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The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
, with the restoration of
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
to his Hanoverian territories after the
Napoleonic era The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistor ...
. It succeeded the former
Electorate of Hanover The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Prince-elector, Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany and taking its name from the capital city of Hanover. It was fo ...
(known formally as the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg), and joined 38 other sovereign states in the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the
House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus von Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ...
, a cadet branch of the
House of Welf The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is ...
, in
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
with the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some f ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
since 1714. Since its monarch resided in London, a
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

viceroy
, usually a younger member of the
British Royal Family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British royal family. Many members support the Queen in undertaking public engag ...
, handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover. The personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 upon the accession of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
because semi-Salic law prevented females from inheriting the Hanoverian throne while a dynastic male was still alive. Her uncle Ernest Augustus thus became the ruler of Hanover. His only son succeed him to the throne as
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother ...
, however as he backed the losing side in the Austro-Prussian War, his kingdom was conquered by Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia in 1866 and ceased to exist as an independent kingdom, becoming a Province of Hanover, Prussian province. Along with the rest of Prussia, Hanover became part of the German Empire upon the unification of Germany in January 1871. Briefly revived as the State of Hanover in 1946, the state was later merged with some smaller states to form the current state of Lower Saxony in then West Germany.


History

The territory of Hanover had earlier been a principality within the Holy Roman Empire before being elevated into an Electorate of Hanover, electorate in 1708, when Hanover was formed by union of the dynastic divisions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, excepting the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After his accession in 1714, George Louis of the House of Hanover ascended the throne of Great Britain as George I of the United Kingdom, George I, and Hanover was joined in a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
with Great Britain. In 1803, Hanover was conquered by the French and Prussian armies in the Napoleonic Wars. The Treaties of Tilsit in 1807 joined it to territories from Prussia and created the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Napoleon I, Napoleon's youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte. French control lasted until October 1813 when the territory was overrun by Russian Cossacks. The Battle of Leipzig shortly thereafter spelled the definitive end of the Napoleonic client states, and the electorate was restored to the
House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus von Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ...
. The terms of the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
in 1814 not only restored Hanover, but elevated it to an independent kingdom with its Prince-Elector, George III of the United Kingdom, George III of Great Britain, as King of Hanover. The new kingdom was also greatly expanded, becoming the fourth-largest state in the German Confederation (behind Prussia, Austrian Empire, Austria and Kingdom of Bavaria, Bavaria) and the second-largest in north Germany. George III never visited the Kingdom during his 60-year reign. Having succumbed to dementia prior to the elevation of Hanover, it is unlikely he ever understood that he had gained an additional kingship nor did he take any role in its governance. Functional administration of Hanover was usually handled by a
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

viceroy
, which during the British Regency, later years of George III's reign and the reigns of kings George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV and William IV of the United Kingdom, William IV from 1816 to 1837, was Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, Adolph Frederick, George III's youngest surviving son. When
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
succeeded to the British throne in 1837, the 123-year personal union of Great Britain and Hanover ended. Unlike in Britain, Semi-Salic law operated in Hanover, which excluded the accession to the throne by a female while any male of the dynasty survived. Ernest Augustus, now the eldest surviving son of George III, succeeded to the throne as King of Hanover; Adolph Frederick the younger brother, and long-time Viceroy, returned to Britain. Ernest Augustus had a personally strained relationship with his niece Queen Victoria, they frequently squabbled over family affairs. Domestically, his reign began with a constitutional crisis as he tried to suspend parliament and nullify the written Constitution of 1819. He also presided over the country during the turbulent Revolutions of 1848. His son,
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother ...
, assumed the throne in 1851. During the Austro-Prussian War (1866), Hanover attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
. Hanover's vote in favor of the mobilisation of Confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June 1866 prompted Prussia to declare war. The outcome of the war led to the dissolution of Hanover as an independent kingdom and it was annexation, annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, becoming the Prussian Province of Hanover. Along with the rest of Prussia, it became part of the German Empire in 1871. After George V fled Hanover in 1866, he raised forces loyal to him in the Netherlands, called the Guelphic Legion. They were eventually disbanded in 1870. Nevertheless, George refused to accept the Prussian takeover of his realm and claimed he was still the legitimate king of Hanover. His only son, Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, inherited this claim upon George's death in 1878. Ernest Augustus was also first in line to the throne of the Duchy of Brunswick, whose rulers had been a junior branch of the House of Hanover. In 1884, that branch became extinct with the death of William, Duke of Brunswick, William, a distant cousin of Ernest Augustus. However, since Ernest Augustus refused to renounce his claim to annexed Hanover, the Bundesrat (German Empire), Bundesrat of the German Empire ruled that he would disturb the peace of the empire if he ascended the throne of Brunswick. As a result, Brunswick was ruled by a regency until 1913, when his son, also named Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, Ernest Augustus, married the German Emperor's daughter, Viktoria Luise of Prussia, Princess Viktoria Luise and swore allegiance to the German Empire. The Duke then renounced his claim to Brunswick in favor of his son, and the Bundesrat allowed the younger Ernest Augustus to take possession of Brunswick as a kind of dowry compensation for Hanover. The German-Hanoverian Party, which at times supported secession from the Reich, demanded a separate status for the province in the Reichstag. The party existed until banned by the Nazi Party, Nazi government.


Revival and modern history

With Prussia on the verge of official dissolution (1947), in 1946 Hanoverian politicians took advantage of the opportunity and advocated that the (CCG/BE) revive Hanoverian statehood, reconstituting the Prussian Province of Hanover as the State of Hanover. The state saw itself in the tradition of the kingdom. Its Prime Minister, Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf, played a central role when the state of Lower Saxony was founded just a few months later by merging Hanover with several smaller states, with the city of Hanover as its capital. The former territory of Hanover makes up 85 percent of Lower Saxony's territory, and the coat of arms is derived from it.


Reorganisation of religious bodies

The Lutheranism, Lutheran church was the state church of the Kingdom of Hanover with the King being (Supreme Governor of the Lutheran Church). Regional Consistory (Protestantism), consistories supervised church and clergy. These were in Aurich, a simultaneously Lutheran and Calvinism, Calvinist consistory dominated by Lutherans (for East Frisia) and the Lutheran consistories in Hanover (for the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg proper), in Ilfeld (for the , a Hanoverian exclave in the Eastern Harz mountains), in Osnabrück (for the former Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück), in Otterndorf (existed 1535–1885 for the Land of Hadeln) as well as in Stade (existed 1650–1903, until 1885 for the former Bremen-Verden proper without Hadeln, then including the complete Stade (region), Stade region). A superintendent (ecclesiastical), general superintendent chaired each consistory. In 1848, the Lutheran parishes were democratised by the introduction of presbytery (church polity), presbyteries (german: Kirchenvorstände, singular ; literally: ''church boards''), elected by all major male parishioners and chairing each congregation in co-operation with the pastor, being before the sole chairman. This introduction of presbyteries was somewhat revolutionary in the rather hierarchically structured Lutheran church. In 1864, :de:Carl Lichtenberg, Carl Lichtenberg, Hanoverian minister of education, cultural and religious affairs (1862–65), persuaded the ''Ständeversammlung'' (lit. ''Estates Assembly'', the Hanoverian parliament) to pass a new law as to the constitution of the Lutheran church. The constitution provided a state synod (parishioners' parliament, german: Landessynode). But its first session only materialised in 1869 when, after the 1866 Kingdom of Prussia, Prussian annexation of the Kingdom of Hanover, the Hanoverian Lutherans desired a representative body separate from Prussian rule, though it was restricted to Lutheran matters only. After the Prussian conquest in 1866, on 19 September 1866, the day before the official Prussian annexation took place and with the last , King George V of Hanover, in exile, the Kingdom's six consistories joined to form today's still-existing church body, the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Hanover, Lutheran State Church of Hanover. An all-Hanoverian consistory, the (state consistory), was formed with representatives from the regional consistories. While the Calvinism, Calvinist congregations in formerly-Prussian East Frisia had a common roof organisation with the Lutherans there ("Coetus") and the Reformed churches, Reformed Church in the former County of Bentheim, then being the state church, had fully established church bodies for Bentheim only (german: Königlich-Großbrittanisch-Hannoverscher Ober-Kirchenrath, en, Royal British-Hanoverian Supreme Church Council), the Calvinist congregations elsewhere in Hanover were in a somewhat sorry state. Though some Calvinist congregations of Huguenot origin were organised in the ''Lower Saxon Confederation'' (german: Niedersächsische Konföderation). The Lutheran church being the state church of Hanover also supervised the Calvinist diaspora parishes outside East Frisia and Bentheim. In 1848 the new Hanoverian law also provided for presbyteries in these Calvinist parishes, which exactly fit the presbyterian structure of Calvinism. Catholics formed an overall minority in Hanover, but regionally majorities in the former prince-bishoprics. By the annexations in 1803 and 1814 Hanover had become a state of three Christian denominations. In 1824 Hanover and the Holy See thus agreed to integrate diaspora parishes which were located in prevailingly Protestant areas, until then supervised by the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Northern Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of the Nordic Missions, into the existing dioceses of the former prince-bishoprics, whose diocesan territories were thus extended into the diaspora areas. Jews lived all over Hanover in Jewish diaspora, diaspora. Until 1806, they were not allowed to reside in some areas. By the Kingdom of Westphalia, Westphalian and First French Empire, French annexations in 1807 and 1810 all-male inhabitants in later restituted Hanover became Westphalian or French citizens of equal rights, though on 17 March 1808 Napoleon I, Napoléon Bonaparte restricted the rights of Jews in the French-annexed territory by his so-called . The Jewish congregations became subject to French regional Consistory (Judaism), Jewish consistories or the , respectively. When Hanover resumed independence and sovereignty in 1813 its government deprived the Jews their legal equality. Arguing it was the French or Westphalian state and not Hanover, which had Jewish emancipation, emancipated the Jews, the government took the decisions of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
on the rights of the Jews, in Johann Smidt's manipulated formulation, as the legal grounds. In 1842, Hanover finally granted equal rights to Jews and promoted to build up Jewish congregations, where this did not already happen earlier, and a superstructure of four regional Landesrabbiner, land-rabbinates. These were the Emden Land-Rabbinate (Aurich and Osnabrück regions), the (Hanover (region), Hanover and Lüneburg (region), Lüneburg regions), the Hildesheim Land-Rabbinate (Hildesheim region and ), and the (Stade (region), Stade region). In many diaspora areas Jews regarded this a progress and a burden alike, because of the implied financial burden for rabbis and religion teacher, synagogues or cheder, schools. The local authorities now requested that the Jewish congregations establish synagogues and Jewish education for the pupils. The rabbi#The role of the rabbi in the last 200 years, land-rabbins, chairing the land-rabbinates, simultaneously fulfilled religious and state functions, like supervising Jewish elementary schools and the teaching of Jewish religion in all schools. The Kingdom of Hanover was thus one of the few states within the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
, where rabbins held a similar semi-state authoritative position as to Jews as did, e.g., Lutheran clergy towards Lutherans.


Kings

In 1813,
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
was restored to his Hanoverian territories, and in October 1814 they were constituted as the independent Kingdom of Hanover at the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
. The
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom ended in 1837 on the accession of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
because the succession laws in Hanover, based on Salic law, prevented a female inheriting the title if there was any surviving male heir (in the United Kingdom, a male took precedence only over his own sisters). In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Hanover was annexed by Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia and became the Province of Hanover. } ,
,
,
,
Previously Prince Elector of Hanover from 1760 to 1806.
,
George III was mentally incapacitated during these years, and his constitutional powers were exercised by his eldest son, George Augustus Frederick (the future George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV), as Regency era, Regent. In Hanover, his youngest son, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, officiated as Viceroy from 1816.
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Son of George III.
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Prince Regent 1811–1820, represented in Hanover by his brother, the Duke of Cambridge, as Viceroy
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Son of George III Younger brother of George IV.
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Last monarch to rule both Hanover and the United Kingdom, represented in Hanover by his brother, the Duke of Cambridge, as Viceroy
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Son of George III Younger brother of George IV and William IV.
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The accession of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
separated the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and the latter passed to her uncle.
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Son of Ernest Augustus.
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Hanover was Annexation, annexed by Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War.


Pretenders

*
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother ...
(20 September 1866 – 12 June 1878) * Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, Ernest Augustus (12 June 1878 – 14 November 1923) * Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, Ernest Augustus (14 November 1923 – 30 January 1953) * Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus (30 January 1953 – 9 December 1987) * Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), Ernest Augustus (9 December 1987 – present)


Territory and administrative subdivisions

The Congress of Vienna instituted a territorial adjustment between Hanover and Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia to form more contiguous borders. Hanover increased its area substantially, gaining the Bishopric of Hildesheim, Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim, East Frisia, the Lower County of Lingen and the northern part of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. Hanover also annexed territories that had previously been ruled in personal union by its Elector, such as the Duchies of Bremen-Verden and the County of Bentheim. It lost those parts of Saxe-Lauenburg to the northeast of the Elbe, which was assigned in personal union to Denmark, except the Amt Neuhaus. Further small exclaves in the east were lost. Hanover thus comprised a number of territories, which had been Imperial Estates within the Holy Roman Empire. Their respective governments, now called provincial governments, were organised according to partially very old traditions, including different levels of estates of the realm, estate participation in rule. In 1823, the kingdom was reorganised into ''high-bailiwicks'' (german: Landdrosteien, singular: ), each led by a ''high-bailiff'' (german: Landdrost#In 19th century Hanover, Landdrost) according to unitary standards, thus doing away with the inherited provincial peculiarities. The high-bailiwicks were subdivided into bailiwicks (german: Ämter, singular ), presided by a bailiff (''Amtmann'', plural ''Amtleute''). The high-bailiwicks, named after their capitals, were the following: * Aurich (region), Aurich, comprising former East Frisia * Hanover (region), Hanover, comprising about the former Principality of Calenberg in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg * Hildesheim (region), Hildesheim, comprising the former Brunswick-Lüneburg Principality of Grubenhagen and the former Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim * Lüneburg (region), Lüneburg, comprising the former Brunswick-Lüneburg Principality of Lüneburg and the remainder of Saxe-Lauenburg areas * Osnabrück (region), Osnabrück, comprising the former County of Bentheim, the former Lower County of Lingen, and the former Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück * Stade (region), Stade, comprising the former Duchies of Bremen-Verden The Hanoverian subdivisions into high-bailiwicks and bailiwicks remained unchanged until 1 April 1885, when they were replaced by Prussian-style provinces () and districts (''Districts of Prussia, Kreise'').


Image gallery

File:Leineschloss Leine.jpg, The Leineschloss, Leine Palace File:Unbekannt, Maison de Plaisir d'Herrenhausen, c1708..jpg, Herrenhausen Castle and Gardens File:Das Schloss in Celle.jpg, Celle Castle File:Panoramaaufnahme Schloss Marienburg cropped.jpg, Marienburg Castle (Hanover), Marienburg Castle, present seat of the Princes of Hanover


Army

The Kingdom of Hanover maintained an army after the Napoleonic Wars. In 1832, King William IV of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom issued his troops with British Army uniforms, but they differed slightly from their original British versions. When the personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 and Ernst August ascended to the crown of Hanover, he replaced their uniforms with Prussian Army-style ones, which included the pickelhaube spiked helmet for his Guard Corps. By 1866 they wore a more Austrian style of uniform, with only the guard corps keeping the Prussian one. During the Austro-Prussian War, the Hanoverian Army fought and defeated the Prussians during its march south towards Austria, at the Battle of Langensalza (1866), Battle of Langensalza. However it was later surrounded and forced to surrender to Prussia.König, Lutz (1999)
Kingdom of Hanover - German Civil War 1866
Retrieved 3 April 2017.


Standard, ensign and coat of arms

After the
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Great Britain ended in 1837 with the accession of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, Hanover kept the Coat of arms of the United Kingdom, British royal arms and Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, standard, only introducing a new Crown (after the British model). The centre of this coat of arms and royal standard included the original arms of Hanover, which consisted of the two lions of the Duchy of Brunswick, Brunswick, the rampant lion with hearts of Lüneburg and the horse of Hanover itself, surmounted by the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire for the Holy Roman office of Archbannerbearer/Archtreasurer). As Hanover no longer was ruled by the British monarchs, the arms of Hanover was simultaneously removed from the British coat of arms and royal standard, so it was no longer identical with that of the Kingdom of Hanover. File:Royal Standard of the United Kingdom (1816–1837).svg, Royal standard of Hanover, 1816–1837 File:Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg, Coat of arms of Hanover, 1837 File:Civil Ensign of Hannover (1801-1866).svg, Civil ensign of Hanover File:Flag of Hanover (1692).svg, Royal standard of Hanover after 1837


See also

* Guelphic Legion * King's German Legion * Kleindeutsche Lösung * State of Hanover


Notes

{{DEFAULTSORT:Hanover, Kingdom of Kingdom of Hanover, 1814 establishments in Europe 1866 disestablishments in Europe States and territories established in 1814