HOME

TheInfoList




The Kingdom of Bavaria (german: Königreich Bayern; ) was a German state that succeeded the former
Electorate of Bavaria The Electorate of Bavaria (german: Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of ...
in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. With the
unification of Germany The unification of Germany into the German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Benningto ...
into the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
in 1871, the kingdom became a federated state of the new empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. ''The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empi ...
. The polity's foundation dates back to the ascension of
prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
Maximilian IV Joseph of the
House of Wittelsbach The House of Wittelsbach () is a Germany, German dynasty, with branches that have ruled over territories including Bavaria, the Palatinate, Holland and Zeeland, Sweden (with Denmark and Norway), Hungary (with Romania), Bohemia, the Electorate ...
as King of Bavaria in 1805. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of the border of modern
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
's
Free State of Bavaria Bavaria (; German and Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose ...
were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which the Kingdom of Bavaria ceded
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gre ...
and
Vorarlberg Vorarlberg ( , ; gsw, label=Vorarlbergisch, Vorarlbearg, , or ) is the westernmost States of Austria, state () of Austria. It has the second-smallest geographical area after Vienna and, although it has the second-smallest population, it also has ...

Vorarlberg
to the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
while receiving
Aschaffenburg Aschaffenburg () is a town in northwest Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, la ...

Aschaffenburg
and
Würzburg Würzburg (; Main-Franconian: ) is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in the traditional region of Franconia in the north of the Germany, German state of Bavaria. Würzburg is the administrative seat of the ''Regierungsbezirk'' Lower Fra ...

Würzburg
. In 1918, Bavaria became a republic after the
German Revolution German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Germ ...
, and the kingdom was thus succeeded by the current
Free State of Bavaria Bavaria (; German and Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose ...
.


History


Foundation and expansion under Maximilian I

On 30 December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession on the
Electorate of Bavaria The Electorate of Bavaria (german: Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of ...
passed to Charles Theodore, the
Elector PalatineThe elector of the Palatinate (german: Kurfürst von der Pfalz) ruled the Electoral Palatinate of the Rhine in the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire from 915 to 1803. The title holder was a member of the small group of prince-electors who ...
. After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Palatinate, to which the duchies of
Jülich Jülich (; in old spellings also known as ''Guelich'' or ''Gülich'', nl, Gulik, french: Juliers) is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
and
BergBerg may refer to: People *Alban Berg (1885–1935), Austrian composer *Berg (surname), a surname (including a list of people with the name) *Berg Ng (born 1960), Hong Kong actor Former states *Berg (state), county and duchy of the Holy Roman Emp ...
had been added, was thus reunited with Bavaria. In 1793, French revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in 1795, the French, under
Moreau
Moreau
, invaded Bavaria itself, advanced to Munich—where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals—and laid siege to
Ingolstadt Ingolstadt ( , , Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian was also prevalent in parts ...

Ingolstadt
. Charles Theodore, who had done nothing to prevent wars or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony, leaving a regency, the members of which signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an armistice in return for a heavy contribution (7 September 1796). Between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in a bad situation. Before the death of Charles Theodore (16 February 1799), the Austrians had again occupied the country, in preparation for renewing the war with France. Maximilian IV Joseph (of
Zweibrücken Zweibrücken (; french: Deux-Ponts, ; Palatinate German: ''Zweebrigge'', ) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 mill ...
), the new elector, succeeded to a difficult inheritance. Though his own sympathies, and those of his all-powerful minister,
Maximilian von Montgelas Maximilian Karl Joseph Franz de Paula Hieronymus de Garnerin de la Thuile, Count von Montgelas (german: Maximilian Karl Joseph Franz de Paula Hieronymus de Garnerin de la Thuille Graf von Montgelas; 12 September 1759 Munich Munich ( ; g ...
, were, if anything, French rather than Austrian, the state of the Bavarian finances, and the fact that the Bavarian troops were scattered and disorganized, placed him helpless in the hands of Austria; on 2 December 1800, the Bavarian arms were involved in the Austrian defeat at Hohenlinden, and Moreau once more occupied Munich. By the
Treaty of Lunéville The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801. The signatory parties were the French First Republic, French Republic and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. The latter was negot ...
(9 February 1801), Bavaria lost the Palatinate and the duchies of
Zweibrücken Zweibrücken (; french: Deux-Ponts, ; Palatinate German: ''Zweebrigge'', ) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 mill ...
and
Jülich Jülich (; in old spellings also known as ''Guelich'' or ''Gülich'', nl, Gulik, french: Juliers) is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
. In view of the scarcely disguised ambitions and intrigues of the Austrian court, Montgelas now believed that the interests of Bavaria lay in a frank alliance with the French Republic; he succeeded in overcoming the reluctance of Maximilian Joseph; and, on 24 August, a separate treaty of peace and alliance with France was signed at Paris. The 1805 Peace of Pressburg allowed Maximilian to raise Bavaria to the status of a kingdom. Accordingly, Maximilian proclaimed himself king on 1 January 1806. The King still served as an elector until Bavaria seceded from the Holy Roman Empire on 1 August 1806. The
Duchy of Berg Berg was a state—originally a county, later a duchy—in the Rhineland of Germany. Its capital was Düsseldorf. It existed as a distinct political entity from the early 12th to the 19th centuries. The name of the county lives on in the modern ge ...
was ceded to Napoleon only in 1806. The new kingdom faced challenges from the outset of its creation, relying on the support of
Napoleonic France The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (; ), was the empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an e ...
. The kingdom faced war with
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...
in 1808 and from 1810 to 1814, lost territory to
Württemberg Württemberg ( ; ) is a historical German territory roughly corresponding to the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg shows the three lions passant of the arms of the Duchy of Swabia, in origin th ...
, Italy, and then Austria. In 1808, all relics of serfdom were abolished, which had left the old empire. In the same year, Maximilian promulgated Bavaria's first written constitution. Over the next five years, it was amended numerous times in accordance with Paris' wishes. During the
French invasion of Russia The French invasion of Russia, also known as the Russian Campaign, the Second Polish War, the Second Polish Campaign, the Patriotic War of 1812 , and the War of 1812, was begun by Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – ...
in 1812 about 30,000 Bavarian soldiers were killed in action. With the
Treaty of RiedThe Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 was a treaty that was signed between the Kingdom of Bavaria and Austrian Empire. By this treaty, Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine which was allied with Napoleon, and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition a ...
of 8 October 1813 Bavaria left the
Confederation of the Rhine The Confederated States of the Rhine, simply known as the Confederation of the Rhine, was a confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common acti ...
and agreed to join the
Sixth Coalition Sixth is the ordinal form of the number six. * The Sixth Amendment, to the U.S. Constitution * A keg of beer, equal to 5 U.S. gallons or 1/6 barrel * A fraction (mathematics) A fraction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical langu ...
against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status. On 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against
Napoleonic France The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (; ), was the empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an e ...
. The treaty was passionately backed by the
Crown Prince Ludwig
Crown Prince Ludwig
and by Marshal von Wrede. With the
Battle of Leipzig The Battle of Leipzig, contemporaneously called the Battle of Leipsic (french: Bataille de Leipsick; german: Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig (); sv, Slaget vid Leipzig) and later the Battle of the Nations (french: Bataille des Nations; russian: ...
in October 1813 ended the German Campaign with the Coalition nations as the victors, in a complete failure for the French, although they achieved a minor victory when an army of Kingdom of Bavaria attempted to block the retreat of the French Grande Armée at
Hanau Hanau () is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Its Hanau Hauptbahnhof, station is a ...

Hanau
. With the defeat of Napoleon's France in 1814, Bavaria was compensated for some of its losses, and received new territories such as the
Grand Duchy of Würzburg The Grand Duchy of Würzburg (german: Großherzogtum Würzburg) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Ge ...
, the
Archbishopric of Mainz The Electorate of Mainz (german: Kurfürstentum Mainz or ', la, Electoratus Moguntinus), previously known in English as Mentz and by its French name Mayence, was one of the most prestigious and influential states of the Holy Roman Empire. In the ...
(Aschaffenburg) and parts of the
Grand Duchy of Hesse The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (german: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a grand duchy in western Germany that existed from 1806 (the period of German mediatization) to the end of the German Empire in 1918. The grand duchy origi ...

Grand Duchy of Hesse
. Finally, in 1816, the Rhenish Palatinate was taken from France in exchange for most of Salzburg which was then ceded to Austria ( Treaty of Munich (1816)). It was the second largest and second most powerful state south of the
Main Main may refer to: Geography *Main River (disambiguation)Main River, more commonly simply ''Main'', is a river in Germany. Main River may also refer to: *Main River (Chukotka), a river in Far Eastern Siberia *Main River (Newfoundland), a river ...
, behind only
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...
. In Germany as a whole, it ranked third behind Prussia and Austria. Between 1799 and 1817, the leading minister Count Montgelas followed a strict policy of modernisation and laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived even the monarchy and are (in their core) valid until today. On 1 February 1817, Montgelas had been dismissed and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform.


Constitution

On 26 May 1818, Bavaria's second constitution was proclaimed. The constitution established a bicameral Parliament (
Landtag A Landtag (State Diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition) In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for #Health, health or #Weigh ...

Landtag
). The upper house ( Kammer der Reichsräte, meaning "House of Councillors") comprising the aristocracy and noblemen, including the royal princes, holders of the crown offices, archbishops, members of the
Mediatized Houses The mediatised houses (or mediatized houses, german: Standesherren) were ruling princely and comital-ranked houses which were mediatised in the Holy Roman Empire during the period of 1803–1815 as part of German mediatisation, and were later recog ...
in bavaria and hereditary and lifelong nominees of the crown. The lower house ( Kammer der Abgeordneten, meaning "House of Representatives"), would include representatives of landowners, the three universities, clergy (Catholic and Protestant), the towns and the peasants. Without the consent of both houses, no law could be passed and no tax could be levied. The rights of
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
s were safeguarded in the constitution with articles supporting the equality of all religions, despite opposition by supporters of the Roman Catholic Church. The initial constitution almost proved disastrous for the monarchy, with controversies such as the army having to swear allegiance to the new constitution. The monarchy appealed to the
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. ''The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empi ...
and the Austrian Empire for advice, the two refused to take action on Bavaria's behalf, but the debacles lessened and the state stabilized with the accession of Ludwig I to the throne following the death of Maximilian in 1825. Within the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Palatinate enjoyed a special legal and administrative position, as the Bavarian government maintained substantial achievements of the French period. The German historian Heiner Haan described the special status of the Palatinate within Bavaria as a relation of "Hauptstaat" (main state, i.e. Bavaria) and "Nebenstaat" (alongside state, i.e. the Palatinate).


Ludwig I, Maximilian II and the Revolutions

In 1825,
Ludwig I en, Louis Charles Augustus , image = Joseph Karl Stieler - King Ludwig I in his Coronation Robes - WGA21796.jpg , caption = Portrait by Joseph Stieler Joseph Karl Stieler (1 November 1781 – 9 April 1858) was a German pai ...

Ludwig I
ascended the throne of Bavaria. Under Ludwig, the arts flourished in Bavaria, and Ludwig personally ordered and financially assisted the creation of many
neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
buildings and architecture across Bavaria. Ludwig also increased Bavaria's pace towards industrialization under his reign. In foreign affairs under Ludwig's rule, Bavaria supported the Greeks during the
Greek War of Independence The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821 or Greek Revolution ( el, Ελληνική Επανάσταση, ''Elliniki Epanastasi''; referred to by Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''É ...
with his second son,
Otto Otto is a masculine German given name Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names (''Vorname'', plural ''Vornamen'') and a surname (''Nachname, Familienname''). The ''Vorname'' is usually gender-specific. A ...

Otto
being elected
King of Greece The Kingdom of Greece The Kingdom of Greece ( grc, label=Katharevousa, Greek, Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος ) was established in 1832 and was the successor state to the First Hellenic Republic. It was internationally recognised ...
in 1832. As for politics, initial reforms advocated by Ludwig were both liberal and reform-oriented. However, after the
Revolutions of 1830 The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830. It included two "Romantic nationalism, romantic nationalist" revolutions, the Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the July Revolution ...
, Ludwig turned to conservative reaction. The
Hambacher Fest The Hambacher Festival was a German national democratic festival celebrated from 27 May to 30 May 1832 at Hambach Castle, near Neustadt an der Weinstraße Neustadt an der German Wine Route, Weinstraße (formerly known as "Neustadt an der Haardt") ...
in 1832 showed the discontent of the population with high taxes and censorship. Bavaria joined the
Zollverein The ''Zollverein'' (), or German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariff A tariff is a tax imposed by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, gen ...

Zollverein
in 1834. In 1835, the first German railway was constructed in Bavaria, between the cities of
Fürth Fürth (; East Franconian East Franconian (german: Ostfränkisch) or Mainfränkisch, usually referred to as Franconian (') in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia Franconia (german: Franken, ; Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' ; ...

Fürth
and
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local East Franconian dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants ...

Nuremberg
. In 1837, the Roman Catholic-supported clerical movement, the Ultramontanes, came to power in the Bavarian parliament and began a campaign of reform to the constitution, which removed civil rights that had earlier been granted to Protestants, as well as enforcing censorship and forbidding the free discussion of internal politics. This regime was short-lived due to the demand by the Ultramontanes of the naturalization of Ludwig I's Irish mistress,
Lola Montez Eliza Rosanna Gilbert, Countess of Landsfeld (17 February 1821 – 17 January 1861), better known by the stage name Lola Montez (), was an Irish people, Irish dancer and actress who became famous as a Spanish dancer, courtesan, and mistress (l ...

Lola Montez
, a notorious courtesan and dancer, which was resented by Ludwig, and the Ultramontanes were pushed out. During the
Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
, Ludwig abdicated on 20 March 1848 in favour of his eldest son,
Maximilian II
Maximilian II
. The revolutions also brought amendments to the constitution, including changes to the lower house of the Landtag with equal suffrage for every male who paid a direct tax. Maximilian II responded to the demands of the people for a united German state by attending the
Frankfurt Assembly The Frankfurt Parliament (german: Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally ''Frankfurt National Assembly'') was the first freely elected parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of g ...
, which intended to create such a state. However, when Maximilian II rejected the
Frankfurt Constitution The Frankfurt Constitution (german: Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St. Paul's Church (''Paulskirchenverfassung''), officially named the Constitution of the German Empire (''Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches'') of 28 March 1849 ...
in 1849, there was an uprising in the Bavarian Palatinate under
Joseph Martin Reichard
Joseph Martin Reichard
, which was put down with the support of Prussian forces. However Maximilian II stood alongside Bavaria's ally, the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
, in opposition to Austria's enemy, the
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. ''The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empi ...
. This position was resented by many Bavarian citizens, who wanted a united Germany. In the end Prussia declined the crown offered by the Frankfurt Assembly as the proposed constitution of a German state was perceived to be too liberal and not in Prussia's interests. In the aftermath of the failure of the Frankfurt Assembly, Prussia and Austria continued to debate over which monarchy had the inherent right to rule Germany. A dispute between Austria and the Prince of
Hesse-Kassel The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was imperial immediacy, directly subject to the Emperor. The state was created in ...

Hesse-Kassel
was used by Austria and its allies (including Bavaria) to promote the isolation of Prussia in German political affairs. This diplomatic insult almost led to war when Austria, Bavaria, and other allies moved troops through Bavaria towards Hesse-Kassel in 1850. However, Prussia backed down to Austria, and accepted of dual leadership. This event was known as the Punctation of Olmütz but also known as the "Humiliation of Olmütz" by Prussia. This event solidified the Bavarian kingdom's alliance with Austria against Prussia. When the project to unite the German middle-sized powers under Bavarian leadership against Prussia and Austria (the so-called ''Trias'') failed, Minister-President Von der Pfordten resigned in 1859. Attempts by Prussia to reorganize the loose and un-led
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
were opposed by Bavaria and Austria, with Bavaria taking part in its own discussions with Austria and other allies in 1863, in Frankfurt, without Prussia and its allies attending.


Austro-Prussian War

In 1864,
Maximilian II
Maximilian II
died early, and his eighteen-year-old son,
Ludwig II Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary House of Wittelsbach, Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bava ...

Ludwig II
, became King of Bavaria as tensions between Austria and Prussia escalated steadily. Prussian Minister-President
Otto von Bismarck Otto, Prince of Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (german: Otto Fürst von Bismarck, Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Herzog zu Lauenburg ; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), born Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, was a c ...

Otto von Bismarck
, recognizing the immediate likelihood of war, tried to keep Bavaria neutral. Ludwig II refused Bismarck's offers and continued Bavaria's alliance with Austria. In 1866, the
Austro-Prussian War The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
began. Bavaria and most of the south German states allied with Austria, but contributed far less to the war against Prussia. Prussia quickly defeated the
Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Han ...
, then won the
Battle of Königgrätz The Battle of Königgrätz (or Sadowa) was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire. It took place on July 3, 1866, near the Bohemia, Bohemian towns of Königgrätz, (now Hradec ...
(3 July 1866) against Austria, which was totally defeated by Prussia shortly afterward. The states of the German Confederation had not agreed on a common strategy in the war. Their separate armies were therefore defeated in succession by Prussia. The Bavarian army was defeated in
Lower Franconia Lower Franconia (german: Unterfranken) is one of seven districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...
at the
Battle of Kissingen The Battle of Kissingen was a battle between Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, ...
(10 July 1866).
Prince Karl Theodor of Bavaria en, Charles Theodore Maximilian Augustus , spouse = , issue = , house = Wittelsbach The House of Wittelsbach () is the Kingdom of Bavaria, Royal Bavarian dynasty from Germany, with branches that have ruled over territories ...

Prince Karl Theodor of Bavaria
took command, but the Bavarians were decisively beaten at
Uettingen Uettingen is a Municipalities of Germany, municipality in the Würzburg (district), district of Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany. References

Würzburg (district) {{Würzburgdistrict-geo-stub ...

Uettingen
(26 July 1866). Austria was defeated, and the German Confederation was dissolved, ending Austria's influence over the lesser German states. Bavaria lost
Gersfeld Gersfeld is a town in the Fulda (district), district of Fulda, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated on the Fulda River, in the Rhön Mountains, southeast of Fulda. It belonged to the abbey-principality of Fulda before secularisation in 1803. It then ...

Gersfeld
and
Bad Orb Bad Orb (; "Thermae , Budapest File:Les mosaïques des thermes 2.JPG, The mosaics of the thermal baths In ancient Rome, ''thermae'' (from Greek θερμός ''thermos'', "hot") and ''balneae'' (from Greek βαλανεῖον ''balaneion'') ...
to Prussia; they became part of the new province of
Hesse-Nassau The Province of Hesse-Nassau () was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level s ...
. From this time, Bavaria steadily progressed into Prussia's sphere of influence.


Ludwig II and the German Empire

With Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the northern German states quickly unified into the
North German Confederation The North German Confederation (german: Norddeutscher Bund) was the Germans, German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870. The Confederation came into existence after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 over the lordship of tw ...
, with the Prussian king leading the state. Bavaria's previous inhibitions towards Prussia changed, along with those of many of the south German states, after French emperor
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
began speaking of France's need for "compensation" from its loss in 1814 and included Bavarian-held Palatinate as part of its territorial claims. Ludwig II joined an alliance with Prussia in 1870 against France, which was seen by Germans as the greatest enemy to a united Germany. At the same time, Bavaria increased its political, legal, and trade ties with the North German Confederation. In 1870, war erupted between France and Prussia in the
Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire ...
. The Bavarian Army was sent under the command of the Prussian crown prince against the French army. With France's defeat and humiliation against the combined German forces, it was
Ludwig II Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary House of Wittelsbach, Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bava ...

Ludwig II
who proposed that Prussian King
Wilhelm I , signature = Wilhelm_I,_German_Emperor_Signature.svg , religion = Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Protestant Reformers, r ...

Wilhelm I
be proclaimed German Emperor or "''Kaiser''" of the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
("''
Deutsches Reich ''German Reich'' (german: Deutsches Reich, ) was the constitutional name for the German nation state that existed from 1871 to 1945. The ''Reich'' became understood as deriving its authority and sovereignty entirely from a continuing unitary Germ ...
''"), which occurred in 1871 in German-occupied
Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...
, France. The territories of the German Empire were declared, which included the states of the North German Confederation and all of the south German states, with the major exception of Austria. The Empire also
annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the reversal of the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq (28 February 1991). Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging t ...
the formerly French territory of
Alsace-Lorraine The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (german: Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or ; gsw-als, 's Rìchslànd Elsàss-Lothrìnga; Moselle Franconian __NOTOC__ Moselle Franconian (German ''Moselfränkisch'') is a West Central German language ...

Alsace-Lorraine
, due in large part to Ludwig's desire to move the French frontier away from the Palatinate. Bavaria's entry into the German Empire changed from jubilation over France's defeat to dismay shortly afterward because of the direction Germany took under the new
German Chancellor The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(:wikt:-in#German, in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal government of Germany, government of Germany ...
and Prussian Prime Minister,
Otto von Bismarck Otto, Prince of Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (german: Otto Fürst von Bismarck, Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Herzog zu Lauenburg ; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), born Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, was a c ...

Otto von Bismarck
. The Bavarian delegation under
Count Otto von Bray-Steinburg Otto Kamillus Hugo Gabriel Count von Bray-Steinburg (* 17 May 1807 in Berlin – † 9 January 1899 in Munich) was a Kingdom of Bavaria, Bavarian diplomat and politician. He was a son of the diplomat Count François Gabriel von Bray, who was from Ro ...
had secured a privileged status for the Kingdom of Bavaria within the German Empire (''Reservatrechte''). The Kingdom of Bavaria was even able to retain its own diplomatic body and its own
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch Military branch ...
, which would fall under Prussian command only in times of war. After Bavaria's entry into the Empire,
Ludwig II Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary House of Wittelsbach, Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bava ...

Ludwig II
became increasingly detached from Bavaria's political affairs and spent vast amounts of money on personal projects, such as the construction of a number of fairytale castles and palaces, the most famous being the
Wagnerian Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemic A polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic ( ...
-style
Castle Neuschwanstein Neuschwanstein Castle (german: Schloss Neuschwanstein, , Southern Bavarian: ''Schloss Neischwanstoa'') is a 19th-century Historicism (art), historicist palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavari ...

Castle Neuschwanstein
. Ludwig used his personal wealth to finance these projects, and not state funds, and the construction projects landed him deeply in debt. These debts caused much concern among Bavaria's political elite, who sought to persuade Ludwig to cease his building; he refused, and relations between the government's ministers and the crown deteriorated. At last, in 1886, the crisis came to a head. A medical commission appointed by the cabinet declared Ludwig insane and thus incapable of reigning. His uncle,
Prince Luitpold
Prince Luitpold
, was appointed as
regent A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
. A day after Ludwig's deposition, the king died mysteriously after asking the commission's chief psychiatrist to go on a walk with him along
Lake Starnberg Lake Starnberg, or ''Starnberger See'' ) — called Lake Würm, or ''Würmsee'' , until 1962 — is Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , language ...
(then called Lake Würm). Ludwig and the psychiatrist were found dead, floating in the lake. The official autopsy listed cause of death as suicide by drowning, but some sources claim that no water was found in Ludwig's lungs. While these claims could be explained by dry drowning, they have also led to some
conspiracy theories A conspiracy theory is an explanation for an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy A conspiracy, also known as a plot, is a secret plan or agreement between persons (called conspirers or conspirators) for an unlawful or harmful purp ...
of political assassination.


Regency and institutional reform

The crown passed to Ludwig's brother
Otto Otto is a masculine German given name Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names (''Vorname'', plural ''Vornamen'') and a surname (''Nachname, Familienname''). The ''Vorname'' is usually gender-specific. A ...
. However, Otto had a long history of mental illness and had been placed under medical supervision three years earlier. The duties of head of state actually rested in the hands of Prince Luitpold, who continued to serve as regent for Otto. During the regency of Prince-Regent Luitpold, from 1886 to 1912, relations between Bavaria and Prussia remained cold, with Bavarians remembering the anti-Catholic agenda of Bismarck's ''
Kulturkampf ''Kulturkampf'' (, 'culture struggle') was the conflict that took place from 1872 to 1878 between the government of the Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, kingdom that constituted th ...
'', as well as Prussia's strategic dominance over the empire. Bavaria protested Prussian dominance over Germany and snubbed the Prussian-born German Emperor,
Wilhelm II Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 18594 June 1941), anglicised as William II, was the last German Emperor (german: Kaiser) and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until Abdication of Wilhelm II, his abdication on Nove ...

Wilhelm II
, in 1900, by forbidding the flying of any other flag other than the Bavarian flag on public buildings for the Emperor's birthday, but this was swiftly modified afterwards, allowing the German imperial flag to be hung beside the Bavarian flag. The Catholic, conservative Patriotic Party founded in 1868 became the leading party in the
Bavarian Landtag File:Bavaria Thaler 1834, Diet of the Kingdom (Landtag), uniface Pb-Strike.jpg, Bavaria Thaler 1834, Diet of the Kingdom (Landtag), uniface Pb-Strike. The Landtag of Bavaria, officially known in English as the Bavarian State Parliament, is the u ...

Bavarian Landtag
(Parliament). In 1887, its name was changed to Bavarian Centre. In 1893, the
Social Democrats Social democracy is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports Democracy, political and economic democracy. As a policy regime, it is described by academics as advocatin ...
were elected to the parliament. From 1903, the University Education was also possible for female students. Electoral reforms changed the elections of the parliament from indirect to
direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which ...
elections in 1906. With the
Centre Center or centre may refer to: Mathematics *Center (geometry) In geometry, a centre (or center) (from Ancient Greek language, Greek ''κέντρον'') of an object is a point in some sense in the middle of the object. According to the spe ...
politician
Georg von Hertling Georg Friedrich Karl Freiherr (from 1914 Graf) von Hertling (31 August 1843 – 4 January 1919) was a Kingdom of Bavaria, German politician who served as the List of Minister-Presidents of Bavaria, Minister-President of Bavaria from 1912 to 1917 and ...

Georg von Hertling
the Prince-Regent appointed to the head of government for the first time a representative of the Landtag's majority in 1912. Luitpold's years as regent were marked by tremendous artistic and cultural activity in Bavaria where they are known as the ''Prinzregentenjahre'' ("The Prince Regent Years"). In 1912, Luitpold died, and his son, Prince-Regent Ludwig, took over as regent. By then, it had long been apparent that Otto would never be able to reign, and sentiment grew for Ludwig to become king in his own right. On 6 November, a year after the Landtag passed a law allowing him to do so, Ludwig ended the regency, deposed Otto and declared himself King of Bavaria as Ludwig III. The ''Prinzregentenzeit'' ("prince's regent's time"), as the regency of Luitpold is often called, was due to the political passiveness of Luitpold an era of the gradual transfer of Bavarian interests behind those of the German empire. In connection with the unhappy end of the preceding rule of King Ludwig II this break in the Bavarian monarchy looked even stronger. Finally, the constitutional amendment of 1913 brought the determining break in the continuity of the king's rule in the opinion of historians, particularly as this change had been granted by the Landtag as a House of Representatives and meant therefore indirectly the first step from constitutional to the parliamentary monarchy. Today the connection of these two developments is regarded as a main cause for the unspectacular end of the Bavarian kingdom without opposition in the course of the November revolution of 1918. However the course of his 26-year regency Luitpold knew to overcome, by modesty, ability and popularity, the initial uneasiness of his subjects. These prince regent's years were transfigured, finally—above all in the retrospect – to a golden age of Bavaria, even if one mourned the "fairy tale king" Ludwig II furthermore what happens in a folkloric-nostalgic manner till this day.


Military autonomy

With the establishment of the German Empire, a series of conventions brought the bulk of the various state military forces directly under the administration of the Prussian War Ministry. Bavaria however maintained a degree of autonomy in peacetime, with its own two (later three) army corps remaining outside the Prussian order of battle. The Bavarian infantry and cavalry regiments retained their historic light blue and green uniforms, distinctive from the Prussian model adopted throughout most of the army. The individual Bavarian soldier swore an oath of loyalty to King Ludwig, though in wartime this pledge of obedience was extended to Kaiser Wilhelm as supreme commander. In July 1914, the Bavarian Army numbered 92,400 or 11 percent of the total Imperial Army.


World War I and the end of the Kingdom

In 1914, a clash of alliances occurred over
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
's aggression against
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...
following the assassination of Austrian
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, assassination in Sarajevo is conside ...

Archduke Franz Ferdinand
by a
Bosnian Serb The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( sr-cyr, Срби у Босни и Херцеговини, Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (state-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the politica ...
militant. Germany went to the side of its former rival-turned-ally, Austria-Hungary, and declared war on
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
. Following the German invasion of neutral
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
declared war on Germany. Initially, in Bavaria and all across Germany, many recruits flocked enthusiastically to the Army. At the outbreak of World War I King Ludwig III sent an official dispatch to Berlin to express Bavaria's solidarity. Later Ludwig even claimed annexations for Bavaria (Alsace and the city of Antwerp in Belgium, to receive an access to the sea). His hidden agenda was to maintain the balance of power between Prussia and Bavaria within the German Empire after a victory. Over time, with a stalemated and bloody war on the western front, Bavarians, like many Germans, grew weary of a continuing war. In 1917, when Germany's situation had gradually worsened due to
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the Bavarian Prime Minister
Georg von Hertling Georg Friedrich Karl Freiherr (from 1914 Graf) von Hertling (31 August 1843 – 4 January 1919) was a Kingdom of Bavaria, German politician who served as the List of Minister-Presidents of Bavaria, Minister-President of Bavaria from 1912 to 1917 and ...

Georg von Hertling
became German Chancellor and Prime Minister of Prussia and
Otto Ritter von Dandl Otto Ritter von Dandl (13 May 1868 in Straubing Straubing () is an independent city in Lower Bavaria, southern Germany. It is seat of the Districts of Germany, district of Straubing-Bogen. Annually in August the Gäubodenvolksfest, the second lar ...
was made new Prime Minister of Bavaria. Accused of showing blind loyalty to Prussia, Ludwig III became increasingly unpopular during the war. In 1918, the kingdom attempted to negotiate a separate peace with the allies but failed. By 1918, civil unrest was spreading across Bavaria and Germany, Bavarian defiance to Prussian hegemony and Bavarian separatism being key motivators. On 7 November 1918, Ludwig fled from the Residenz Palace in Munich with his family. He was the first of the monarchs in the German Empire to be deposed. A few days later William II abdicated the throne of Germany. Ludwig took up residence in Austria for what was intended to be a temporary stay. On 12 November, he issued the
Anif declarationThe Anif declaration (german: Anifer Erklärung) was issued by Ludwig III of Bavaria, Ludwig III, Kingdom of Bavaria, King of Bavaria, on 12 November 1918 at Anif Palace, Austria. It was a declaration in which the monarch relieved all civil servants ...
, in which he declared that under the circumstances, he was "in no position to lead the government." Accordingly, he released his soldiers and officials from their oath to him. Although he never formally abdicated, the socialist-led government of Kurt Eisner took Ludwig's declaration as such and declared the House of Wittelsbach, Wittelsbachs deposed. With this, the 700-year rule of the Wittelsbach dynasty came to an end, and the former Kingdom of Bavaria became the People's State of Bavaria. The funeral of Ludwig III in 1921 was feared or hoped to spark a Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918, restoration of the monarchy. Despite the abolition of the monarchy, the former King was laid to rest in front of the royal family, the Bavarian government, military personnel, and an estimated 100,000 spectators, in the style of royal funerals. Prince Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Rupprecht did not wish to use the occasion of the passing of his father to attempt to reestablish the monarchy by force, preferring to do so by legal means. Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, Archbishop of Munich, in his funeral speech, made a clear commitment to the monarchy while Rupprecht only declared that he had stepped into his birthright.Beisetzung Ludwigs III., München, 5. November 1921
Historisches Lexikon Bayerns – Funeral of Ludwig III... accessed: 1 July 2011


Geography, administrative regions and population

When Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire, and Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, its land area doubled.
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gre ...
(1805–1814) and Salzburg (state), Salzburg (1810–1816) were temporarily united with Bavaria but then returned (Tyrol) or ceded (Salzburg) to Habsburg/Austrian rule. In return the Palatinate region, Rhenish Palatinate and Franconia were annexed to Bavaria in 1815. After the founding of the kingdom the state was totally reorganised and, in 1808, divided into 15 administrative Government regions of Germany, government districts (''Regierungsbezirke'' (singular ''Regierungsbezirk'')) in Bavaria called ''Kreise'' (singular ''Kreis''). They were created in the fashion of the French departements, quite even in size and population, and named after their main rivers: Altmühl-, Eisack-, Etsch-, Iller-, Inn-, Isar-, Lech-, Main-, Naab-, Oberdonau-, Pegnitz-, Regen-, Rezat-, Salzach- and Unterdonaukreis Because of the numerous territorial changes in 1810 and 1815, the divisions needed to be adjusted and the number of Kreise was reduced to 8: Isar-, Unterdonau-, Oberdonau-, Regen-, Rezat-, Untermain-, Obermain- and Rheinkreis. As of 1838, at the instigation of King Ludwig I, the Kreise were renamed after the former historical tribes and territories of the respective area in: ''Upper Bavaria'', ''Lower Bavaria'', ''Swabia (Bavaria), Swabia and Neuburg'', ''Upper Palatinate, Upper Palatinate and Regensburg'', ''Middle Franconia'', ''Lower Franconia, Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg'', ''Upper Franconia'' and '' Palatinate''. The town names of Neuburg, Regensburg and Aschaffenburg were later dropped. Accordingly, the king changed his royal titles to ''Ludwig, King of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, Duke in Swabia and List of rulers of the Electoral Palatinate, Count Palatine of the Rhine'' and these were retained by his successors. The Palatinate (formerly Rheinkreis) which Bavaria had acquired was mainly the western part of the former Electorate of the Palatinate. Ludwig's plan to acquire also the former eastern part could not be realized. The Electorate, a former dominion of the Bavarian Wittelsbach dynasty, had been split up in 1815, the eastern bank of the Rhine with Mannheim and Heidelberg was given to Baden. The western bank was granted to Bavaria as compensation for the loss of Tyrol and Salzburg. After the Austro-Prussian War (1866) in which Bavaria had sided with defeated Austria, it had to cede several Lower Franconian districts to Prussia. The duchy of Coburg was never part of the Kingdom of Bavaria since it was annexed to Bavaria only in 1920. Ostheim was added to Bavaria in 1945. In the first half of the 20th. century, the initial terminology of Kreis and Bezirk gave way to Regierungsbezirk and Landkreis.


StatisticsHandbuch der bayerischen Ämter, Gemeinden und Gerichte 1799 - 1980 (Guide of the Bavarian Districts, Municipalities and Courts 1799 - 1980), written by Richard Bauer, Reinhard Heydenreuter, Gerhard Heyl, Emma Mages, Max Piendl, August Scherl, Bernhard Zittel and edited by Wilhelm Volkert, Senior Professor at the University of Regensburg, Munich, 1983,

* Area = 75,865 km2 (1900) * Population = 3,707,966 (1818) / 4,370,977 (1840) / 6,176,057 (1900) / 6,524,372 (1910) * Government districts (Kreise) (1808–1817): ** Altmühlkreis (1808–1810 / dissolved) ** Eisackkreis (1808–1810 / ceded to Italy) ** Etschkreis (1808–1810 / ceded to Italy) ** Illerkreis (1808–1817 / dissolved) ** Innkreis (1808–1814 / ceded to Austria) ** Isarkreis (1808–1838) ** Lechkreis (1808–1810 / dissolved) ** Mainkreis (Bavaria), Mainkreis (1808–1838) ** Naabkreis (1808–1810 / dissolved) ** Oberdonaukreis (1808–1838) ** Pegnitzkreis (1808–1810 / dissolved) ** Regenkreis (1808–1838) ** Rezatkreis (1808–1838) ** Salzachkreis (1810–1816 / ceded to Austria) ** Unterdonaukreis (1808–1838) * Government districts (Kreise) (1816/17–1838) ** Isarkreis (transformed into Upper Bavaria) ** Mainkreis (Bavaria), Obermainkreis (transformed into Upper Franconia) ** Oberdonaukreis (transformed into Swabia) ** Regenkreis (transformed into Upper Palatinate) ** Rezatkreis (transformed into Middle Franconia) ** Unterdonaukreis (transformed into Lower Bavaria) ** Untermainkreis (transformed into Lower Franconia) ** Circle of the Rhine, Rheinkreis (transformed into Palatinate) * Government districts (Kreise) (1838–1918): ** Upper Bavaria () (Capital: Munich) ** Upper Franconia () (Capital: Bayreuth) ** Bavarian Swabia, Swabia () (Capital: Augsburg) ** Upper Palatinate () (Capital: Regensburg) ** Middle Franconia () (Capital: Ansbach) ** Lower Bavaria () (Capital: Landshut) **
Lower Franconia Lower Franconia (german: Unterfranken) is one of seven districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...
() (Capital:
Würzburg Würzburg (; Main-Franconian: ) is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in the traditional region of Franconia in the north of the Germany, German state of Bavaria. Würzburg is the administrative seat of the ''Regierungsbezirk'' Lower Fra ...

Würzburg
) ** Palatinate () (Capital: Speyer)


See also

* King of Bavaria * List of Minister-Presidents of Bavaria * Bavaria * History of Bavaria * History of Germany


References


External links

*
Catholic Encyclopedia: The Kingdom of Bavaria


{{DEFAULTSORT:Bavaria, Kingdom of Kingdom of Bavaria, History of Bavaria, Kingdom of Bavaria Former kingdoms States of the German Empire States of the German Confederation States of the Confederation of the Rhine 1806 establishments in Bavaria, . 1918 disestablishments in Germany, Kingdom of Bavaria States and territories established in 1806, Kingdom of Bavaria States and territories disestablished in 1918, Kingdom of Bavaria 1806 establishments in Europe, Kingdom of Bavaria 1918 disestablishments in Europe, Kingdom of Bavaria