HOME

TheInfoList




The Nation of Lunda (c. 1665 – c. 1887) was a confederation of states in what is now the
Democratic Republic of Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DRC, the DROC, or the Congo, and formerly Zaire Zaire (, ), officially the Republic of Zaire (french: ...

Democratic Republic of Congo
, north-eastern
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
, and north-western
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
, its central state was in Katanga.


Origin

Initially, the core of what would become the Lunda confederation was a commune called a ''N'Gaange'' in the kiLunda (kiyaka-kipunu) language. It was ruled over by a monarch called the Mwane-a- n'Gaange. One of these rulers, Ilunga Tshibinda, came from the nation of Luba where his brother ruled and married a royal woman from a nation to their south. Their son became the first paramount ruler of the Lunda, creating the title of Mwane-a-Yamvu (c. 1665).


Apex

The Lunda Kingdom controlled some 150,000 km2 by 1680. The state doubled in size to around 300,000 km2 at its height in the nineteenth century.Thornton, page 104 The ''Mwane-a Yamvo'' of Lunda became powerful militarily from their base of 175,000 inhabitants. Along with this military strength through sheer numbers, the Lunda Kingdom also received Muslim military advisors and some dated weapons from the cities of Nyangwe and Kabambare. Through marriage with descendants of the Luba kings, they gained political ties. The
Lunda people The Lunda (''Balunda'', ''Luunda'', ''Ruund'') are a Bantu ethnic group that originated in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also ...
were able to settle and colonialize other areas and tribes, thus extending their kingdom through southwest Katanga into Angola and north-western
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
, and eastwards across Katanga into what is now the
Luapula Province Luapula Province is one of Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa ...
of Zambia. The kingdom became a confederation of a number of chieftainships that enjoyed a degree of local autonomy (as long as
tributes A tribute (; from Latin ''tributum'', "contribution") is wealth, often Gifts in kind, in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of submission, allegiance or respect. Various ancient states Tributary state, exacted tribute from the ruler ...

tributes
were paid), with Mwata Yamvo as paramount ruler and a ruling council (following the Luba model) to assist with administration. The strength of the kingdom enabled it to conquer the territory of other tribes, especially to the east. In the eighteenth century, a number of migrations took place as far as the region to the south of
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Ba ...

Lake Tanganyika
. The Bemba people of Northern Zambia descended from Luba migrants who arrived in Zambia throughout the seventeenth century. At the same time, a Lunda chief and warrior called Mwata Kazembe set up an
Eastern LundaThe Lunda people of the Luapula River The Luapula River is a section of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) incl ...
kingdom in the valley of the
Luapula River The Luapula River is a section of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography ...
.


Collapse

The kingdom of Lunda came to an end in the nineteenth century, when it was invaded by the Chokwe, who were armed with guns. The Chokwe then established their own kingdom with their language and customs. Lunda chiefs and people continued to live in the Lunda heartland but were diminished in power. At the start of the colonial era (1884), the Lunda heartland was divided between Portuguese Angola, King
Leopold II of Belgium * german: Leopold Ludwig Philipp Maria Viktor , house = Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine, Thuringian states, Thuringian duc ...

Leopold II of Belgium
's
Congo Free State ''(Work and Progress) , national_anthem = Vers l'avenir ''Vers l'avenir'' (, "Towards the future"), less commonly known by its Dutch language, Dutch title ''Naar wijd en zijd'', is a Belgium, Belgian nationalist song which was also the ...
and the British in
North-Western Rhodesia North-Western Rhodesia, in Southern Africa, south central Africa, was a territory Company rule in Rhodesia, administered from 1891 until 1899 under charter by the British South Africa Company. In 1890 the British South Africa Company signed a trea ...
, which became Angola, DR Congo and Zambia respectively. The Lunda groups in Northern Rhodesia were led by two prominent chiefs; Ishindi and Kazembe Kazembi), with Ishindi establishing his kingdom in the North-Western of the country and Kazembe in the North-East. Of the two prominent chiefs, Ishindi was the first born of Mwanta Yamvo which Kazembe was made King as a result of reward for his loyalty to Mwanta Yamvo.


See also

* List of rulers of the Lunda Empire *
Luba Empire The Kingdom of Luba or Luba Empire (1585–1889) was a pre-colonial Central African state that arose in the marshy grasslands of the Upemba Depression The Upemba Depression (or Kamalondo Depression) is a large marshy bowl area (Depression ( ...


References

#Pogge, Im Reich des Muata Jamwo (Berl. 1880); #Buchner, Das Reich des Muata Jamwo (in "Deutsche Geographische Blätter", Brem. 1883


Sources

*


Further reading

*LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 1989f "Lunda and Chokwe Kingdoms" IN Country Study: Angola (October 2005) wwhttp://lcweb2.loc.gov *Art and Life in Africa Project, The University of Iowa School of Art and Art History: "Lunda Information." https://web.archive.org/web/20070125235118/http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/ 03 Nov. 1998. {{DEFAULTSORT:Lunda, Kingdom of Countries in precolonial Africa Political history of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 17th century in Africa History of Katanga Chieftainships