HOME

TheInfoList




The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq ( ar, المملكة العراقية الهاشمية, translit=al-Mamlakah al-ʿIrāqiyyah ʾal-Hāshimyyah) was a state located in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
from 1932 to 1958. It was founded on 23 August 1921 as the Kingdom of Iraq, following the defeat of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
in the
Mesopotamian campaign The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918. The combatants were, on one side, the Ottoman Empire (i ...
of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. Although a
League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global ...
was awarded to the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
in 1920, the
1920 Iraqi revolt The Iraqi revolt against the British, also known as the 1920 Iraqi Revolt or Great Iraqi Revolution, started in Baghdad in the summer of 1920 with mass demonstrations by Iraqi people, Iraqis, including protests by embittered officers from the ol ...
resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favour of a formally sovereign Iraqi kingdom, but one that was under effective British administration. The plan was formally established by the
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of October 1922 was an agreement signed by the government of Great Britain and the government of Iraq. The treaty was designed to allow for local self-government while giving the British control of foreign and military aff ...
. The role of the United Kingdom in the formal administration of the Kingdom of Iraq was ended in 1932, following the
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930) The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 was a treaty of alliance between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British Mandate of Mesopotamia, British-Mandate-controlled administration of the Hashemites, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq ...
. Now officially a fully independent kingdom, officially named as the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, it underwent a period of turbulence under its Hashemite rulers throughout its entire existence. Establishment of Sunni religious domination in Iraq was followed by Assyrian,
Yazidi Yazidis, also written as Yezidis (, ku, ئێزیدی, ), are an endogamous Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary tr ...
and
Shi'a Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanis ...
unrests, which were all brutally suppressed. In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, as
Bakr Sidqi Bakr Sidqi al-Askari ( ar, بكر صدقي العسكري) was an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق ...
succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the Iraqi government of the Prince-Regent,
Prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary title, hereditary, in so ...

Prince
'Abd al-Ilah
'Abd al-Ilah
, was overthrown in 1941 by the
Golden Square Golden Square, in Soho Soho is an area of the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the ...
officers, headed by
Rashid Ali Rashid Ali al-Gaylaniin Arab standard pronunciation Rashid Aali al-Kaylani; also transliterated as Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany (" Sayyad" serves to address higher standing m ...
. The short-lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq was defeated in May 1941 by the Allied forces in the
Anglo-Iraqi War The Anglo-Iraqi War was a British-led Allies of World War II, Allied military campaign during the Second World War against the Kingdom of Iraq under Rashid Ali, who had seized power in the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, with assistance from Germany ...
. Iraq was later used as a base for Allied attacks on the Vichy-French-held
Mandate of Syria The Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (french: Mandat pour la Syrie et le Liban; ar, الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان ') (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded in the aftermath of the First World War ...

Mandate of Syria
and support for the
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran or Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the joint invasion of neutral country, neutral Imperial State of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union in August 1941. The invasion, codenamed Operation Countenan ...
. At the same time, the Kurdish leader
Mustafa Barzani Mustafa Barzani ( ku, مەلا مسته‌فا بارزانی, Mistefa Barzanî) (14 March 1903 – 1 March 1979) also known as Mala Mustafa (Preacher Mustafa), was a Kurds, Kurdish leader, and one of the most prominent political figures in mode ...

Mustafa Barzani
led a
rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising, Barzani and his followers fled to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. In 1945, during the final stages of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Iraq joined the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and became a founding member of the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising, broke out across Baghdad as a popular demand against the government treaty with the British, and with support from the communists. More protests continued in the spring, but were interrupted in May, when martial law was imposed after Iraq entered the
1948 Arab–Israeli War The 1948 (or First) Arab–Israeli War was the second and final stage of the 1947–1949 Palestine war, 1947–49 Palestine war. It formally began following the end of the British Mandate for Palestine at midnight on 14 May 1948; the Israeli ...
along with other members of the Arab League. In February 1958,
King Hussein Hussein bin Talal ( ar, الحسين بن طلال, ''Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl''; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) was King of Jordan The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is Jordan's head of state A head of state (or ch ...
of
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
and Prince `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed
Egyptian–Syrian union
Egyptian–Syrian union
. The resulting
Arab Federation The Hashemite Arab Federation was a short-lived country that was formed in 1958 from the union of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُ ...

Arab Federation
, formed on 14 February 1958, was short-lived. It ended in 1958, when the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup, led by
Abd al-Karim Qasim Abd al-Karim Qasim Muhammad Bakr al-Fadhli al-Zubaidi ( ar, عبد الكريم قاسم ' ) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963) was an Iraqi Army brigadier and nationalist who ascended into power when the Kingdom of Iraq, Iraqi mon ...
.


Kingdom of Iraq under de facto British administration

The territory of
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...
was under Ottoman dominance until the end of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, becoming an
occupied territory Military or belligerent occupation, often simply occupation, is provisional control by a ruling power over a territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...
under the British military from 1918. In order to transform the region to civil rule, Mandatory
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
was proposed as a
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some f ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
, when the former territories of that
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
were divided in August 1920 by the
Treaty of Sèvres The Treaty of Sèvres (french: Traité de Sèvres) was a 1920 treaty signed between the Allies of World War I The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed wh ...
. However, the
1920 Iraqi revolt The Iraqi revolt against the British, also known as the 1920 Iraqi Revolt or Great Iraqi Revolution, started in Baghdad in the summer of 1920 with mass demonstrations by Iraqi people, Iraqis, including protests by embittered officers from the ol ...
resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan. Instead, the Kingdom of Iraq was recognised as a sovereign country under
King Faisal I of Iraq Faisal I bin Al-Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashemi ( ar, فيصل الأول بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, ''Fayṣal al-Awwal bin al-Ḥusayn bin 'Alī al-Hāshimī''; 20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933) was List of Syrian monarchs, King o ...

King Faisal I of Iraq
. Not withstanding the formal sovereignty of the Iraqi king, a treaty of alliance was concluded between the Kingdom of Iraq and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
in 1922 called the
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of October 1922 was an agreement signed by the government of Great Britain and the government of Iraq. The treaty was designed to allow for local self-government while giving the British control of foreign and military aff ...
. It provided the United Kingdom with a role in the administration and governance of Iraq. King Faisal had previously been proclaimed
King of Syria of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg"> Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen ...
by a Syrian National Congress in
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
in March 1920 but was ejected by the French in July of the same year. The British RAF retained certain military control. In this manner, Iraq remained under ''de facto'' British administration until 1932. Under King Faisal of Iraq, the civil government of postwar
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
was led by the High Commissioner,
Sir Percy Cox Sir is a formal English language, English honourific address for men, derived from ''Sire'' in the High Middle Ages. Traditionally, as governed by law and custom, Sir is used for men titled knights i.e. of order of chivalry, orders of chivalry, ...
, and his deputy,
Colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social rel ...

Colonel
Arnold Wilson Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson (18 July 1884 – 31 May 1940) was the United Kingdom, British civil commissioner in Baghdad in 1918–20. Wilson served under Percy Cox, the colonial administrator of Mesopotamia (Mandatory Iraq) during and afte ...
. British
reprisal A reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nat ...
s after the murder of a British officer in
Najaf Najaf ( ar, ٱلنَّجَف) or An-Najaf al-Ashraf ( ar, ٱلنَّجَف ٱلْأَشْرَف), also known as Baniqia ( ar, بَانِيقِيَا), is a city in central Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێر ...

Najaf
failed to restore order. British administration had yet to be established in the mountains of north Iraq. The most striking problem facing the British was the growing anger of the nationalists in the Iraqi kingdom.


History


Independence

With the signing in
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
of the
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of October 1922 was an agreement signed by the government of Great Britain and the government of Iraq. The treaty was designed to allow for local self-government while giving the British control of foreign and military aff ...
on 30 June 1930 and the settling of the
Mosul Question The Mosul Question was a territorial dispute in the early 20th century between Turkey and the United Kingdom (later Kingdom of Iraq (Mandate administration), Iraq) over the possession of the former Ottoman Mosul Vilayet. The Mosul Vilayet was par ...
, Iraqi politics took on a new dynamic. The treaty came into force on 3 October 1932, when the Kingdom of Iraq officially became fully independent as the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq. The emerging class of Sunni and Shia landowning tribal sheikhs vied for positions of power with wealthy and prestigious urban-based Sunni families and with Ottoman-trained army officers and bureaucrats. Because Iraq's newly established political institutions were the creation of a foreign power, and because the concept of democratic government had no precedent in Iraqi history, the politicians in
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
lacked legitimacy and never developed deeply rooted constituencies. Thus, despite a constitution and an elected assembly, Iraqi politics was more a shifting alliance of important personalities and cliques than a
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
in the Western sense. The absence of broadly based political institutions inhibited the early nationalist movement's ability to make deep inroads into Iraq's diverse social structure. The new Anglo-Iraqi Treaty was signed in June 1930. It provided for a "close alliance," for "full and frank consultations between the two countries in all matters of
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
," and for mutual assistance in case of war. Iraq granted the British the use of air bases near
Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Basra
and at Al Habbaniyah and the right to move troops across the country. The treaty, of twenty-five years' duration, was to come into force upon Iraq's admission to the League of Nations. This occurred on October 3, 1932. In 1932, the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq was granted full independence under
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
Faisal I Faisal I bin Al-Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashemi ( ar, فيصل الأول بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, ''Fayṣal al-Awwal bin al-Ḥusayn bin 'Alī al-Hāshimī''; 20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933) was List of Syrian monarchs, King ...

Faisal I
. However, the British retained military bases in the country. Iraq was granted official independence on 3 October 1932 in accordance with an agreement signed by the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
in June 1930, whereby the United Kingdom would end its effective mandate on the condition that the Iraqi government would allow British advisers to take part in government affairs, allow British military bases to remain, and a requirement that Iraq assist the United Kingdom in wartime. Strong political tensions existed between Iraq and the United Kingdom even upon gaining independence. After gaining independence in 1932, the Iraqi government immediately declared that
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
was rightfully a territory of Iraq. Kuwait had loosely been under the authority of the Ottoman '' vilâyet'' of Basra for centuries until the British had formally severed it from the Ottoman influence after the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. It was on this basis the Iraqi government stated that Kuwait was a British imperialist invention.


Political instability and army coups, 1933–1941

After Faisal died in September 1933,
King Ghazi
King Ghazi
reigned as a figurehead from 1933 to 1939, when he was killed in a motor accident. Pressure from
Arab nationalists The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to ...
and Iraqi nationalists demanded that the British leave Iraq, but their demands were ignored by the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. Upon achieving official independence in October 1932, political tensions arose over the continued British presence in the new Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, with Iraq's government and politicians split between those considered pro-British politicians, such as
Nuri as-Said Nuri Pasha al-Said (December 1888 – 15 July 1958) ( ar, نوري السعيد) was an Iraqi politician during the Mandatory Iraq, British mandate in Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq. He held various key cabinet positions and served fourt ...
, who did not oppose a continued British presence, and anti-British politicians, such as
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani Rashid Ali al-Gaylaniin Arab standard pronunciation Rashid Aali al-Kaylani; also transliterated as Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany ("Sayyid, Sayyad" serves to address higher st ...

Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
, who demanded that remaining British influence in the country be removed.Ghareeb; Dougherty. p. lvii Various ethnic and religious factions tried to gain political accomplishments during this period, often resulting in violent revolts and a brutal suppression by the Iraqi military, led by
Bakr Sidqi Bakr Sidqi al-Askari ( ar, بكر صدقي العسكري) was an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق ...
. In 1933, thousands of Assyrians were killed in
Simele massacre The Simele massacre, also known as the "Assyrian affair", was committed by the Kingdom of Iraq led by Bakr Sidqi during a campaign systematically targeting the Assyrian people, Assyrians around Simele in August 1933. An estimated 600 to 3,000 Assyr ...
, in 1935–1936 a series of Shi'a uprisings were brutally suppressed in mid-Euphrates region of Iraq, and in parallel an anti-conscription Kurdish uprising in the north and a Yazidi revolt in Jabal Sinjar were crushed in 1935. Throughout the period political instability led to an exchange of numerous governments. Bakr Sidqi himself ascended to power in 1936, following a successful
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
against prime minister
Yasin al-Hashimi Yasin al-Hashimi, born Yasin Hilmi Salman ( ar, ياسين الهاشمي‎; 1884–21 January 1937), was an Iraqi politician who twice served as the Prime Minister of Iraq, prime minister. Like many of Iraq's early leaders, al-Hashimi serve ...

Yasin al-Hashimi
but was later assassinated in 1937 during a visit to Mosul, followed by the death of King
Ghazi
Ghazi
in a car crash in 1939 suspected to have been planned by the British, causing a regency under Prince
'Abd al-Ilah
'Abd al-Ilah
over the 4 year old king
Faisal II of Iraq Faisal II ( ar, الملك فيصل الثاني ''Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī'') (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last List of Kings of Iraq, King of Kingdom of Iraq, Iraq. He reigned from 4 April 1939 until July 1958, when he was killed ...

Faisal II of Iraq
lasting until 1953. From 1917 to 1946, five coups by the
Iraqi Army The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East i ...
occurred, led by the chief officers of the army against the government to pressure the government to concede to army demands.


Anglo-Iraqi War and second British occupation

The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état overthrew the pro-British Prime minister
Taha al-Hashimi Taha al-Hashimi (Arabic: طه الهاشمي ;1961–1888) served briefly as List of Prime Ministers of Iraq, prime minister of Iraq for two months, from February 1, 1941, to April 1, 1941. He was appointed prime minister by the regent, 'Abd al-I ...

Taha al-Hashimi
and placed
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani Rashid Ali al-Gaylaniin Arab standard pronunciation Rashid Aali al-Kaylani; also transliterated as Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany ("Sayyid, Sayyad" serves to address higher st ...

Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
as prime minister of a pro-Nazi government called "the National defense government", the Regent fled the royal palace after learning of this and with British support went to
Habbaniyah Al Habbaniyah or Habbaniya ( ar, ٱلْحَبَّانِيَّة, ''al-Ḥabbānīyah'') is a city 85 km (53 mi) west of Baghdad in Al-Anbar Province, in central Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, trans ...
then to
Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Basra
, he would spend the rest of the following months in
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
and the
Mandate of Palestine The Mandate for Palestine was a League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I World War I or the First Wo ...
, His fleeing caused a constitutional crisis upon the new government. Rashid Ali did not abolish the monarchy, but installed ٍSharif Sharaf bin Rajih as a more compliant Regent instead, and attempted to restrict the rights of the British under the treaty from 1930. Rashid Ali's attempted to secure control over Iraq asking assistance of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan. On April 20 the Iraqi Army established itself on the high ground to the south of the Habbaniyah air force base. An Iraqi envoy was sent to demand that no movements, either ground or air, were to take place from the base. The British refused the demand and then themselves demanded that the Iraqi army leave the area at once. After a further ultimatum given in the early hours of May 2 expired, at 0500 hours the British began bombing the Iraqi troops threatening the base, marking the beginning of the
Anglo-Iraqi War The Anglo-Iraqi War was a British-led Allies of World War II, Allied military campaign during the Second World War against the Kingdom of Iraq under Rashid Ali, who had seized power in the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, with assistance from Germany ...
. Hostilities lasted from May 2 to May 31, 1941, between Iraqis and the British and their indigenous
Assyrian Levies The Iraq Levies (also known as the Assyrian Levies as they would eventually become dominated by ethnic Assyrian people, Assyrians) was the first Iraqi military force established by the British in British controlled Iraq. The Iraq Levies originate ...
. The British would continue to occupy Iraq for many years afterwards. In the aftermath of the Iraqi defeat, a bloody
Farhud ''Farhud'' ( ar, الفرهود) was the pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, c ...
massacre broke out in Baghdad on June 2, initiated by the
Futuwwa Futuwwa (Arabic: فتوة, "young-manliness" or "chivalry") was a conception of moral behavior around which myriad institutions of Medieval confraternity developed. With characteristics similar to chivalry and virtue, these communal associations of ...
youth and
Rashid Ali Rashid Ali al-Gaylaniin Arab standard pronunciation Rashid Aali al-Kaylani; also transliterated as Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany (" Sayyad" serves to address higher standing m ...
's supporters, resulting in deaths of some 180 Jews and heavy damage to the
Jewish community Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', " Judah", via Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
.


Following the end of the 1941 coup

After the Anglo-Iraqi War ended, Abd al-ilah returned as Regent with as Prime minister and dominated the politics of Iraq until the overthrow of the monarchy and the royal family's assassination in 1958. the Government pursued a largely pro- during this period. al-Midfaai's government declared martial law in Baghdad and its surroundings, started a purge in government of Pro-Gaylani elements, banned the listening of axis-aligned radio, and various other procedures aimed at keeping security and order in the country. Despite all these security procedures, this did not satisfy the British who demanded the disbanding of the Iraqi army and arresting any who supported, joined, or was sympathetic to the 1941 coup. Midfaai's government was split over the usage of force to cleanse the country of Pro-Gaylani elements, and some ministers were not amused of having to ally with Britain, neither did the Prime minister Himself entertain the idea of creating so many arrests. This policy outraged both the British and the regent, who saw his policy of empathy as indirectly supporting opposition and radical movements. The minister of Finance, Ibrahim Kamal al-Ghuthunfiri r was at the top of the politicians who wanted a change to al-Midfaai's policy, and believed in the usage of harsher measures to keep security in the country, he submitted his resignation on 2 September 1941. The resignation of Ibrahim Kamal weakened Midfaai's government, and the retired minister began calling for some politician to prepare the formation of a new government, and paved the way for
Nuri al-Said Nuri Pasha al-Said (December 1888 – 15 July 1958) ( ar, نوري السعيد) was an Iraqi politician during the Mandatory Iraq, British mandate in Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq. He held various key cabinet positions and served four ...

Nuri al-Said
to become the head of a new government. Jameel al-Midfaai's government retired and Abd al-Ilah ordered Nuri to form a new government in 9 October. In 1943, the Kurdish leader
Mustafa Barzani Mustafa Barzani ( ku, مەلا مسته‌فا بارزانی, Mistefa Barzanî) (14 March 1903 – 1 March 1979) also known as Mala Mustafa (Preacher Mustafa), was a Kurds, Kurdish leader, and one of the most prominent political figures in mode ...

Mustafa Barzani
led a
rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
.


The end of the British occupation until the end of the monarchy

In 1945, during the final stages of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Iraq joined the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and became a founding member of the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
. The period following the end of the occupation was a time of the creation of various political parties opposed to or supportive of the government including the National Democratic Party led by Kamil Chadirji, the Constitutional Union Party led by Nuri Al-Said, and the Iraqi Independence Party led by Muhammad Mahdi Kubba being some of the most important. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising, broke out across Baghdad as a popular demand against the government treaty with the British, and with communist party support. More protests continued in spring, but were interrupted in May, with the martial law, when Iraq entered the
1948 Arab–Israeli War The 1948 (or First) Arab–Israeli War was the second and final stage of the 1947–1949 Palestine war, 1947–49 Palestine war. It formally began following the end of the British Mandate for Palestine at midnight on 14 May 1948; the Israeli ...
along with other members of the Arab League. Various other protests against the Pro-western leanings of the government appeared, including the Iraqi Intifada (1952), 1952 Iraqi Intifada which ended just before the 1953 Iraqi parliamentary election. King Faisal II of Iraq, Faisal II finally reached his majority on 2 May 1953, ending the regency of Abd al-Ilah, but Abd al-Ilah continued to be influential in politics due to his influence on the young king. In 1955, to counter the influence of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
on the middle east, Pahlavi dynasty, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
signed the Baghdad Pact, with the United States being heavily involved in the negotiations to form it, the pact caused major protest and opposition as many did not approve of the idea of being in an alliance led by the west. In September 1956, a planned coup was discussed during spring training by a military faction known as the free officers (inspired by the Free Officers Movement (Egypt), Egyptian Free Officers Movement) which planned to launch the coup after training by controlling strategic sites in the Baghdad and arresting the Regent and King, the coup failed however, as the training was suddenly stopped. In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed . The resulting
Arab Federation The Hashemite Arab Federation was a short-lived country that was formed in 1958 from the union of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُ ...

Arab Federation
was formed on 14 February 1958.


14 July Revolution and the end of the monarchy

The Hashemite monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown through a coup d'état by the
Iraqi Army The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East i ...
, known as the 14 July Revolution. Faisal II of Iraq, King Faisal II along with members of the Royal Family were executed in the courtyard of the Rihab Palace in central Baghdad (the young King had not yet moved into the newly completed Republican Palace, Royal Palace). The coup brought
Abd al-Karim Qasim Abd al-Karim Qasim Muhammad Bakr al-Fadhli al-Zubaidi ( ar, عبد الكريم قاسم ' ) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963) was an Iraqi Army brigadier and nationalist who ascended into power when the Kingdom of Iraq, Iraqi mon ...
to power. He withdrew from the Baghdad Pact and established friendly relations with the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. The task of the subsequent governments was to find that third alternative, mainly to establish a modern state that is stable but also politically integrated.


Demographics

The population estimate in 1920 was 3 million, with the largest ethnic groups being Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, and Turkmens, with minorities of Ajam of Iraq, Persians, Yezidis, Jews, Mandaeans, Shabaks, Armenians, and Kawliyah. During the Iraqi Hashemite rule, Arab population began to expand at the expense of other ethnic groups both due to higher birth rates and government policies which preferred Arab Sunni minority over other ethnic and religious groups. In 1955, Iraqi population reached 6.5 million people. This was after the Iraqi Kingdom Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, lost the most of its Jewish population following Operation Ezra and Nehemiah (some 130 thousand people) in 1951–1952.


See also

*List of Kings of Iraq *Iraq, Republic of Iraq *History of Iraq *San Remo conference, the conference among victorious Allied powers that partitioned the Ottoman Empire and led to the Kingdom of Iraq


References


External links


Constitution of the Kingdom of Iraq
{{DEFAULTSORT:Iraq, Kingdom of Kingdom of Iraq, States and territories established in 1932 Former countries in the Middle East Former kingdoms Former monarchies 20th century in Iraq Former monarchies of Asia Axis powers 1932 establishments in Iraq Former polities of the Cold War