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The Kingdom of England was a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
on the island of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world. The isl ...

Great Britain
from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England. They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the North Sea coastlands of mainland Europe. However, the ethnogenesis ...
kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with
Scotland Scotland ( sco|Scotland, gd|Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) border with England to the southeast and is otherwis ...
to form the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a so ...
. The Kingdom of England was among the most powerful states in
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...
during the medieval period. On 12 July 927, the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by
Æthelstan Æthelstan or Athelstan (; ang|Æðelstān ; on|Aðalsteinn; meaning "noble stone"; 894 – 27 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939 when he died. He was the son of King Edward the E ...
(r. 927–939) to form the Kingdom of England. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the
North Sea Empire North Sea Empire and Anglo-Scandinavian Empire are terms used by historians to refer to the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark and Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042 towards the end of the Viking Age. This ephemeral ...
of
Cnut the Great Cnut the Great (; ang|Cnut cyning; non|Knútr inn ríki; or , no|Knut den mektige, sv|Knut den Store. died 12 November 1035), also known as Canute, was King of Denmark, England and Norway, often referred to together as the North Sea Empire du ...
, a personal union between
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continent ...
,
Denmark Denmark ( da|Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da|Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. Denmark proper, which is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, consists o ...
and
Norway Norway ( nb| ; nn| ; se|Norga; smj|Vuodna; sma|Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. T ...
. The
Norman conquest of England The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of Normans, Bretons, Flemish, and men from other French provinces, all led by the Duke of Normandy later styled William the Conq ...
in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city in Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, at the western end of the South Downs National Park, on the River Itchen. It is south-west of London an ...
to
Westminster Westminster is a district in central London, part of the wider City of Westminster. The area, which extends from the River Thames to Oxford Street has many visitor attractions and historic landmarks, including the Palace of Westminster, Buckin ...

Westminster
, and the
City of London The City of London is a city, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1s ...
quickly established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the
Norman conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of Normans, Bretons, Flemish, and men from other French provinces, all led by the Duke of Normandy later styled William the Conq ...
of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties:
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans, a people partly descended from Norse Vikings who settled in the territory of Normandy in France in the 10th and 11th centuries ** People or things connected with the Norma ...
1066–1154,
Plantagenet The House of Plantagenet () was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses: the Angevins, who were also counts of Anjou; the main b ...
1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and
Stuart Stuart may refer to: Names *Stuart (name), a given name and surname (and list of people with the name) Automobile *Stuart (automobile) Places Australia Generally *Stuart Highway, connecting South Australia and the Northern Territory Northern T ...
1603–1707 (interrupted by the
Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin ''i ...
of 1649–1660). Dynastically, all
English monarchs This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons from abou ...
after 1066 ultimately claim descent from the Normans; the distinction of the
Plantagenets The House of Plantagenet () was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses: the Angevins, who were also counts of Anjou; the main b ...
is merely conventional, beginning with
Henry II
Henry II
(reigned 1154–1189) as from that time, the
Angevin kings
Angevin kings
became "more English in nature"; the houses of
Lancaster
Lancaster
and
York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss, in England. At the 2011 census, the borough population was 198,051 and the population of the city was 153,717. The city has long-standing buildin ...

York
are both Plantagenet cadet branches, the
Tudor dynasty The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of ...

Tudor dynasty
claimed descent from
Edward III Edward III (13 November 131221 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal aut ...

Edward III
via
John Beaufort
John Beaufort
and
James VI and I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his ...

James VI and I
of the
House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain. The family name comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family scion Walter fitz Alan (c. 11 ...

House of Stuart
claimed descent from
Henry VII
Henry VII
via
Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen consort of Scotland from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and then, after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotla ...

Margaret Tudor
. Following the conquest of England, the Normans gradually sought to extend their conquests both to the remainder of the British Isles and additional lands on the Continent, particularly in modern-day France. Over time, this would evolve into a long-standing policy of expansionism pursued intermittently with steadily increasing levels of aggression by successive English dynasties. Beginning in the 12th century, the Normans began making serious incursions into Ireland. The completion of the
conquest of Wales by Edward I The conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales,Examples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his ''Histor ...

conquest of Wales by Edward I
in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown, although Edward's attempts to completely subjugate Ireland met with very limited success while the initial success of his conquest of Scotland was undone by English military defeat under his son, Edward II. Edward III (reigned 1327–1377) transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe; his reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the
English parliament The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 14th century until 1707, when it united with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of Eng ...

English parliament
. From the 1340s the kings of England also
laid claim
laid claim
to the crown of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no|République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...

France
, but after the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts in Western Europe from 1337 to 1453, waged between the House of Plantagenet and its cadet House of Lancaster, rulers of the Kingdom of England, and the House of Valois over the right to rul ...

Hundred Years' War
the English lost all their land on the continent, except for
Calais Calais ( , , traditionally , ; pcd|Calés; vls|Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the de ...

Calais
. The subsequent outbreak of the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...

Wars of the Roses
in 1455 would ensure the English were never again in a position to seriously pursue their French claims. After the turmoil of the Wars of the Roses, the
Tudor dynasty The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of ...

Tudor dynasty
ruled during the
English Renaissance The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late 14th cen ...

English Renaissance
and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, in particular achieving the full union of England and the
Principality of Wales The Principality of Wales ( cy|Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277. For most of its history it was ’annexed and united’ to the English Crown excep ...

Principality of Wales
in 1542
in 1542
. The Tudors also secured English control of Ireland, although it would continue to be ruled as a
separate kingdom
separate kingdom
in
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, s ...

personal union
with England for centuries.
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disag ...

Henry VIII
triggered the
English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England when the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformatio ...

English Reformation
by breaking communion between the
Church of England#REDIRECT Church of England#REDIRECT Church of England {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Church of England
and the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...

Roman Catholic Church
, although the doctrinal aspects of the Reformation which established the English Church as being recognizably Protestant would not be pursued in earnest until the brief reign of his young son
Edward VI Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was the King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death in 1553. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, and England's fi ...

Edward VI
. Following a return to Catholicism under the similarly brief reign of Henry's eldest daughter
Mary I Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents, was Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death in 1558. She is best known for her vigorous attemp ...

Mary I
, Mary's half-sister
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Sometimes called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the Hou ...

Elizabeth I
(reigned 1558–1603) re-established Protestantism under the terms of the
Elizabethan Religious Settlement The Elizabethan Religious Settlement is the name given to the religious and political arrangements made for England during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) that brought the English Reformation to a conclusion. The Settlement shaped the th ...

Elizabethan Religious Settlement
, meanwhile establishing England as a
great power#REDIRECT Great power#REDIRECT Great power {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

great power and laying the foundations of the
British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

British Empire by claiming possessions in the
New World The "New World" is a eurocultural term applied to the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, ...

New World
. While Henry also pursued an aggressive foreign policy north of the border in an attempt to subjugate Scotland, Elizabeth adopted a much more conciliatory position especially in light of developments such as Scotland's own Reformation and the eventual certainty that the Scottish monarch would succeed Elizabeth. From the accession of
James VI and I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his ...

James VI and I
in 1603, the
Stuart dynasty The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain. The family name comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family scion Walter fitz Alan (c. 11 ...

Stuart dynasty
ruled England and Ireland in
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, s ...

personal union
with
Scotland Scotland ( sco|Scotland, gd|Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) border with England to the southeast and is otherwis ...

Scotland
. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or t ...

civil war
, which culminated in the
execution of Charles I The execution of Charles I by beheading occurred on Tuesday 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall. The execution was the culmination of political and military conflicts between the royalists and the parliamentarians in England d ...

execution of Charles I
in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament. This concept became legally established as part of the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga|An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd|Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy|Chwyldro Gogoneddus), is also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch. It refers to the deposition of James ...

Glorious Revolution
of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor states the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a so ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
, have functioned in effect as a
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchies differ from absolute monarchies (in which a monarch holds absolute ...

constitutional monarchy
.The
Constitution of the United Kingdom The Constitution of the United Kingdom or British constitution comprises the written and unwritten arrangements that establish the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as a political body. Unlike in most countries, such as the US ...

Constitution of the United Kingdom
, with the reservation that it is "
uncodified
uncodified
", is taken to be based in the
Bill of Rights 1689 The Bill of Rights 1689, also known as the Bill of Rights 1688, is a landmark Act in the constitutional law of England that sets out certain basic civil rights and clarifies who would be next to inherit the Crown. It received the Royal Assent on ...

Bill of Rights 1689
.
On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the
Acts of Union 1707 The Acts of Union ( gd|Achd an Aonaidh) were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the ter ...

Acts of Union 1707
, the kingdoms of England and Scotland
united United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania, an unincorporated community * United, West Virginia, an unincorporated community Arts and entertainment Films * ''United'' (2003 film), a Norwegian film * ''United'' (2011 film), a BBC Two film ...

united
to form the aforementioned Kingdom of Great Britain.


Name

The Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the ''Engle'' or the ''Angelcynn'', originally names of the
Angles The Angles ( ang|Ængle, ; la|Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several kingdoms of the Heptarchy in Anglo-Saxon England, and their name is the ro ...

Angles
. They called their land ''Engla land'', meaning "land of the English", by
Æthelweard
Æthelweard
Latinized ''Anglia'', from an original ''[[Angeln|Anglia vetus'', the purported homeland of the Angles (called ''Angulus'' by [[Bede). The name ''Engla land'' became ''England'' by [[haplology during the [[Middle English period (''Engle-land'', ''Engelond''). The [[Middle Latin|Latin name was ''Anglia'' or ''Anglorum terra'', the [[Old French and [[Anglo-Norman language|Anglo-Norman one ''Engleterre''. By the 14th century, ''England'' was also used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from [[Æthelstan until [[John, King of England|John was ' ("King of the English"). [[Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the [[Norman England|Norman period ' remained standard, with occasional use of ' ("King of England"). From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of ' or '. In 1604 [[James VI and I|James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) ''King of Great Britain''. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707.


History


Anglo-Saxon England

The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval [[Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the [[Heptarchy: [[Kingdom of East Anglia|East Anglia, [[Mercia, [[Northumbria, [[Kingdom of Kent|Kent, [[Kingdom of Essex|Essex, [[Kingdom of Sussex|Sussex, and [[Kingdom of Wessex|Wessex. The [[Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, and native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in A.D. 927. During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as [[Bretwalda, a [[high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful. It absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The [[List of monarchs of Wessex|kings of Wessex became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to [[Egbert of Wessex at [[Dore, South Yorkshire|Dore, briefly making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, [[Alfred the Great retook London, which he apparently regarded as a turning point in his reign. The ''[[Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' says that "all of the English people (''all Angelcyn'') not [[Danelaw|subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred."The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Freely licensed version at Gutenberg Project. Note: This electronic edition is a collation of material from nine diverse extant versions of the Chronicle. It contains primarily the translation of Rev. James Ingram, as published in the Everyman edition.
Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the [[city of London splendidly ... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration" entailed reoccupying and refurbishing the nearly deserted Roman walled city, building [[Wharf|quays along the [[Thames, and laying a new city street plan. It is probably at this point that Alfred assumed the new royal style 'King of the Anglo-Saxons.' During the following years Northumbria repeatedly changed hands between the English kings and the Norwegian invaders, but was definitively brought under English control by [[Eadred in 954, completing the unification of England. At about this time, [[Lothian, bordering the northern portion of Northumbria ([[Bernicia), was ceded to the [[Kingdom of Scotland. On 12 July 927 the monarchs of Britain gathered at [[Eamont in Cumbria to recognise Æthelstan as king of the English. This can be considered England's 'foundation date', although the process of unification had taken almost 100 years. England has remained in political unity ever since. During the reign of [[Æthelred the Unready (978–1016), a new wave of Danish invasions was orchestrated by [[Sweyn I of Denmark, culminating after a quarter-century of warfare in the Danish conquest of England in 1013. But Sweyn died on 2 February 1014, and Æthelred was restored to the throne. In 1015, Sweyn's son [[Cnut the Great (commonly known as Canute) launched a new invasion. The ensuing war ended with an agreement in 1016 between Canute and Æthelred's successor, [[Edmund Ironside, to divide England between them, but Edmund's death on 30 November of that year left England united under Danish rule. This continued for 26 years until the death of [[Harthacnut in June 1042. He was the son of Canute and [[Emma of Normandy (the widow of Æthelred the Unready) and had no heirs of his own; he was succeeded by his half-brother, Æthelred's son, [[Edward the Confessor. The Kingdom of England was once again independent.


Norman conquest

The peace lasted until the death of the childless Edward in January 1066. His brother-in-law was crowned [[Harold II of England|King Harold, but his cousin [[William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, immediately claimed the throne for himself. William launched an invasion of England and landed in [[Sussex on 28 September 1066. Harold and his army were in [[York following their victory against the Norwegians at the [[Battle of Stamford Bridge (25 September 1066) when the news reached him. He decided to set out without delay and confront the Norman army in Sussex so marched southwards at once, despite the army not being properly rested following the battle with the Norwegians. The armies of Harold and William faced each other at the [[Battle of Hastings (14 October 1066), in which the English army, or ''[[Fyrd'', was defeated, Harold and his two brothers were slain, and William emerged as victor. William was then able to conquer England with little further opposition. He was not, however, planning to absorb the Kingdom into the [[Duchy of Normandy. As a mere duke, William owed allegiance to [[Philip I of France, whereas in the independent Kingdom of England he could rule without interference. He was crowned on 25 December 1066 in [[Westminster Abbey, London.


High Middle Ages

In 1092, [[William II of England|William II led an invasion of [[Kingdom of Strathclyde|Strathclyde, a [[Celts|Celtic kingdom in what is now southwest Scotland and Cumbria. In doing so, he annexed what is now the county of [[Cumbria to England. In 1124, [[Henry I of England|Henry I ceded what is now southeast Scotland (called [[Lothian) to the [[Kingdom of Scotland, in return for the King of Scotland's loyalty. This final cession established what would become the traditional [[England-Scotland border|borders of England which have remained largely unchanged since then (except for occasional and temporary changes). This area of land had previously been a part of the Anglian [[Kingdom of Northumbria. Lothian contained what later became the Scottish capital, [[Edinburgh. This arrangement was later finalized in 1237 by the [[Treaty of York. The [[Duchy of Aquitaine came into
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, s ...

personal union
with the Kingdom of England upon the accession of
Henry II
Henry II
, who had married [[Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. The Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Normandy remained in personal union until [[John, King of England|John Lackland, Henry II's son and fifth-generation descendant of William I, lost the continental possessions of the Duchy to [[Philip II of France in 1204. A few remnants of [[Duchy of Normandy|Normandy, including the [[Channel Islands, remained in John's possession, together with most of the Duchy of Aquitaine.


Conquest of Wales

Up until the Norman conquest of England, Wales had remained for the most part independent of the [[Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, although some Welsh kings did sometimes acknowledge the [[Bretwalda. Soon after the [[Norman conquest of England, however, some Norman lords began to attack Wales. They conquered and ruled parts of it, acknowledging the overlordship of the Norman kings of England but with considerable local independence. Over many years these "[[Marcher Lords" conquered more and more of Wales, against considerable resistance led by various Welsh princes, who also often acknowledged the overlordship of the Norman kings of England. [[Edward I of England|Edward I defeated [[Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, and so effectively conquered Wales, in 1282. He created the title [[Prince of Wales for his heir, the future [[Edward II of England|Edward II, in 1301. Edward I's conquest was brutal and the subsequent repression considerable, as the magnificent Welsh [[castles such as [[Conwy Castle|Conwy, [[Harlech Castle|Harlech, and [[Caernarfon Castle|Caernarfon attest; but this event re-united under a single ruler the lands of [[Roman Britain for the first time since the establishment of the Kingdom of the [[Jutes in [[Kingdom of Kent|Kent in the 5th century, some 700 years before. Accordingly, this was a highly significant moment in the history of medieval England, as it re-established links with the pre-Saxon past. These links were exploited for political purposes to unite the peoples of the kingdom, including the Anglo-Normans, by popularising [[Welsh mythology|Welsh legends. The [[Welsh language—derived from the [[British language (Celtic)|British language, continued to be spoken by the majority of the population of Wales for at least another 500 years, and is still a majority language in parts of the country.


Late Middle Ages

[[Edward III of England|Edward III was the first English king to have a [[English claims to the French throne|claim to the throne of France. His pursuit of the claim resulted in the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts in Western Europe from 1337 to 1453, waged between the House of Plantagenet and its cadet House of Lancaster, rulers of the Kingdom of England, and the House of Valois over the right to rul ...

Hundred Years' War
(1337–1453), which pitted five kings of England of the [[House of Plantagenet against five kings of France of the [[Capetian House of Valois. Extensive naval raiding was carried out by all sides during the war, often involving [[privateers such as John Hawley of Dartmouth or the Castilian [[Pero Niño. Though the English won numerous victories, they were unable to overcome the numerical superiority of the French and their strategic use of gunpowder weapons. England was defeated at the [[Battle of Formigny in 1450 and finally at the [[Battle of Castillon in 1453, retaining only a single town in France, [[Calais. During the Hundred Years' War an [[English identity began to develop in place of the previous division between the Norman lords and their [[Anglo-Saxon subjects. This was a consequence of sustained hostility to the increasingly nationalist French, whose kings and other leaders (notably the charismatic [[Joan of Arc) used a developing sense of French identity to help draw people to their cause. The [[Anglo-Normans became separate from their cousins who held lands mainly in France and mocked the former for their archaic and bastardised spoken French. [[Middle English|English also became the language of the law courts during this period. The kingdom had little time to recover before entering the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...

Wars of the Roses
(1455–1487), a series of civil wars over possession of the throne between the [[House of Lancaster (whose heraldic symbol was the red rose) and the [[House of York (whose symbol was the white rose), each led by different branches of the descendants of Edward III. The end of these wars found the throne held by the descendant of an initially illegitimate member of the House of Lancaster, married to the eldest daughter of the House of York:
Henry VII
Henry VII
and [[Elizabeth of York. They were the founders of the
Tudor dynasty The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of ...

Tudor dynasty
, which ruled the kingdom from 1485 to 1603.


Tudor period

Wales retained a separate legal and administrative system, which had been established by [[Edward I in the late 13th century. The country was divided between the [[Marcher Lords, who gave feudal allegiance to the crown, and the
Principality of Wales The Principality of Wales ( cy|Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277. For most of its history it was ’annexed and united’ to the English Crown excep ...

Principality of Wales
. Under the Tudor monarchy,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disag ...

Henry VIII
replaced the laws of Wales with those of England (under the [[Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542). Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England, and henceforth was represented in the [[Parliament of England. During the 1530s, Henry VIII overthrew the power of the Roman Catholic Church within the kingdom, replacing the pope as head of the English Church and seizing the Church's lands, thereby facilitating the creation of a variation of Catholicism that became more Protestant over time. This had the effect of aligning England with Scotland, which also gradually adopted a Protestant religion, whereas the most important continental powers, France and Spain, remained Roman Catholic. In 1541, during Henry VIII's reign, the [[Parliament of Ireland proclaimed him [[king of Ireland, thereby bringing the [[Kingdom of Ireland into personal union with the Kingdom of England. [[Calais, the last remaining continental possession of the Kingdom, was lost in 1558, during the reign of [[Philip II of Spain|Philip and [[Mary I of England|Mary I. Their successor,
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Sometimes called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the Hou ...

Elizabeth I
, consolidated the new and increasingly Protestant
Church of England#REDIRECT Church of England#REDIRECT Church of England {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Church of England. She also began to build up the kingdom's naval strength, on the foundations Henry VIII had laid down. By 1588, her new navy was strong enough to defeat the [[Spanish Armada, which had sought to invade England to put a Catholic monarch on the throne in her place.


Early modern history

The House of Tudor ended with the death of Elizabeth I on 24 March 1603. [[James I of England|James I ascended the throne of England and brought it into personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland. Despite the [[Union of the Crowns, the kingdoms remained separate and independent states: a state of affairs which lasted for more than a century.


Civil War and Interregnum

The Stuart kings overestimated the power of the English monarchy, and were cast down by Parliament in 1645 and 1688. In the first instance, [[Charles I of England|Charles I's introduction of new forms of taxation in defiance of Parliament led to the [[English Civil War (1641–45), in which the king was defeated, and to the abolition of the monarchy under [[Oliver Cromwell during the [[English Interregnum|Interregnum of 1649–1660. Henceforth, the monarch could reign only at the will of Parliament. After the [[High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I|trial and
execution of Charles I The execution of Charles I by beheading occurred on Tuesday 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall. The execution was the culmination of political and military conflicts between the royalists and the parliamentarians in England d ...

execution of Charles I
in January 1649, the [[Rump Parliament passed an [[s:Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth|act declaring England to be a Commonwealth on 19 May 1649. The monarchy and the House of Lords were abolished, and so the House of Commons became a unitary legislative chamber with a new body, the [[Council of State (England)|Council of State becoming the executive. However the Army remained the dominant institution in the new republic and the most prominent general was [[Oliver Cromwell. The Commonwealth fought [[Cromwellian conquest of Ireland|wars in Ireland and [[Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms|Scotland which were subdued and placed under Commonwealth military occupation. In April 1653 Cromwell and the other ''[[Grandee (New Model Army)|Grandees'' of the [[New Model Army, frustrated with the members of the [[Rump Parliament who would not pass legislation to dissolve the Rump and to allow a new more representative parliament to be elected, stopped the Rump's session by force of arms and declared the Rump dissolved. After an experiment with a Nominated Assembly ([[Barebone's Parliament), the Grandees in the Army, through the Council of State imposed a new constitutional arrangement under a written constitution called the [[Instrument of Government. Under the Instrument of Government executive power lay with a [[Lord Protector (Protectorate)|Lord Protector (an office to be held for the life of the incumbent) and there were to be triennial Parliaments, with each sitting for at least five months. Article 23 of the Instrument of Government stated that Oliver Cromwell was to be the first Lord Protector. The [[Instrument of Government was replaced by a second constitution (the [[Humble Petition and Advice) under which the Lord Protector could nominate his successor. Cromwell nominated his son [[Richard Cromwell|Richard who became Lord Protector on the death of Oliver on 3 September 1658.


Restoration and Glorious Revolution

Richard proved to be ineffectual and was unable to maintain his rule. He resigned his title and retired into obscurity. The Rump Parliament was recalled and there was a second period where the executive power lay with the Council of state. But this restoration of Commonwealth rule, similar to that before the Protectorate, proved to be unstable, and the exiled claimant, [[Charles II of England|Charles II, was [[Restoration (England)|restored to the throne in 1660. Following the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, an attempt by [[James II of England|James II to reintroduce Roman Catholicism—a century after its suppression by the Tudors—led to the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga|An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd|Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy|Chwyldro Gogoneddus), is also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch. It refers to the deposition of James ...

Glorious Revolution
of 1688, in which he was deposed by Parliament. The Crown was then offered by Parliament to James II's Protestant daughter and son-in-law/nephew, [[William III of England|William III and [[Mary II of England|Mary II.


Union with Scotland

In the Scottish case, the attractions were partly financial and partly to do with removing English trade sanctions put in place through the [[Alien Act 1705. The English were more anxious about the royal succession. The death of [[William III of England|William III in 1702 had led to the accession of his sister-in-law [[Anne, Queen of Great Britain|Anne to the thrones of England and Scotland, but her only surviving child had died in 1700, and the English [[Act of Settlement 1701 had given the succession to the English crown to the Protestant [[House of Hanover. Securing the same succession in Scotland became the primary object of English strategic thinking towards Scotland. By 1704, the [[Union of the Crowns was in crisis, with the Scottish [[Act of Security 1704|Act of Security allowing for the Scottish Parliament to choose a different monarch, which could in turn lead to an independent foreign policy during a major European war. The English establishment did not wish to risk a [[House of Stuart|Stuart on the Scottish throne, nor the possibility of a Scottish military alliance with another power. A [[Treaty of Union was agreed on 22 July 1706, and following the [[Acts of Union 1707|Acts of Union of 1707, which created the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a so ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
, the independence of the kingdoms of England and Scotland came to an end on 1 May 1707. The Acts of Union created a [[customs union and [[monetary union and provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Acts would "cease and become void". The English and Scottish Parliaments were merged into the [[Parliament of Great Britain, located in [[Palace of Westminster|Westminster, London. At this point England ceased to exist as a separate political entity, and since then has had no national [[Government of England|government. The laws of England were unaffected, with the legal jurisdiction continuing to be that of [[England and Wales, while [[Scotland continued to have its own laws and law courts. This continued after the [[Acts of Union 1800|1801 union between the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, forming the [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the [[Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being [[Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927|renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Territorial divisions

The [[historic counties of England|counties of England were established for administration by the [[Normans, in most cases based on earlier [[shires established by the [[Anglo-Saxons. They ceased to be used for administration only with the creation of the [[administrative counties of England|administrative counties in 1889. Unlike the partly self-governing [[ancient borough|boroughs that covered urban areas, the counties of medieval England existed primarily as a means of enforcing central government power, enabling monarchs to exercise control over local areas through their chosen representatives – originally [[high sheriff|sheriffs and later the [[lord-lieutenants – and their subordinate [[justice of the peace|justices of the peace. Counties were used initially for the [[administration of justice, collection of taxes and organisation of the military, and later for local government and electing parliamentary representation. Some outlying counties were from time to time accorded [[County palatine|palatine status with some military and central government functions vested in a local noble or bishop. The last such, the [[County Palatine of Durham, did not lose this special status until the 19th century. Although all of England was divided into shires by the time of the Norman conquest, some counties were formed considerably later, up to the 16th century. Because of their differing origins the counties [[List of counties of England by area in 1831|varied considerably in size. The county boundaries were fairly static between the 16th century [[Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542|Laws in Wales acts and the [[Local Government Act 1888.Vision of Britain
– Census Geographies. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
Each shire was responsible for gathering taxes for the central government; for local defence; and for justice, through [[assize courts. The power of the [[English feudal barony|feudal barons to control their landholding was considerably weakened in 1290 by the statute of ''[[Quia Emptores''. Feudal baronies became perhaps obsolete (but not extinct) on the abolition of feudal tenure during the [[English Civil War|Civil War, as confirmed by the [[Tenures Abolition Act 1660 passed under the [[English Restoration|Restoration which took away knight-service and other legal rights. Tenure by [[knight-service was abolished and discharged and the lands covered by such tenures, including once-feudal baronies, were henceforth held by [[socage (''i.e.'', in exchange for monetary rents). The English ''Fitzwalter Case'' in 1670 ruled that barony by tenure had been discontinued for many years and any claims to a [[peerage on such basis, meaning a right to sit in the [[House of Lords, were not to be revived, nor any right of succession based on them. The [[Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 followed the [[Conquest of Wales by Edward I|conquest of Wales by [[Edward I of England. It assumed the lands held by the Princes of Gwynedd under the title "[[Prince of Wales" as legally part of the lands of England, and established shire counties on the English model over those areas. The [[Welsh Marches|Marcher Lords were progressively tied to the English kings by the grants of lands and lordships in England. The [[Council of Wales and the Marches, administered from [[Ludlow Castle, was initially established in 1472 by [[Edward IV of England to govern the lands held under the Principality of WalesWilliam Searle Holdsworth, "A History of English Law," Little, Brown, and Company, 1912, p. 502 and the bordering English counties. It was abolished in 1689. Under the [[Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 introduced under [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII, the jurisdiction of the marcher lords was abolished in 1536. The Acts had the effect of annexing Wales to England and creating a single state and legal jurisdiction, commonly referred to as [[England and Wales. At the same time the Council of Wales was created in 1472, a [[Council of the North was set up for the [[North of England|northern counties of England. After falling into disuse, it was re-established in 1537 and abolished in 1641. A very short-lived [[Council of the West also existed for the [[West Country between 1537 and 1540.


See also

* * * * * *[[List of English monarchs * * * *


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Bartlett, Robert. ''England under the Norman and Angevin kings: 1075–1225'' (Oxford UP, 2002), major scholarly survey. * Black, J.R. ''The Reign of Elizabeth, 1558–1603'' (1959), scholarly survey. * Borman, Tracy. ''Thomas Cromwell: The Untold Story of Henry VIII's Most Faithful Servant'' (2015) popular biography. * [[Geoffrey Elton|Elton, G. R., ''England under the Tudors'' (London: Methuen, 1955), scholarly survey * Ellis, Steven G. ''Ireland in the age of the Tudors, 1447–1603: English expansion and the end of Gaelic rule'' (Routledge, 2014). * Guy, John. ''The Tudors: a very short introduction'' (Oxford UP, 2013). * Harriss, G.L. ''Shaping the nation: England 1360–1461'' (Oxford UP, 2005), scholarly survey. * Jacob, E.F. ''The Fifteenth Century, 1399–1485'' (Oxford History of England, 1961)), scholarly survey. * Jenkins, Elizabeth. ''Elizabeth the Great'' (Time Incorporated, 1964). popular well-illustrated biography. * Jones, J. Gwynfor. ''Wales and the Tudor state: government, religious change and the social order, 1534–1603'' (U of Wales Press, 1989). * Levin, Carole. ''The heart and stomach of a king: Elizabeth I and the politics of sex and power'' (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2013). * Loades, David Michael. ''Politics and nation: England 1450–1660'' (Wiley-Blackwell, 1999). * Loades, David Michael. ''Power in Tudor England'' (1997). * McCaffrey, Wallace. ''Elizabeth I'', a major scholarly biography * McKisack, May. ''The Fourteenth Century, 1307–1399'' (Oxford History of England, 1959). * Neale, J.E. ''Queen Elizabeth I: a biography'' (1957) old scholarly biography; very well written. * Penn, Thomas. ''Winter king: Henry VII and the dawn of Tudor England'' (2012). * Powicke, Maurice. ''The Thirteenth Century, 1216–1307'' (Oxford History of England, 1962) scholarly survey * Ridley, Jasper G. ''Henry VIII'' (1985), biography. * Roberts, Clayton, F. David Roberts, and Douglas Bisson. '' A History of England, Volume 1: Prehistory to 1714'' (Routledge, 2016). university textbook. * Thomson, John A.F. ''The Transformation of Medieval England 1370–1529'' (Routledge, 2014). * Williams, Penry. ''The Later Tudors: England, 1547–1603'' (Oxford UP, 1995), major scholarly survey.. {{DEFAULTSORT:England, Kingdom Of [[Category:Kingdom of England| [[Category:1707 disestablishments in Great Britain [[Category:Former countries in the British Isles [[Category:Former kingdoms [[Category:Former monarchies of Europe [[Category:10th-century establishments in England [[Category:States and territories established in the 920s [[Category:States and territories disestablished in 1649 [[Category:States and territories established in 1660 [[Category:States and territories disestablished in 1707 [[Category:927 establishments