops, a large section of the nobility and the king,
James IV James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary m ...

James IV
.Wormald, ''Court, Kirk, and Community'', p. 19. In the 16th century, the crown took an increasing role in the supply of military equipment.G. Phillips, ''The Anglo-Scots Wars, 1513–1550: A Military History'' (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999), , p. 61. The pike began to replace the spear and the Scots began to convert from the bow to gunpowder firearms. The feudal heavy cavalry had begun to disappear from Scottish armies and the Scots fielded relatively large numbers of light horse, often drawn from the Scottish Borders, borders. James IV brought in experts from France, Germany and the Netherlands and established a gun foundry in 1511. Gunpowder weaponry fundamentally altered the nature of castle architecture from the mid-15th century.T. W. West, ''Discovering Scottish Architecture'' (Botley: Osprey, 1985), , p. 27. In the early 17th century, relatively large numbers of Scots took service in foreign armies involved in the Thirty Years War. As armed conflict with Charles I in the Bishop's Wars became likely, hundreds of Scots mercenaries returned home from foreign service, including experienced leaders like Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven, Alexander and David Leslie, Lord Newark, David Leslie and these veterans played an important role in training recruits.J. S. Wheeler, ''The Irish and British Wars, 1637–1654: Triumph, Tragedy, and Failure'' (London: Routledge, 2002), , pp. 19–21. These systems would form the basis of the Covenanter armies that intervened in the Civil Wars in England and Ireland. Scottish infantry were generally armed, as was almost universal in Western Europe, with a combination of pike and shot. Scottish armies may also have had individuals with a variety of weapons including bows, Lochaber axes, and halberds. Most cavalry were probably equipped with pistols and swords, although there is some evidence that they included lancers. Royalist armies, like those led by James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose, James Graham, Marquis of Montrose (1643–44) and in Glencairn's rising (1653–54) were mainly composed of conventionally armed infantry with pike and shot. Montrose's forces were short of heavy artillery suitable for siege warfare and had only a small force of cavalry. At the Restoration the Privy Council established a force of several infantry regiments and a few troops of horse and there were attempts to found a national militia on the English model. The standing army was mainly employed in the suppression of Covenanter rebellions and the guerilla war undertaken by the Cameronians in the East.E. M. Furgol, "Warfare, weapons and fortifications: 3 1600–1700" in M. Lynch, ed., ''The Oxford Companion to Scottish History'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), , pp. 637–8. Pikemen became less important in the late 17th century and after the introduction of the socket bayonet disappeared altogether, while matchlock muskets were replaced by the more reliable flintlock. On the eve of the Glorious Revolution, the standing army in Scotland was about 3,000 men in various regiments and another 268 veterans in the major garrison towns.J. Young, "Army: 1600–1750" in M. Lynch, ed., ''The Oxford Companion to Scottish History'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), , pp. 24–5. After the Glorious Revolution the Scots were drawn into King William III, King William II's continental wars, beginning with the Nine Years' War in Flanders (1689–97). By the time of the
Act of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
, the Kingdom of Scotland had a standing army of seven units of infantry, two of horse and one troop of Household Cavalry, Horse Guards, besides varying levels of fortress artillery in the garrison castles of Edinburgh, Dumbarton Castle, Dumbarton, and Stirling, which would be incorporated into the British Army.D. Grove, and C. Abraham, ''Fortress Scotland and the Jacobites'' (Batsford/Historic Scotland, 1995), , p. 38.


Flags

The earliest recorded use of the Royal Banner of Scotland, Lion Rampant as a royal emblem in Scotland was by Alexander II of Scotland, Alexander II in 1222.At Google Book Search
/ref> It is recorded with the additional embellishment of a Ordinary (heraldry)#Subordinaries, double border set with Fleur-de-lis, lilies during the reign of Alexander III (1249–86). This Charge (heraldry), emblem occupied the Escutcheon (heraldry), shield of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland, royal coat of arms which, together with a royal banner displaying the same, was used by the King of Scots until the Union of the Crowns in 1603. Then it was incorporated into both the royal Coat of arms, arms and royal banners of successive List of Scottish monarchs, Scottish then List of British monarchs, British monarchs in order to symbolise Scotland; as can be seen today in the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom. Although now officially restricted to use by representatives of the Sovereign and at royal residences, the Royal Standard of Scotland continues to be one of Scotland's most recognisable symbols. According to legend, the Apostle (Christian), apostle and martyr Andrew the Apostle, Saint Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, was crucified on an X-shaped cross at Patras (Patrae) in Achaea. Use of the familiar iconography of his martyrdom, showing the apostle bound to an X-shaped cross, first appears in the Kingdom of Scotland in 1180 during the reign of William I of Scotland, William I. This image was again depicted on Seal (emblem), seals used during the late 13th century; including on one particular example used by the Guardians of Scotland, dated 1286. Use of a simplified symbol associated with Saint Andrew which does not depict his image, namely the saltire, or crux decussata (from the Latin crux, 'cross', and decussis, 'having the shape of the Roman numeral X'), has its origins in the late 14th century; the Parliament of Scotland decreed in 1385 that Scottish soldiers wear a white Saint Andrew's Cross on their person, both in front and behind, for the purpose of identification. The earliest reference to the Saint Andrew's Cross as a flag is to be found in the ''Vienna Book of Hours'', 1503, where a white saltire is depicted with a red background. In the case of Scotland, use of a blue background for the Saint Andrew's Cross is said to date from at least the 15th century, with the first certain illustration of a flag depicting such appearing in David Lyndsay, Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount's ''Register of Scottish Arms,'' 1542. Following the Union of the Crowns in 1603, James VI of Scotland, James VI, King of Scots, commissioned new designs for a banner incorporating the flags of the Kingdom of Scotland and
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
. In 1606, a Union Flag was commissioned, combining the crosses of Saint George (the Flag of England), with that of Saint Andrew. There was also a Union Flag#Scottish Union Flag, ''Scottish'' version of this flag, in which the cross of Saint Andrew overlaid the cross of St George. This design may have seen limited, unofficial use in Scotland until 1707, when the ''English'' variant of the same, whereby the cross of St George overlaid that of St Andrew, was adopted as the flag of the unified
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
. File:Royal Standard of Scotland.svg, The Royal Standard of Scotland File:Royal Standard of Great Britain in Scotland (1603-1649).PNG, The Royal Standard of Scotland used, with minor variations, between 1603 and 1707. File:Flag of Scotland.svg, The Flag of Scotland; ''Azure (heraldry), Azure, a saltire argent'' File:Union Jack 1606 Scotland.svg, The Union Flag#Scottish Union Flag, Scottish Union Flag used between 1606 and 1707.


See also

* Falkland Palace * Linlithgow Palace * List of monarchs of Scotland * Obsolete Scottish units of measurement * Royal Consorts of Scotland * Scottish monarchs family tree * Scottish Term Day


References


Footnotes


Notes


Bibliography

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{{DEFAULTSORT:Scotland, Kingdom Of Kingdom of Scotland, 1707 disestablishments in Scotland Scottish monarchy States and territories established in the 840s States and territories disestablished in 1707 States and territories disestablished in 1654 States and territories established in 1660 Former kingdoms, Scotland Former monarchies of Europe Former countries in the British Isles 843 establishments 9th-century establishments in Scotland